Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation in Engineering Materials Science. From Fundamentals to Applications. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 3751578
  • Book
  • 488 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods.

As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure–property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization.

The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three–dimensional X–ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to problems in materials science.

With thoroughly revised and updated chapters and now containing about 20% new material, this is the must–have, in–depth resource on this highly relevant topic.
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List of Contributor XVII

Preface to Second Edition XXIII

Part I General 1

1 Microstructure and Properties of Engineering Materials 3Helmut Clemens, Svea Mayer, and Christina Scheu

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Microstructure 4

1.3 Microstructure and Properties 10

1.4 Microstructural Characterization 12

2 Internal Stresses in Engineering Materials 21Anke Kaysser–Pyzalla

2.1 Definition 21

2.2 Origin of Residual Macro– and Microstresses 25

2.3 Relevance 45

3 Textures in Engineering Materials 55Heinz G. Brokmeier and Sangbong Yi

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Measurement of Preferred Orientations 58

3.3 Presentation of Preferred Orientations 59

3.4 Interpretation of Textures 62

3.5 Errors 67

4 Physical Properties of Photons and Neutrons 73Andreas Schreyer

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Interaction of X–ray Photons and Neutrons with Individual Atoms 74

4.3 Scattering of X–ray Photons and Neutrons from Ensembles of Atoms 79

5 Radiation Sources 83

5.1 Generation and Properties of Neutrons 83Ina Lommatzsch,Wolfgang Knop, Philipp K. Pranzas, and Peter Schreiner

5.2 Production and Properties of Synchrotron Radiation 90Rolf Treusch

Part II Methods 105

6 Stress Analysis by Angle–Dispersive Neutron Diffraction 107Peter Staron

6.1 Introduction 107

6.2 Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis 108

6.3 Measurement and Data Analysis 112

6.4 Examples 116

6.5 Summary and Outlook 120

7 Stress Analysis by Energy–Dispersive Neutron Diffraction 123Javier Santisteban

7.1 Introduction 123

7.2 Time–of–Flight Neutron Diffraction 123

7.3 TOF Strain Scanners 126

7.4 A Virtual Laboratory for Strain Scanning 131

7.5 Type II Stresses: Evolution of Intergranular Stresses 134

7.6 Type III Stresses: Dislocation Densities 135

7.7 Strain Imaging by Energy–Dispersive Neutron Transmission 138

7.8 Conclusions 140

8 Residual Stress Analysis by Monochromatic High–Energy X–rays 145René V. Martins

8.1 Basic Setups 145

8.2 Principle of Slit Imaging and Data Reconstruction 148

8.3 The Conical Slit 149

8.4 The Spiral Slit 152

8.5 Simultaneous Strain Measurements in Individual Bulk Grains 155

8.6 Coarse Grain Effects 156

8.7 Analysis of Diffraction Data from Area Detectors 157

8.8 Matrix for Comparison and Decision Taking Which Technique to Use for a Specific Problem 158

9 Residual Stress Analysis by Energy–Dispersive Synchrotron X–ray Diffraction 161Christoph Genzel and Manuela Klaus

9.1 Introduction 161

9.2 Fundamentals of Energy–Dispersive X–ray Diffraction Stress Analysis 162

9.3 Experimental Setup 167

9.4 Examples for Energy–Dispersive Stress Analysis 168

9.5 Final Remarks 173

10 Texture Analyses by Synchrotron X–rays and Neutrons 179Sangbong Yi, Weimin Gan, and Heinz G. Brokmeier

10.1 Texture Measurements on Laboratory Scale 179

10.2 Texture Measurements at Large Scale Facilities 182

10.3 Conclusion 193

11 Basics of Small–Angle Scattering Methods 197Philipp K. Pranzas

11.1 Introduction 197

11.2 Common Features of a SAS Instrument 197

11.3 Contrast 198

11.4 Scattering Curve 198

11.5 Power Law/Scattering by Fractal Systems 200

11.6 Guinier and Porod Approximations 201

11.7 Macroscopic Differential Scattering Cross–section 202

11.8 Model Calculation of Size Distributions 202

11.9 Magnetic Structures 203

12 Small–Angle Neutron Scattering 207Philipp K. Pranzas and André Heinemann

12.1 Introduction 207

12.2 Nanocrystalline Magnesium Hydride for the Reversible Storage of Hydrogen 208

12.3 Precipitates in Steel 210

12.4 SiO2 Nanoparticles in a Polymer Matrix An Industrial Application 213

12.5 Green Surfactants 213

13 Anomalous Small–Angle X–ray Scattering 217Ulla Vainio

13.1 Introduction 217

13.2 Theory 218

13.3 Experiments 223

13.4 Example: ASAXS on Catalyst Nanoparticles 223

13.5 Summary and Outlook 223

14 Imaging 227Wolfgang Treimer

14.1 Radiography 227

14.2 Tomography 240

14.3 New Developments in Neutron Tomography 244

15 Neutron and Synchrotron–Radiation–Based Imaging for Applications in Materials Science From Macro– to Nanotomography 253Felix Beckmann

15.1 Introduction 253

15.2 Parallel–Beam Tomography 256

15.3 Macrotomography Using Neutrons 258

15.4 Microtomography Using Synchrotron Radiation 264

15.5 Summary and Outlook 271

16 Mu–Tomography of Engineering Materials 275Astrid Haibel and Julia Herzen

16.1 Introduction 275

16.2 Advantage of Synchrotron Tomography 275

16.3 Applications and 3D Image Analysis 276

16.4 Image Artifacts 282

16.5 Summary 286

Part III New and Emerging Methods 291

17 3D X–ray Diffraction Microscope 293Henning F. Poulsen,Wolfgang Ludwig, and Søren Schmidt

17.1 Basic Setup and Strategy 294

17.2 Indexing and Characterization of Average Properties of Each Grain 296

17.3 Mapping of Grains and Orientations 300

17.4 Combining 3DXRD and Tomography 304

17.5 Outlook 305

18 3D Micron–Resolution Laue Diffraction 309Gene E. Ice

18.1 Introduction 309

18.2 The Need for Polychromatic Microdiffraction 309

18.3 Theoretical Basis for Advanced Polychromatic Microdiffraction 311

18.4 Technical Developments for an Automated 3D Probe 313

18.5 Research Examples 318

18.6 Future Prospects and Opportunities 324

Part IV Applications 327

19 The Use of Neutron and Synchrotron Research for Aerospace and Automotive Materials and Components 329Wolfgang Kaysser, Jörg Eßlinger, Volker Abetz, Norbert Huber, Karl U. Kainer, Thomas Klassen, Florian Pyczak, Andreas Schreyer, and Peter Staron

19.1 Introduction 329

19.2 Commercial Passenger Aircraft 331

19.3 The Light–Duty Automotive Vehicle 341

19.4 Other Transport Systems 352

20 In situ Experiments with Synchrotron High–Energy X–rays and Neutrons 365Peter Staron, Torben Fischer, Thomas Lippmann, Andreas Stark, Shahrokh Daneshpour, Dirk Schnubel, Eckart Uhlmann, Robert Gerstenberger, Bettina Camin, Walter Reimers, Elisabeth Eidenberger–Schober, Helmut Clemens, Norbert Huber, and Andreas Schreyer

20.1 Introduction 365

20.2 In situ Dilatometry 366

20.3 In situ Study on Single Overload of Fatigue–Cracked Specimens 368

20.4 In situ Cutting Experiment 370

20.5 In situ Study of Precipitation Kinetics Using Neutrons 372

20.6 Conclusions 373

21 Application of Photons and Neutrons for the Characterization and Development of Advanced Steels 377Elisabeth Eidenberger–Schober, Ronald Schnitzer, Gerald A. Zickler, Michael Eidenberger–Schober,Michael Bischof, Peter Staron, Harald Leitner, Andreas Schreyer, and Helmut Clemens

21.1 Introduction 377

21.2 Characterization Using Synchrotron Radiation 378

21.3 Characterization Using Small–Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) 382

21.4 Conclusions 388

22 The Contribution of High–Energy X–rays and Neutrons to Characterization and Development of Intermetallic Titanium Aluminides 395Thomas Schmoelzer, Klaus–Dieter Liss, Peter Staron, Andreas Stark, Emanuel Schwaighofer, Thomas Lippmann, Helmut Clemens, and Svea Mayer

22.1 Introduction 395

22.2 High–Energy X–rays and Neutrons 396

22.3 In situ Investigation of Phase Evolution 398

22.4 Atomic Order and Disorder in TiAl Alloys 409

22.5 Recovery and Recrystallization during Deformation of TiAl 412

22.6 Lattice Parameter and Thermal Expansion 418

22.7 Conclusions 419

23 In situ Mu–Laue: Instrumental Setup for the Deformation of Micron Sized Samples 425Christoph Kirchlechner, Jozef Keckes, Jean S.Micha, and Gerhard Dehm

23.1 Introduction 425

23.2 Experimental Instrumentation 427

23.3 Discussion 433

23.4 Conclusion 436

24 Residual Stresses in Thin Films and Coated Tools: Challenges and Strategies for Their Nondestructive Analysis by X–ray Diffraction Methods 439Manuela Klaus and Christoph Genzel

24.1 Introduction 439

24.2 Compilation of Approaches to Meet the Challenges in Thin Film X–ray Stress Analysis (XSA) 441

24.3 Final Remarks and Recommendations 447

Index 451

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Born in 1962, Peter Staron studied Physics at the University of Hamburg and gained his doctorate from the University of Hamburg in 1997. Starting with the PhD thesis, he worked at the Institute of Materials Research of the Helmholtz–Zentrum Geesthacht and dedicated his work to the use of neutron scattering techniques in materials science with a focus on residual stresses, precipitation kinetics and programming. In 2008 he included high–energy X–rays in his work and started giving a lecture on scattering methods in engineering materials research at the Montanuniversität Leoben.

Born in 1963, Andreas Schreyer studied physics and geophysics at the Ruhr–Universität Bochum, gaining his doctorate in 1994 and his lecturing qualification in 2000. In 2001 he became Professor at the University of Hamburg and the head of the Department Materials Characterization with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation at the Helmholtz–Zentrum Geesthacht. From 2006 to 2016 he was head of the Institute of Materials Research at the Helmholtz–Zentrum Geesthacht responsible for Materials Physics. Between 2008 and 2015 Professor Schreyer has been the spokesperson of the Helmholtz Program "From Matter to Materials and Life" of the Helmholtz Association coordinating all activities in the field of large–scale facilities for synchrotron radiation, neutrons, ions, and highest electromagnetic fields.

In 2016 he moved to the European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, where he is the Director for Science.

Born in 1957, Helmut Clemens studied materials science at the Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria, gaining his doctorate in 1987. He joined Plansee AG, Austria, as head of the Advanced Materials R&D group in 1990, gaining his lecturing qualification in 1997. From 1998 to 2000 he was Professor for Metallic Materials at the Institute for Physical Metallurgy, University of Stuttgart, before moving to the Institute for Materials Research, Helmholtz–Zentrum, Geesthacht, in a joint appointment as Professor at the University of Kiel. Since July 2003 he is head of the Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing at the Montanuniversität Leoben. Professor Clemens has won several awards, including the prestigious Honda Prize.

Born in 1981, Svea Mayer studied materials science at the Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria, and received her PhD in 2009. Since then, she is leading the working group on phase transformations and high–temperature materials at the Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben. In 2011 she was accepted as assistant professor and started lecturing. Her prime research topic is the use of neutrons and synchrotron radiation for the development of novel high–temperature materials.

She is member of review panels and for her academic achievements she was awarded with the Georg–Sachs–Prize of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V.

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