Progress in Development: Connected Car: Technologies, Markets, Standardization

  • ID: 4225917
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 146 Pages
  • PracTel Inc
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This report addresses the current status of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), their structure, major applications, standardization and markets. The Intelligent Transportation Systems aim to improve the economy by reducing the number of road accidents, the amount of car air pollutions and making smooth flow of the traffic.

The advances in the ITS are presently tied with the development of a “connected car” (CC) – a moving car that is wirelessly connected with surrounding cars and the infrastructure. Such a car opens a spectrum of new and exciting opportunities for automakers, service providers and users.

CC programs are now under development all around the globe. Though there are many technological choices to support CC communications with the outside world, two technologies are leading at the present time. 

They are:

  • 5.9 GHz DSRC, and
  • LTE-A.

The report concentrates on those leaders; and analyzes their characteristics, parameters, marketing statistics, industries and the spectrum of applications. It also compares these technologies and their applicability to CC communications.

5.9 GHz DSRC technology is being tested and trialed in the U.S. for the last 10-15 years; and a rich collection of communications channels statistics has been gathered. This technology is now in the process of standardization by the U.S. DOT for CC communications. It has many attractions, such as the economies of scale based on the IEEE 802.11p standard, network simplicity and other. It also standardized and accepted in Europe. The report also addresses the current discussion in the industry and the FCC concerning opening the 5.9 GHz band for Wi-Fi communications and related consequences for road safety applications.

Utilization LTE-A and its modifications for C-V2X communications attracts users by longer reaches, higher speeds, possibility of low latency (1-3 ms), and utilization of the cellular infrastructure in which CC communications will be only one of many use cases. The standard is not ready yet to fully apply to CC connectivity; and the 3GPP is introducing it gradually with a promise to finalize in 1-2 years. Two methods are being developed: a) D2D communications, and b) Broadcast communications. They are discussed in the report.

The report details specifics of 5.9 GHz DSRC and LTE-A for CC communications, their marketing aspects, and the related legislative work. It also concentrates on benefits and limitations of each technology and surveys related industries.

The report is intended for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the ITS development; and particular concerns with marketing and technological aspects of a connected car; and for specialists in communications technologies that support advances in connected cars programs.

For them, it will provide the following up-to-date information and results of the analysis:

  • ITS features, major goals, structure and market analysis
  • CC concept, applications, properties, specifics and market analysis
  • CC 5.9 GHz DSRC technology, standardization, protocols, industry and market analysis
  • C-V2X LTE-A technology, standardization process, specifics and current status
  • Comparison 5.9 GHz DSRC and C-V2X LTE-A technologies as they apply to CC communications
  • Analysis of the LTE technology: benefits, properties, industry and market
  • Survey of patents related to IEEE 802.11p.
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1.0 Introduction   
1.1 Data   
1.2 Goal   
1.3 Scope   
1.4 Research Methodology   
1.5 Target Audience   

2.0 ITS: System in Actions   
2.1 General   
2.2 Composition   
2.2.1 Formation   
2.2.2 Subsystems   
2.2.3 Layers and Components-Roadways   
2.3 Key Technologies   
2.4 ITS Standardization: In Progress   
2.4.1 Overview   
2.4.2 ETSI - Europe   
2.4.3 U.S.   
2.4.3.1 General   
2.4.3.2 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP)   
2.4.3.2.1 Scope   
2.4.3.2.2 Family   
2.4.4 International   
2.4.4.1 General   
2.4.4.2 ITU   
2.4.5 Summary   
2.5 ITS Functionalities   
2.5.1 Intelligent Infrastructure   
2.5.2 Intelligent Vehicles   
2.6 ITS Market Statistics   
2.6.1 General   
2.6.2 Assumptions   
2.6.3 Estimate   

3.0 Connected Car Specifics   
3.1 General   
3.1.1 Types of Connectivity   
3.2 Legislation   
3.2.1 U.S.   
3.2.1.1 NHTSA Actions and Plans   
3.2.2 Directions   
3.2.2.1 EU and England   
3.2.2.2 Varieties   
3.3 Properties and Requirements   
3.3.1 Methods   
3.3.2 Network Requirements   
3.3.3 Functional Technologies   
3.4 Driving Forces   
3.5 Major Use Cases   
3.6 Market   

4.0 5.9 GHz DSRC   
4.1 General   
4.1.1 History- Spectrum   
4.1.1.1 Recent Developments - Spectrum Sharing -Opinions   
4.2 Industry Efforts - Cooperation   
4.3 Place   
4.4 Structure and Protocols   
4.4.1 Requirements   
4.4.2 Milestones   
4.4.3 IEEE 802.11p   
4.4.3.1 General   
4.4.3.2 Objectives and Status   
4.4.3.3 ASTM Contributions   
4.4.3.4 Characteristics   
4.4.4 IEEE 1609   
4.4.4.1 General   
4.4.4.2 Overview   
4.4.4.3 IEEE 1609 in Use   
4.4.5 ETSI ITS-G5 - Major Features   
4.4.6 ISO and DSRC   
4.4.7 SAE and DSRC   
4.5 Components and Procedures   
4.5.1 Components   
4.5.2 Procedures   
4.6 Major Applications   
4.6.1 EPS   
4.7 Spectrum - DSRC - International   
4.7.1 Channels Designation   
4.8 Services   
4.8.1 Major Services   
4.8.2 Service Categories/QoS   
4.8.3 Service Requirements   
4.9 Summary: DSRC (5.9 GHz) Characteristics   
4.10 Benefits and Limitations - 5.9 GHz DSRC   
4.10.1 General   
4.10.2 Toll Industry Benefits   
4.10.3 Limitations   
4.11 Comparison   
4.11.1 915 MHz DSRC and 5.9 GHz DSRC   
4.11.2 CEN278 (5.8 GHz) DSRC and 5.9 GHz DSRC   
4.12 Market Segment and Industry   
4.12.1 Market Drivers   
4.12.2 Market Requirements   
4.13 Market Estimate   
4.14 Industry   
4.14.1 Industry Coalition   
4.14.2 Recent Progress   
4.14.3 Vendors   
Arada   
AutoTalks   
Cohda Wireless   
Delphi   
Kapsch   
NXP   
Redpine Signals   
Qualcomm   
Savari   
Unex   
4.15 Governing and Opinions   

5.0 LTE and Connected Car   
5.1 Two Technologies   
5.2 3GPP Activities   
5.2.1 D2D Communications   
5.2.2 C-V2X Broadcast   
5.2.3 Performance Comparison   
5.2.4 Further Steps   
5.3 Industry   
AT&T/Audi-Tesla   
Broadcom   
Ficosa   
GM   
Qualcomm   
u-blox   

6.0 Comparison: DSRC-802.11p and C-V2X   
6.1 General   
6.2 Details   
6.2.1 Readiness   
6.2.2 Legislation   
6.2.3 Networking   
6.2.4 Range   
6.2.5 Response   
6.2.6 Scalability   
6.2.7 Economics   
6.2.8 Speed of Transmission   
6.2.9 Versatility   
6.2.10 Telematics   
6.2.11 5G Vision   
7.0 Connected Car - Groups and Alliances   
7.1 Open Automotive Alliance   
7.2 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars   
7.3 Apple - iOS in the Car   
7.4 Connected Vehicle to Everything of Tomorrow Consortium (ConVeX)   
7.5 WWW Consortium   
7.6 GSMA Connected Car Forum   
7.7 Car Connectivity Consortium   
7.8 Towards 5G Partnership   

8.0 Conclusions   

Appendix I: Patents Survey - IEEE 802.11p (2016-2017)   

Appendix II: LTE Technology and Markets   
A.1 De-Facto Standard   
A.2 Broadband Wireless Communications Stages   
A.2.1 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration   
A.2.1.1 Industry Initiative   
A.2.1.2 LTE Timetable   
A.2.1.3 Initial Releases   
A.3 Key Features of LTE   
A.3.1 Comparison   
A.4 Details   
A.4.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) - eNB   
A.4.2 UE Categories   
A.4.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)   
A.4.4 LTE Layers   
A.5 LTE Advanced   
A.6 Self-organized Network (SON)   
A.7 Market: LTE   
A.7.1 General   
A.7.2 Market Drivers   
A.7.3 Demand: Wireless Broadband   
A.7.4 LTE Market Projections   
A.8 Summary of LTE Benefits   
A.9 Industry   
Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia)   
Aricent   
AceAxis   
Cisco   
CommAgility   
Ericsson   
Fujitsu   
Huawei   
Lime Microsystems   
Motorola Solutions   
Qualcomm   
Sequans   
TI   
u-blox   
ZTE   
 
List of Figures:
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment   
Figure 2: Europe - Standardization Organizations   
Figure 3: Standardization Bodies - ITS U.S.   
Figure 4: NTCIP Structure   
Figure 5: International -Standardization Bodies   
Figure 6: Estimate: Global ITS Market ($B)   
Figure 7: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)   
Figure 8: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B)   
Figure 9: NHTSA DSRC Project - Prior 2015   
Figure 10: NHTSA - Further DSRC Project Development   
Figure 11: Connected Car: Network Requirements   
Figure 12: Connected Car: Communications Technologies   
Figure 13: Estimate - Connected Car Market Value - Global ($B)   
Figure 14: Estimate: Global Automotive Wireless Market - Equipment Sales ($B)   
Figure 15: Estimate - Global - Service Providers Revenue - Connected Car ($B)   
Figure 16: Estimate - U.S. Auto Market - CC Penetration (%)   
Figure 17: 5.9 GHz DSRC - Frequencies Allocation and Channelization   
Figure 18: DSRC - Modified Spectrum   
Figure 19: Industry Cooperation   
Figure 20: ITS-5.9 GHz DSRC - Illustration   
Figure 21: Communications Model   
Figure 22: 802.11p - Communications   
Figure 23: 1609 Protocol - Illustration   
Figure 24: Signals Logical Flow - 5.9 GHz DSRC   
Figure 25: Collision Detection/Avoidance System   
Figure 26: Work Zone Warning   
Figure 27: “Smart” Car   
Figure 28: DSRC Worldwide - Spectrum Allocation   
Figure 29: DSRC: Spectrum Allocation Details (Global)   
Figure 30: Channel Assignment - 5.9 GHz DSRC   
Figure 31: 5.9 GHz DSRC Transmission Characteristics and Channelization   
Figure 32: Spectrum Details - Overlapping Wi-Fi   
Figure 33: Major Categories-DSRC Services   
Figure 34: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance   
Figure 35: 5.9 GHz DSRC Protocols - Summary   
Figure 36: Estimate: CC Market Value- U.S. - 5.9 GHz DSRC ($B)   
Figure 37: C-V2X Modes of Communications   
Figure 38: 3GPP Schedule - D2D Communications (V2X)   
Figure 39: D2D Communications - Evolution   
Figure 40: LTE ProSe Functions - Discovery and Communications   
Figure 41: Further Evolution - C-V2X   
Figure 42: Networking   
Figure 43: Evolution Path   
Figure 44: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband   
Figure 45: LTE - IP   
Figure 46: Major LTE Advantages   
Figure 47: LTE - Reference Architecture   
Figure 48: LTE Layers   
Figure 49:  Estimate: Global Broadband Mobile Subscribers Base (Bil.)   
Figure 50: Estimate: LTE-Subscribers’ Base-Global (Bil)   
Figure 51: LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)   

List of Tables:
Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics   
Table 2: 5G Network Characteristics   
Table 3: ETSI G5 Channels and Services   
Table 4: Service Categories - DSRC   
Table 5: Users Service Requirements   
Table 6: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics   
Table 7: 5.9 GHz DSRC Benefits   
Table 8: 915 MHz and 5.9 GHz DSRC Differences   
Table 9: LTE - D2D and Broadcast Modes - Features   
Table 10: Major Features - Comparison   
Table 11: 3GPP Releases   
Table 12: Initial LTE Characteristics   
Table 13: Users Equipment Categories (Initial)   
Table 14: UE Categories - Extended 

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  • AceAxis
  • Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia)
  • Arada
  • Aricent
  • AutoTalks
  • Cisco
  • Cohda Wireless
  • CommAgility
  • Delphi
  • Ericsson
  • Fujitsu
  • Huawei
  • Kapsch
  • Lime Microsystems
  • Motorola Solutions
  • NXP
  • Qualcomm
  • Redpine Signals
  • Savari
  • Sequans
  • TI
  • Unex
  • ZTE
  • u-blox
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