Integration of Large Scale Wind Energy with Electrical Power Systems in China

  • ID: 3629303
  • Book
  • Region: China
  • 488 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Written with power system engineers in mind, this book presents the technical issues faced when integrating large scale wind turbines into the power system networks based on the regulatory and commercial frameworks of electricity in China. Readers are introduced to challenges when dealing with the planning, design and operation of power systems with a large amount of wind power. Highlights include practical solutions for making wind turbines more grid friendly, control schemes and enabling equipment for wind turbine integration, standards and codes, as well as valuable case studies.

  • Features sections on offshore wind farms and ongoing large–scale projects to highlight the wind power development in developing countries, under social, technical, and financial constraints
  • Focuses on the details of the wind power generation systems, with comprehensive and systematic coverage of turbines, control schemes, transformers, grounding systems and integration challenges
  • Presents a number of power system analyses such as load flow, transient stability and fault studies
  • English edition of the award–winning Chinese language original

Integration of Large Scale Wind Energy with Electrical Power Systems in China offers a comprehensive overview and useful tips for researchers, graduates and engineers in the field of wind energy utilization. It is also intended as a reference text for policy makers, utility professionals and environmentalists.

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1 Overview 1

1.1 Wind Energy andWind Energy Resources 1

1.2 Characteristics ofWind Power Generation 4

1.3 Present Situation and Development ofWind Power Generation 5

1.4 Wind Power Conversion System and Technical Route 8

1.5 WF–Included Electrical Power System 9

1.6 Outline of the Book 12

References 13

2 Wind Power Generation and Wind Power Generation System 14

2.1 Wind Power Generation System andWFs 14

2.2 Wind Turbine 16

2.3 Wind Turbine Generator System 26

2.4 Power Electronic Technology inWind Power Conversion System 41

References 49

3 Operation of Grid–Connected WTGS 51

3.1 Wind Turbine Grid Connection 51

3.2 Power Regulation ofWind Turbines 57

3.3 Wind Energy Converters and Basic Control Methods 62

3.4 Voltage/Reactive Power Control Characteristics of Three MainstreamWind Turbines 65

References 72

4 Connection of WFs to Power Systems 73

4.1 Requirements of the Power System for Grid Connection ofWFs 73

4.2 Connection ofWFs to Power Distribution Grids or Transmission Grids 75

4.3 Direct Connection to AC grids 76

4.4 WFs Interconnection via Conventional HVDC (PCC HVDC) 81

4.5 WFs Interconnection via VSC–HVDC 84

4.6 Contrast ofWF Integration Schemes 88

4.7 Integration of Large–ScaleWFs into the Grid 89

4.8 Determination of MaximumWind Power Capacity Allowed to be Integrated into the Grid 90

References 98

5 WF Electrical Systems 100

5.1 Power Collection Systems 100

5.2 WF Grounding Systems 104

5.3 WF Lightning Protection 105

5.4 WF Electrical Protection 109

5.5 WF Reactive Power Compensation 114

5.6 WF Energy Storage Systems 117

References 120

6 OWFs 122

6.1 OWF and Its Characteristics 122

6.2 OWF Electrical System 123

6.3 Redundancy Design of Collection System 129

6.4 OWF Transmission System 129

6.5 A New Type of OffshoreWind Energy Conversion System 147

6.6 OWF Electrical System Optimization Design 149

6.7 Examples of Typical OWF 162

References 169

7 Analysis of Power Systems Containing Wind Power 171

7.1 Overview 171

7.2 MathematicalModels ofWind Power Generation System 172

7.3 Power Flow Analysis of Power System ContainingWind Power 192

7.4 Short–Circuit Analysis of Power Systems ContainingWind Power 202

7.5 Voltage Stability Analysis of Power System ContainingWind Power 211

7.6 Transient Stability Analysis of Power Systems ContainingWind Power 223

7.7 Small Signal Stability Analysis on Power System ContainingWind Power 232

7.8 Frequency Stability Analysis of Power System ContainingWind Turbines 245

References 258

8 WF Power Quality and Its Improvements 263

8.1 Overview 263

8.2 Power Quality and Its Characteristics 265

8.3 Power Quality Problems ofWFs Associated with the Grid 267

8.4 Frequency Quality and Frequency Regulation 268

8.5 Voltage Quality and Voltage Regulation 270

8.6 WF Voltage Flicker 275

8.7 Harmonics and Interharmonics of theWF 283

8.8 Measures to Improve Power Quality ofWFs 290

References 294

9 Wind Velocity and Generated Power Forecasts in WF 295

9.1 Overview 295

9.2 Variability ofWind Power 296

9.3 Wind Power Forecast Model and Method 301

9.4 Wind Velocity Forecast 307

9.5 Generated Power Forecast inWF 314

9.6 Accuracy ofWind Power Forecast 323

9.7 Application and Challenge ofWind Power Forecast 329

References 332

10 WF Control and Protection Technologies 334

10.1 Overview 334

10.2 Active Power and Frequency Control 343

10.3 Reactive Power and Voltage Regulation 345

10.4 Fault Ride–Through (FRT) or Low/High–Voltage Ride–Through (L/HVRT) ofWTGS 350

10.5 AGC of aWind Power Contained Power System 363

10.6 WF Monitoring and Control 364

10.7 Control ofWF Energy Storage System 372

References 378

11 Operation and Dispatch of a Power System Containing Wind Power 380

11.1 Overview 380

11.2 General Requirements forWF Operation 382

11.3 Power Balance and System Reserve Capacity 386

11.4 Optimal Dispatch of Power Systems ContainingWind Power 395

11.5 Wind Power Generation and Power Market 413

11.6 Main Technology ofWFs to be Conventional Power Plants 429

References 438

12 The Evaluation Technology for AnWind Power Integrated Power System 441

12.1 Reliability Evaluation ofWind Power Integrated Power System 441

12.2 Wind Power Generation CC 448

12.3 Wind Power Value Analysis 453

12.4 Analysis of Maximum Penetrating Capacity ofWind Power 461

References 469

Index 471

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Zongxiang Lu
Shuangxi Zhou
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