Biological Weapons. Recognizing, Understanding, and Responding to the Threat. Wiley Series on Homeland Defense and Security

  • ID: 3615705
  • Book
  • 360 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Gives readers a detailed understanding of how specific biological weapons work and how those affected by the weapons would be treated

The subject of bioterrorism is only mentioned tangentially, if at all, in most undergraduate programs; however, biological weapons are a very real threat to all societies around the world. Some agents are available for legal purchase on the Internet with the proper credentials, and it is extremely likely that an international black market exists for the deadliest of these agents. Protocols for weaponizing some agents are available on the Internet, and most of the required materials can be purchasedat any large hardware store. Biological Weapons: Recognizing, Understanding, and Responding to the Threat is designed for anyone seeking knowledge on bioterrorism and biological weapons; one does not have to be a medical professional or even a science major to understand the discussions and terminology in this text.

The book is separated into four units and provides an overview of microbiology, the human immune system, agencies that monitor biological threats, and the major threats from bacteria, toxins, and viruses. The opening chapters include sufficient background for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. The Chapter Review Questions found at the end of each chapter provide a quick way to test understanding of the material, and the Unit Reviews help tie it all together.

Biological Weapons covers:

  • Overviews of microbiology, immunology, and defense agencies
  • Bacterial Weapons such as Anthrax, Plague, Tularemia, and Cholera
  • Toxins including: Ricin, Botulism, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B
  • Viruses including: Ebola, Smallpox, Hantavirus, Viral encephalitis, Nipah Virus, Lassa Fever
  • A closing chapter looking ahead at Policies, Procedures, & Prevention

The material presented here will increase the general knowledge of biological warfare agents and the dangers they present. The more aware we are of the threat, the more prepared our society will be to respond to an act of biological terrorism.

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PREFACE xv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii

ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE xix

INTRODUCTION 1

UNIT I AGENTS IMMUNITY AND AGENCIES 5

1 Bacteria Toxins and Viruses 7

1.1 Bacteria 7

1.2 Toxins 15

1.3 Viruses 17

1.4 Genetic Engineering 21

Chapter 1 Summary 23

Chapter 1: Review Questions 24

2 The Human Immune System 27

2.1 The Defense 27

2.2 The Offense 29

Chapter 2 Summary 35

Chapter 2 Review Questions 36

3 Defense Agencies 37

3.1 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ([external URL] 37

3.2 The World Health Organization ([external URL] 40

3.3 The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases ([external URL] 42

3.4 The United States Department of Homeland Security ([external URL] 45

3.5 The Biological Toxins and Weapons Convention ([external URL] 47

Chapter 3 Summary 48

Chapter 3 Review Questions 49

UNIT I REVIEW 51

UNIT II BACTERIA 53

4 Anthrax 55

4.1 The Agent 56

4.2 Symptoms 60

4.3 Treatment 63

4.4 History 65

Chapter 4 Summary 71

Chapter 4 Review Questions 72

References 73

5 Plague 75

5.1 The Agent 76

5.2 Symptoms 79

5.3 Treatment 81

5.4 History 82

Chapter 5 Summary 87

Chapter 5 Review Questions 88

References 89

6 Tularemia 91

6.1 The Agent 92

6.2 Symptoms 94

6.3 Treatment 97

6.4 History 98

Chapter 6 Summary 100

Chapter 6 Review Questions 101

References 102

7 Cholera 103

7.1 The Agent 104

7.2 Symptoms 107

7.3 Treatment 109

7.4 History 110

Chapter 7 Summary 113

Chapter 7 Review Questions 114

References 115

UNIT II REVIEW 117

UNIT III TOXINS 119

8 Ricin 121

8.1 The Agent 122

8.2 Symptoms 125

8.3 Treatment 127

8.4 History 128

Chapter 8 Summary 130

Chapter 8 Review Questions 131

References 132

9 Botulinum Toxin 135

9.1 The Agent 137

9.2 Symptoms 139

9.3 Treatment 144

9.4 History 145

Chapter 9 Summary 147

Chapter 9 Review Questions 148

References 149

10 Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B 151

10.1 The Agent 152

10.2 Symptoms 153

10.3 Treatment 156

10.4 History 156

Chapter 10 Summary 158

Chapter 10 Review Questions 158

References 159

UNIT III REVIEW 161

UNIT IV VIRUSES 163

11 Ebola 165

11.1 The Agent 166

11.2 Symptoms 169

11.3 Treatment 170

11.4 History 171

Chapter 11 Summary 174

Chapter 11 Review Questions 176

References 177

12 Smallpox 179

12.1 The Agent 180

12.2 Symptoms 182

12.3 Treatment 187

12.4 History 188

Chapter 12 Summary 194

Chapter 12 Review Questions 196

References 196

13 Hantavirus 199

13.1 The Agent 200

13.2 Symptoms 202

13.3 Treatment 205

13.4 History 205

Chapter 13 Summary 207

Chapter 13 Review Questions 208

References 209

14 Viral Encephalitis 211

14.1 The Agent 212

14.2 Symptoms 214

14.3 Treatment 216

14.4 History 216

Chapter 14 Summary 218

Chapter 14 Review Questions 219

References 219

15 Nipah Virus 221

15.1 The Agent 222

15.2 Symptoms 223

15.3 Treatment 225

15.4 History 225

Chapter 15 Summary 227

Chapter 15 Review Questions 228

References 228

16 Lassa Fever 231

16.1 The Agent 232

16.2 Symptoms 234

16.3 Treatment 235

16.4 History 235

Chapter 16 Summary 239

Chapter 16 Review Questions 240

References 241

17 Marburg Virus 243

17.1 The Agent 244

17.2 Symptoms 246

17.3 Treatment 247

17.4 History 248

Chapter 17 Summary 252

Chapter 17 Review Questions 253

References 254

UNIT IV REVIEW 255

18 Looking Ahead: Policies Procedures and Prevention 259

18.1 Policies and Procedures 259

18.2 Prevention 266

Chapter 18 Summary 267

Chapter 18 Review Questions 268

References 269

APPENDICES 271

Appendix I Field Identification of Biological Warfare Agents (FIBWA) 273

Appendix II Biological Agent Identification and Counterterrorism Training (BAIT) 279

Appendix III Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (1925 Geneva Convention) 285

Appendix IV Convention on the Prohibition of the Development Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction 287

Appendix V States Parties Signatories and States not Members of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention 291

Appendix VI The Evidence Implicating Ivins Excerpt

From: Amerithrax Investigative Summary 295

ANSWERS TO CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS

AND UNIT REVIEWS 305

GLOSSARY 319

INDEX 331

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Kristy Young Johnson is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at The Citadel – The Military College of South Carolina. She has taught a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate biology courses, including General Biology, Genetics, Microbiology, and Descriptive Histology. She developed an entirely new Bioterrorism course that she has taught regularly since 2007. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry from Gardner–Webb University in North Carolina and a doctorate in Pathology and Laboratory Medicine from the Medical University of South Carolina.

Paul Matthew Nolan is an Associate Professor of Biology, Behavior, and Disease Ecology at The Citadel – The Military College of South Carolina as well as an adjunct professor in the Graduate Program in Marine Biology, and Graduate Program in Environmental Studies at The College of Charleston. In 2012 he was awarded the Faculty Spotlight Award for Excellence in Teaching and Scholarship from The Citadel. He has published extensively on the influence of condition and parasites on individual condition in a wide variety of bird species.

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