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Hygiene in Food Processing. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 3744389
  • Book
  • 640 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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The hygienic processing of food concerns both potential hazards in food products and the regulation, design, and management of food processing facilities. This second edition of Hygiene in Food Processing gives a revised overview of the practices for safe processing and incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants.

Part one addresses microbial risks in foods and the corresponding regulation in the European Union. Part two discusses the hygienic design of food factory infrastructure, encompassing the design and materials for the factory itself, as well as food processing equipment. This edition includes a new chapter on the control of compressed gases used to pneumatically operate equipment. Part three focuses on cleaning and disinfection practices in food processing. The chapter on cleaning in place also considers more cost-effective systems, and complements the additional chapter on maintenance of equipment. These chapters also explore issues such as the hygiene of workers, potential infection by foreign bodies, and pest control. Further, the chapter on microbiological sampling explains how to calculate the risk of contamination depending on the product's environment.

This essential second edition is useful to professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry. It provides a comprehensive, yet concise and practical reference source for food plant managers, suppliers of food processing equipment, building contractors, and food inspectors looking for an authoritative introduction to hygiene regulation, hygienic design, and sanitation.

- Provides a revised overview of the practices for safe processing
- Incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants
- This essential second edition is useful for professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry
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Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
Introduction
Part I: Microbial food safety risks and hygiene regulation
1: Food hygiene regulation in the European Union (EU)
Abstract
1.1 Introduction
1.2 History of hygiene regulation in the European Union (EU)
1.3 Key elements of hygiene regulation in the EU
1.4 Content of the hygiene regulations
1.5 Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP)
1.6 European hygiene legislation with regard to equipment
1.7 Hygiene regulations in relation to private food safety standards
1.8 Conclusion
1.9 Sources of further information and advice
2: Hazards, sources and vectors of contamination
Abstract
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Physical contaminants
2.3 Chemical contaminants
2.4 Microbiological contamination
2.5 Hazard sources
2.6 Hazard vectors and controls
2.7 Recommended procedure for developing a processing environment plan (PEP)
2.8 Conclusion
Part II: Hygienic design of food factory infrastructure
3: Hygienic factory design for food processing
Abstract
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design, construction and maintenance of the site
3.3 Building structure
3.4 High-care/risk areas
3.5 Storage areas
3.6 Personnel areas
3.7 Cleaning facilities: food, equipment and chemicals
3.8 Roofs
3.9 Floors
3.10 Drainage
3.11 Walls
3.12 Doors
3.13 Windows
3.14 Ceilings
3.15 Ventilation and temperature control
3.16 Lighting
3.17 Services
3.18 Water
3.19 Food and solid waste
3.20 Conclusion
4: Hygienic design of food processing equipment
Abstract
4.1 Introduction: key criteria in hygienic design
4.2 Risk assessment in equipment design
4.3 Regulatory requirements for hygienic equipment design: the European Union (EU)
4.4 Drainability
4.5 Materials of construction
4.6 Surface finish
4.7 Corners, crevices and dead spaces
4.8 Welds and joints
4.9 Fasteners
4.10 Seals
4.11 Shaft ends
4.12 Doors, covers and panels
4.13 Rims
4.14 Conveyor belts
4.15 Equipment controls and instrumentation
4.16 Equipment installation
4.17 Insulation and cladding
4.18 Conclusion
5: Food processing equipment construction materials
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Metals in food processing equipment
5.3 Plastics, composites and elastomers
5.4 Other materials
6: Verification and certification of hygienic design in food processing
Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Testing methods
6.3 Particular tests for cleanability
6.4 Future trends
6.5 Certification of equipment
6.6 Conclusion
7: Control of airborne contamination in food processing
Abstract
7.1 Introduction: why control of airborne contamination is important in food production
7.2 Sources of airborne contamination
7.3 Dust control
7.4 Control of environmental air quality
7.5 Process air control
7.6 Air disinfection systems
7.7 Air sampling
7.8 Guide to maximum airborne counts for different product contamination rates
7.9 Conclusion and future trends
7.10 Sources of further information and advice
8: Hygiene control in the application of compressed air and food gases
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Hygiene control in the supply and application of food safe compressed air
8.3 Compressed air systems: components and location
8.4 Equipment to remove the bulk of water
8.5 Filtration and drying in compressed air systems
8.6 Design and installation of compressed air distribution system
8.7 Measures and procedures to prevent compressed air from contaminating the food processing area
8.8 Monitoring and maintenance of compressed air systems
8.9 Hygiene control in the supply and application of food gases
8.10 Conclusion
Part III: Hygiene practices in food processing
9: Cleaning and disinfection practices in food processing
Abstract
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Sanitation principles
9.3 Cleaning chemicals
9.4 Disinfectants
9.5 Testing disinfectants
9.6 Water quality
9.7 Sanitation methodology
9.8 Wholeroom disinfection
9.9 Sanitation procedures
9.10 Evaluation of sanitation effectiveness
9.11 Sanitation management
9.12 Conclusion
10: Cleaning in place (CIP) in food processing
Abstract
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Cleaning chemicals and disinfectants for cleaning in place (CIP)
10.3 Other key factors for an effective CIP process
10.4 The main types of CIP systems
10.5 Centralized/decentralized CIP systems
10.6 Design of CIP line circuit
10.7 Cleaning of process vessels, large-volume equipment and tanks
10.8 Spray and jet devices for CIP
10.9 Installation, positioning and operation of tank cleaning devices
10.10 Managing tank cleaning
10.11 Automation
10.12 Automated self-cleaning of CIP systems
10.13 Future trends
10.14 Acknowledgement
11: Hygienic practices for equipment maintenance
Abstract
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Scheduled maintenance
11.3 Design, installation and working practices for improved hygiene during maintenance and repairs
11.4 Purchase and acceptance of bought-in equipment, tools and lubricants
11.5 Maintenance, repair and lubrication according to the principles of hygienic design
11.6 Personal hygiene practices during maintenance operations in the food industry
11.7 Hygienic maintenance and repair practices in the food industry
11.8 Evaluation of the quality of maintenance work done and record keeping
11.9 Conclusion
12: Personal hygiene in the food industry
Abstract
12.1 Introduction: definition of personal hygiene
12.2 People as sources of contamination
12.3 Management practices for controlling contamination
12.4 Personal hygiene policy and practices for controlling contamination
12.5 Control of indirect contamination from people
12.6 Conclusion
13: Food hygiene and foreign bodies
Abstract
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The range of foreign bodies
13.3 The role of good hygiene practice in managing these hazards
13.4 Methods of preventing foreign body contamination
13.5 Detection and removal systems for foreign bodies
13.6 Conclusion
13.7 Future trends
13.8 Sources of further information and advice
14: Pest control in food businesses: an introduction
Abstract
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Integrated pest management (IPM)
14.3 Pest control programs
14.4 Contents of a pest control program
14.5 Data collection
14.6 Communication
14.7 Maintaining and evaluating the pest control program
14.8 Conclusion
14.9 Future trends
15: Pest control of stored food products: insects and mites
Abstract
15.1 Introduction
15.2 The spread of pests
15.3 Physical control of pests
15.4 Chemical control of pests
15.5 Biological control of pests
15.6 Threats to successful control
15.7 Conclusion
16: Microbiological environmental sampling, records and record interpretation
Abstract
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Sampling programmes and strategies
16.3 Sampling methods: monitoring surfaces
16.4 Sampling methods: validation and verification of surfaces
16.5 Sampling of personnel
16.6 Air and water sampling
16.7 Practical sampling
16.8 Sample transport and processing
16.9 Conclusion
17: Economics and management of hygiene in food plants
Abstract
17.1 Introduction: the perception of cleaning costs as an example of the perception of hygiene
17.2 The real cost of hygiene
17.3 Direct factors
17.4 Indirect factors
17.5 Overview of optimisation tools
17.6 Conclusion and future trends
Index
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Lelieveld, H. L. M.
Huub Lelieveld is Co-founder and President of the Global Harmonization Initiative, Member of the Executive Committee and a Past-President of EFFoST (the European Federation of Food Science and Technology), Founder and Past-President of EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group). He is a fellow of IAFoST (the International Academy of Food Science and Technology), a fellow of IFT (the Institute of Food Technologists), served on the Governing Council of IUFoST (the International Union of Food Science and Technology) and has been Chair of the Nonthermal Processing Division and the International Division of IFT. At Unilever, he was responsible for hygienic processing and plant design and novel processing technologies. He is lead editor of "Hygiene in food processing?, the "Handbook of hygiene control in the food industry? and "Food preservation by pulsed electric fields: From research to application?. He is co-editor of several other books, including "Ensuring Global Food Safety: Exploring Global Harmonization?, "Hygienic design of food factories?, ?Food safety management: a practical guide for the food industry? and "High Pressure Processing of Food - Principles, Technology and Applications?. He wrote chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, wrote hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He is a member of many editorial boards of books, journals and magazines. He initiated "People, planet, prosperity and the food chain? in short P3FC, an organisation of which the sole objective is to remind the food industry as frequently as possible that besides caring for shareholders, they also share responsibilities for planet and society. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies (NUFT) in Kiev, Ukraine.
Holah, John
Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist who has focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution, on a worldwide basis. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI.
Napper, David
David Napper is the Managing Director of Enviro- Development, Denmark.
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