Bioinspired Engineering of Thermal Materials

  • ID: 4143336
  • Book
  • 264 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A comprehensive overview and summary of recent achievements and the latest trends in bioinspired thermal materials.

Following an introduction to different thermal materials and their effective heat transfer to other materials, the text discusses heat detection materials that are inspired by biological systems, such as fire beetles and butterflies. There then follow descriptions of materials with thermal management functionality, including those for evaporation and condensation, heat transfer and thermal insulation materials, as modeled on snake skins, polar bears and fire–resistant trees. A discussion of thermoresponsive materials with thermally switchable surfaces and controllable nanochannels as well as those with high thermal conductivity and piezoelectric sensors is rounded off by a look toward future trends in the bioinspired engineering of thermal materials.

Straightforward and well structured, this is an essential reference for newcomers as well as experienced researchers in this exciting field.
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1 Introduction to Thermal Properties of Materials 1
Rui Feng and Chengyi Song

1.1 Conventional Macroscale Heat Transfer 1

1.1.1 Normalization 2

1.1.2 Thermal Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium 2

1.1.3 Integral Structural Heat Transfer 3

1.1.4 Control Volume and Interface 4

1.1.5 Conduction in Single and Multiphase Medium 6

1.1.5.1 Single–phase Medium 6

1.1.5.2 Multiphase Composite Medium 6

1.1.6 Heat Capacity 8

1.1.7 Phase Change 9

1.2 Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer 10

1.2.1 Micro/Nanoscale Heat Carriers 10

1.2.2 Nanoscale Thermal Dynamic Theory via Boltzmann Equation 13

1.2.3 Molecular Dynamics Calculation 15

1.2.4 Photothermal Effect via SPR Heating 16

1.3 Bioinspired Thermal Materials 17

1.3.1 Bioinspired Thermal Materials for Heat Conduction 17

1.3.2 Bioinspired Materials for Thermal Storage 18

1.3.3 Bioinspired Thermal Detection 19

1.3.4 Bioinpsired Materials for Energy Conversion 19

1.4 Perspective and Outlook 20

Acknowledgments 21

References 21

2 The Engineering History of Thermal Materials 25
Mohammed T. Ababneh

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Engineering History of Thermal Materials 25

2.2.1 Thermal Conductivity 25

2.2.2 Development of Materials with High Thermal Conductivity 27

2.3 Engineering Applications with Bioinspired Thermal Materials 33

2.3.1 Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces 33

2.3.2 Dropwise Condensation 34

2.3.3 Heat Pipes 37

2.4 Bioinspired Multiscale Wicks 38

2.5 Hybrid Superhydrophilic/Superhydrophobic Wicks 40

2.6 Flexible Heat Pipes with Integrated Bioinspired Design 42

References 44

3 Bioinspired Surfaces for Enhanced Boiling 47Yangying Zhu, Dion S. Antao, and Evelyn N.Wang

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Bioinspired Surfaces for Boiling 49

3.3 Surface–Structure–Enhanced Pool Boiling 52

3.4 Biphilic and Biconductive Surface–Enhanced Boiling 55

3.5 Surfactant–Enhanced Pool Boiling 59

3.6 Flow Boiling 62

3.7 Conclusions and Outlook 66

Acknowledgments 67

References 67

4 Bioinspired Materials in Evaporation 73
Yanming Liu and Chengyi Song

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 What Is Evaporation? 74

4.2.1 Theoretical Models of Evaporation via Bulk Heating or Interfacial Heating 74

4.2.2 Examples of Bulk Heating and Interfacial Heating 76

4.3 Bioinspired Materials in Evaporation 80

4.3.1 Bioinspired Enhancing of Evaporation Rate via Interfacial Localized Heating 81

4.3.2 Skin–Mimic Evaporative Cooling System 86

4.3.3 Application of Bioinspired Materials in Evaporation 88

4.3.3.1 Distillation 88

4.3.3.2 Sterilization 89

4.3.3.3 Desalination 91

4.3.3.4 Wastewater Treatment 92

4.3.3.5 Electronics Cooling System 94

4.4 Summary and Perspectives 95

Acknowledgments 96

References 96

5 Bioinspired Engineering of PhotothermalMaterials 99
Wang Zhang and Junlong Tian

5.1 Antireflection and Photothermal Biomaterials 99

5.1.1 Nipple Arrays Antireflection Biomaterials 100

5.1.2 Protuberances Arrays Antireflection Biomaterials 101

5.1.3 Triangular Roof–Type Antireflection and Photothermal Materials 103

5.2 Bioinspired Photothermal Materials 105

5.2.1 Bioinspired Photothermal Materials Synthesis Approach 106

5.2.2 Bioinspired Metal Semiconductor Photothermal Materials 106

5.2.3 Bioinspired Carbon–Matrix Metal Functional Materials 116

References 122

6 BioinspiredMicrofluidic Cooling 129
Charlie Wasyl Katrycz and Benjamin D. Hatton

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 Biological Heat Exchange 131

6.3 Wearable Fluidics 132

6.3.1 Liquid Cooling Garments 132

6.3.2 Head Cooling 134

6.3.3 Wearable Microfluidics 136

6.4 Fluidic–BasedWindows and Facades for Buildings 136

6.4.1 Thermal Storage in Fluidic Layers 139

6.4.2 Forced Convection for Thermal Control 140

6.4.3 One–Dimensional Steady–State Heat Transfer Model 142

6.4.4 Fluidic Networks for AdaptiveWindows 143

6.5 Fabrication Methods for Large–Area Fluidic Networks 145

6.5.1 3D Printing 145

6.5.2 Radio FrequencyWelding 147

6.5.3 CNC Milling 148

6.5.4 Micro Molding 148

6.5.5 Viscous Fingering 150

6.6 Summary 153

References 153

7 Thermal Emissivity: Basics, Measurement, and Biological Examples 159
Lars Olof Björn and Annica M. Nilsson

7.1 Terminology 159

7.2 Basic Radiation Laws 160

7.3 Direct Emissivity Measurements 160

7.4 Kirchhoff s Law 161

7.5 Measurements Using Kirchhoff s Law 162

7.6 Attenuated Total Reflectance 164

7.7 Ways to Determine Hemispherical Emissivity 165

7.8 Specular and Diffuse Reflectance 166

7.9 Problems with Sample Shape 168

7.10 Remote Sensing from Aircraft or Satellites 168

7.11 Examples of Emissivity Determinations of Biological Samples 168

References 171

8 Bioinspired Thermal Detection 175
Zhen Luo andWen Shang

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Thermal Detection 176

8.2.1 InvasiveThermal Detection 177

8.2.1.1 Thermometers 177

8.2.1.2 Thermocouple 178

8.2.1.3 Thermistors 179

8.2.2 Noninvasive Thermal Detection 179

8.2.2.1 Electron or Molecule Excitation–Based Noninvasive Thermal Detection 179

8.2.2.2 Noninvasive Thermal Detection Based on the Change of Other Physical Properties 180

8.3 Bioinspired Thermal Detection 181

8.3.1 Thermal Detection by Direct Use of Biological Materials 181

8.3.1.1 Bimaterials Combining Biological Materials andThermal Materials 181

8.3.1.2 Temperature–Dependent Photoluminescence (PL) Sensor 182

8.3.1.3 Biomolecule Thermosensors 183

8.3.2 Thermal Detection Inspired by Biological Structures that Might Not Be Related to Thermal Function of Biological Systems 187

8.3.3 Thermal Detection Inspired by theThermal Function of Biological Systems 189

8.3.3.1 Thermosensitive Biological Polymers 189

8.3.3.2 Thermal Detection Inspired by Skin 189

8.3.4 Application of Bioinspired Thermal Detection 193

8.4 Perspectives 195

References 197

9 Bioinspired Thermal Insulation and Storage Materials 201
Peng Tao and Dominic J.McCafferty

9.1 Introduction to Thermal Insulation Materials 201

9.1.1 Introduction 201

9.1.2 Fundamentals of Thermal Insulation 202

9.2 Engineering of Thermal Insulation Materials 204

9.2.1 Conventional Thermal Insulation Materials 204

9.2.2 Advanced Thermal Insulation Materials 206

9.2.3 Application ofThermal Insulation Materials 208

9.2.3.1 Thermal Insulation for Buildings 208

9.2.3.2 Thermal Insulation for Spacecraft 208

9.2.3.3 Thermal Insulation for Mechanical Systems 210

9.2.3.4 Thermal Insulation for Textile Industries 210

9.3 Bioinspired Thermal Insulation and Storage Materials 211

9.3.1 Biological Thermal Insulation 211

9.3.1.1 Fat and Blubber 211

9.3.1.2 Feathers and Plumage 212

9.3.1.3 Hair, Fur and Wool 212

9.3.1.4 Heat Transfer Processes in Animal Coats 212

9.3.2 Advanced Thermal Insulation Materials Inspired by Animals 214

9.3.3 Thermal Storage Inspired by Black Butterflies 216

9.4 Summary and Outlook 219

Acknowledgments 219

References 219

10 Bioinspired Ice phobicity 225
Ri Li

10.1 Icing Nucleation of Sessile Drops 226

10.2 Literature Review Icing of Water Drops on Surfaces 230

10.3 Icing of Stationary Water Drops 231

10.4 Icing of Water Drops Impacting Surfaces 235

References 238

Index 241

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