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Managing and Preventing Obesity

  • ID: 3744674
  • Book
  • 570 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Obesity is an increasing problem on a global scale, and strategies for its prevention involve experts from many disciplines including nutritionists, physicians, policy-makers and public health professionals. This book covers the latest advances in obesity development, management and prevention with specific focus on dietary interventions. Part one covers the development of obesity and key drivers for its continuation and increase. Part two looks at the role of specific dietary components in obesity management, and part three discusses the role of behavioural factors such as eating patterns in managing and preventing obesity. Part four focuses on structured dietary interventions for obesity treatment, and part five looks at public interventions and consumer issues.

- Reviews how different foods and diets can affect obesity management
- Examines various ways of preventing and treating obesity
- Explores how governments and industries are preventing and treating obesity
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List of contributors
Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
Preface
Introduction: an overview of the key drivers of obesity and their influence on diet
1 Introduction
2 Behavioural factors
3 Environmental and structural factors
4 Biological factors
5 Summary and conclusions
Part One: General issues
1: Trends in understanding patterns of obesity and health outcomes
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The importance of abdominal obesity
1.3 Global trends in obesity
1.4 Economic development and obesity
1.5 Social class differences in obesity
1.6 Obesity in women and its implications for maternal and infant health
1.7 Childhood obesity
1.8 Conclusions
2: Overview of the key current population-level strategies used to prevent obesity
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Physical activity strategies
2.3 Food and beverage strategies
2.4 School strategies
2.5 Healthcare and workplace strategies
2.6 Messaging strategies
2.7 Conclusion: integrating approaches
Part Two: The role of different dietary components in obesity management
3: The role of high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened beverages in weight gain and obesity
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Sugar in our food supply
3.3 Biological mechanisms for some effects of sugar in beverages
3.4 Randomized clinical trials and longitudinal cohort studies link intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to the risk of obesity
3.5 Fruit juice and weight gain
3.6 Future trends
4: The impact of fruit and vegetable intake on weight management
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Importance of fruits and vegetables (FV)
4.3 FV and obesity prevention
4.4 Future trends
5: High protein diets in obesity management and weight control
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Internationally popular higher-protein diets
5.3 The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Total Wellbeing Diet
5.4 Evidence from meta-analyses and selected randomised control trials for the efficacy of higher-protein diets for weight control and metabolic health
5.5 Potential risks of high protein dietary patterns
5.6 Strategies to improve compliance to higher protein diets
5.7 Conclusions
6: Low-fat diets in obesity management and weight control
6.1 Introduction: overview of dietary fat and body weight
6.2 Total fat: mechanisms for association with body weight regulation
6.3 Type of fat: biological mechanisms for effects on energy balance
6.4 Sustainability of weight loss on low-fat diets
6.5 Conclusions
6.6 Future trends
7: The 'Mediterranean diet' and weight management
7.1 Introduction: the Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns in the context of obesity
7.2 Definition of a Mediterranean dietary pattern
7.3 Epidemiological evidence on Mediterranean diet and weight management
7.4 Dietary and lifestyle intervention based on Mediterranean diet
7.5 Conclusions and future trends
8: Breastfeeding and weight in mothers and infants
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Energetic cost of breastfeeding
8.3 Postpartum weight change
8.4 Breastfeeding benefits for infants
8.5 Commentary on studies into the effect of breastfeeding on the weight of mothers and infants
8.6 Future trends
Part Three: The role of eating patterns and other behavioural factors in obesity management
9: The role of dietary energy density in weight management
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Energy density explained
9.3 Controlled studies demonstrate the influence of dietary energy density on satiety, satiation, and energy intake
9.4 Dietary energy density and weight management
9.5 Strategies to reduce dietary energy density
9.6 Future trends
9.8 Acknowledgements
10: Controlling appetite and food intake by regulating eating frequency and timing
10.1 Introduction
10.2 The relationship between motivation to eat and eating behaviour
10.3 Eating frequency and energy balance
observational studies of free-living adults consuming self-selected diets
10.4 Eating frequency and energy balance
intervention studies
10.5 Eating frequency and energy balance
controlled feeding studies
10.6 Small inter-meal ingestive events
10.7 Timing of eating within a habitual diurnal rhythm
10.8 Timing of eating and disruption of diurnal rhythms
10.9 Summary and future trends
11: Managing food portion size and its effect on weight control
11.1 Introduction: trends in food portion sizes
11.2 Effects of food portion size on energy intake
11.3 Explanations for the effects of portion size on energy intake
11.4 Environmental strategies influencing portion control behaviors
11.5 Self-regulation strategies to control portion sizes
11.6 Summary and conclusions
11.7 Acknowledgement
12: Eating in response to external cues
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Effects of food cues
12.3 Potential moderators influencing responding to food cues
12.4 How plentiful food cues affect dieters/overweight individuals
12.5 Factors influencing overweight/obese people and restrained eaters to respond more to salient food cues
12.6 Psychological processes governing eating behavior
12.7 Implications for obesity management
13: The interaction of diet and physical activity in managing obesity
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The independent and combined roles of physical activity and diet in prevention of weight gain
13.3 Physical activity and diet during weight reduction programmes
13.4 The roles of physical activity and diet in maintenance of reduced body weight
13.5 Conclusions
Part Four: Structured dietary interventions in the treatment of obesity
14: Defined energy deficit diets for the treatment of obesity
14.1 Introduction
14.2 History of defined energy prescriptions
14.3 Terminology and definitions
14.4 Estimating total energy requirements
14.5 Magnitude of energy deficit
14.6 Practical worked example of prescribed energy calculations
14.7 Conclusion
15: Meal replacements for the treatment of obesity
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Very low calorie diet (VLCD) versus partial meal replacement or controlled diet
15.3 Meal replacement as part of a low calorie diet (LCD) versus conventional diet
15.4 Type 2 diabetes
15.5 Composition of meal replacements
15.6 Summary
16: Very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) for the treatment of obesity
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Indications and contraindications for the use of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs)
16.3 How to use VLCDs
16.4 Efficacy of VLCDs
16.5 Safety of VLCDs
16.6 Monitoring required during the diet
16.7 Future trends
17: Commercial weight loss programs and their effectiveness in managing obesity
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Commonly available commercial weight loss programs
17.3 Efficacy of commercial weight loss programs: a summary of available evidence
17.4 Internet-based weight loss programs
17.5 The cost-effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs
17.6 Applications in the treatment of overweight and obesity
17.7 Conclusions
18: Popular diets and over-the-counter dietary aids and their effectiveness in managing obesity
18.1 Introduction: why diets are best sellers
18.2 Claims that 'the science is wrong'
18.3 All or nothing approaches
18.4 Claims to more moderate diets
18.5 Unconventional diets
18.6 Evaluation of promised time-scales
18.7 Evaluation of claims to simplicity
18.8 Over-the-counter weight loss aids
18.9 Discussion
18.10 Sourcing unbiased information
Part Five: Government and industry interventions in the prevention of obesity
19: Regulatory strategies for preventing obesity and improving public health
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Restricting child-targeted food marketing
19.3 Improving the school environment
19.4 Food and beverage taxes
19.5 Nutrition labeling
19.6 Limiting portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages
19.7 Conclusion
20: Fiscal strategies to influence diet and weight management
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Evidence to support fiscal strategies as an intervention
20.3 Evidence for differential effects of fiscal strategies
20.4 Evidence for cost-effectiveness of fiscal interventions
20.5 Evidence for interplay with other interventions
20.6 Existing strategies and policies in place
20.7 Politics and practicalities of taxing unhealthy food
20.8 Conclusion
21: Consumer responses to government dietary guidelines in the management and prevention of obesity
21.1 Introduction
21.2 History of dietary guidelines
21.3 Effectiveness of dietary guidelines in preventing obesity
21.4 Effectiveness of dietary guidelines in promoting healthier food choices
21.5 Effectiveness of dietary guidelines in promoting dietary behaviour change
21.6 Conclusion
22: The impact of marketing of 'junk' foods on children's diet and weight
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Extent of children's exposure to food and beverage marketing
22.3 International policy to reduce the impact of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children
22.4 Food marketing effects on food consumption and nutrition and weight outcomes
22.5 Future trends
23: Front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes designed for obesity prevention
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Definitions and scope
23.3 Current status of front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes
23.4 Impact of front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes and interventions involving such schemes
23.5 Future trends in front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes
Index
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Gill, Timothy
Timothy Gill, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney
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