Laser Printing of Functional Materials. 3D Microfabrication, Electronics and Biomedicine

  • ID: 4226304
  • Book
  • 480 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The first book on this hot topic includes such major research areas as printed electronics, sensors, biomaterials and 3D cell printing.             

Well–structured and with a strong focus on applications, the text is divided in three sections with the first describing the fundamentals of laser transfer. The second provides an overview of the wide variety of materials that can be used for laser transfer processing, while the final section comprehensively discusses a number of practical uses, including printing of electronic materials, printing of 3D structures as well as large–area, high–throughput applications. The whole is rounded off by a look at the future for laser printed materials.

Invaluable reading for a broad audience ranging from material developers to mechanical engineers, from academic researchers to industrial developers and for those interested in the development of micro–scale additive manufacturing techniques.

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Preface xv

Part I Fundamentals 1

1 Introduction to Laser–Induced Transfer and Other Associated Processes 3
Pere Serra and Alberto Piqué

1.1 LIFT and Its Derivatives 3

1.2 The Laser Transfer Universe 5

1.3 Book Organization and Chapter Overview 8

1.4 Looking Ahead 12

Acknowledgments 13

References 13

2 Origins of Laser–Induced Transfer Processes 17
Christina Kryou and Ioanna Zergioti

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 EarlyWork in Laser–Induced Transfer 17

2.3 Overview of Laser–Induced Forward Transfer 19

2.3.1 Transferring Metals and Other Materials with Laser–Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) 21

2.3.2 Limitations of the Basic LIFT Technique 22

2.3.3 The Role of the Donor Substrate 22

2.3.4 Use of a Dynamic Release Layer (DRL)–LIFT 24

2.3.5 LIFT with Ultrashort Laser Pulses 25

2.4 Other Laser–Based Transfer Techniques Inspired by LIFT 27

2.4.1 Matrix–Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation–DirectWrite (MAPLE–DW) Technique 27

2.4.2 LIFT of Composite Matrix–Based Materials 27

2.4.3 Hydrogen–Assisted LIFT 28

2.4.4 Long–Pulsed LIFT 28

2.4.5 Laser Molecular Implantation 29

2.4.6 Laser–Induced Thermal Imaging 30

2.5 Other Studies on LIFT 31

2.6 Conclusions 31

References 32

3 LIFT Using a Dynamic Release Layer 37
Alexandra Palla Papavlu and Thomas Lippert

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Absorbing Release Layer Triazene Polymer 40

3.3 Front– and Backside Ablation of the Triazene Polymer 42

3.4 Examples of Materials Transferred by TP–LIFT 43

3.5 First Demonstration of Devices: OLEDs and Sensors 47

3.5.1 Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLEDs) 47

3.5.2 Sensors 49

3.6 Variation of the DRL Approach: Reactive LIFT 52

3.7 Conclusions and Perspectives 54

Acknowledgments 55

Conflict of Interest 55

References 55

4 Laser–Induced Forward Transfer of Fluids 63
Juan M. Fernández–Pradas, Pol Sopeña, and Pere Serra

4.1 Introduction to the LIFT of Fluids 63

4.1.1 Origin 64

4.1.2 Principle of Operation 65

4.1.3 Developments 66

4.2 Mechanisms of Fluid Ejection and Deposition 67

4.2.1 Jet Formation 67

4.2.2 Droplet Deposition 69

4.3 Printing Droplets through LIFT 72

4.3.1 Role of the Laser Parameters 72

4.3.2 Role of the Fluid Properties 76

4.3.3 Setup Parameters 76

4.4 Printing Lines and Patterns with LIFT 78

4.5 Summary 81

Acknowledgments 82

References 82

5 Advances in Blister–Actuated Laser–Induced Forward Transfer (BA–LIFT) 91
Emre Turkoz, Romain Fardel, and Craig B. Arnold

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 BA–LIFT Basics 93

5.3 Why BA–LIFT? 94

5.4 Blister Formation 97

5.4.1 Dynamics of Blister Formation 97

5.4.2 Finite Element Modeling of Blister Formation 102

5.5 Jet Formation and Expansion 105

5.5.1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model 106

5.5.2 Effect of the Laser Energy 108

5.5.3 Effect of the Ink Film Properties 111

5.6 Application to the Transfer of Delicate Materials 113

5.7 Conclusions 117

References 117

6 Film–Free LIFT (FF–LIFT) 123
Salvatore Surdo, Alberto Diaspro, andMartí Duocastella

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Rheological Considerations in Traditional LIFT of Liquids 125

6.2.1 The Challenges behind the Preparation of aThin Liquid Film 125

6.2.1.1 The Role of Spontaneous Instabilities 126

6.2.1.2 The Role of External Instabilities 128

6.2.2 Technologies for Thin–Film Preparation 129

6.2.3 Wetting of the Receiver Substrate 130

6.3 Fundamentals of Film–Free LIFT 131

6.3.1 Cavitation–Induced Phenomena for Printing 131

6.3.2 Jet Formation in Film–Free LIFT 132

6.3.3 Differences with LIFT of Liquids 134

6.4 Implementation and Optical Considerations 135

6.4.1 Laser Source 135

6.4.2 Forward (Inverted) versus Backward (Upright) Systems 136

6.4.3 Spherical Aberration and Chromatic Dispersion 137

6.5 Applications 138

6.5.1 Film–Free LIFT for Printing Biomaterials 139

6.5.2 Film–Free LIFT for Micro–Optical Element Fabrication 140

6.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook 141

References 142

Part II The Role of the Laser Material Interaction in LIFT 147

7 Laser–Induced Forward Transfer of Metals 149
David A.Willis

7.1 Introduction, Background, and Overview 149

7.2 Modeling, Simulation, and Experimental Studies of the Transfer Process 151

7.2.1 Thermal Processes: Film Heating, Removal, Transfer, and Deposition 151

7.2.2 Parametric Effects 153

7.2.2.1 Laser Fluence and Film Thickness 154

7.2.2.2 Donor–Film Gap Spacing 156

7.2.2.3 PulseWidth 157

7.2.3 Droplet–Mode Deposition 160

7.2.4 Characterization of Deposited Structures: Adhesion, Composition, and Electrical Resistivity 163

7.3 Advanced Modeling of LIFT 165

7.4 Research Needs and Future Directions 167

7.5 Conclusions 169

References 170

8 LIFT of Solid Films (Ceramics and Polymers) 175
Ben Mills, Daniel J. Heath,Matthias Feinaeugle, and RobertW. Eason

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Assisted Release Processes 176

8.2.1 Optimization of LIFT Transfer of Ceramics via Laser Pulse Interference 176

8.2.1.1 Standing–Wave Interference from Multiple Layers 176

8.2.1.2 Ballistic Laser–Assisted Solid Transfer (BLAST) 177

8.2.2 LIFT Printing of Premachined Ceramic Microdisks 180

8.2.3 Spatial Beam Shaping for Patterned LIFT of Polymer Films 181

8.3 Shadowgraphy Studies and Assisted Capture 184

8.3.1 Shadowgraphic Studies of the Transfer of CeramicThin Films 184

8.3.2 Application of Polymers as Compliant Receivers 186

8.4 Applications in Energy Harvesting 188

8.4.1 LIFT of Chalcogenide Thin Films 189

8.4.2 Fabrication of aThermoelectric Generator on a Polymer–Coated Substrate 190

8.5 Laser–Induced Backward Transfer (LIBT) of Nanoimprinted Polymer 193

8.5.1 Unstructured Carrier Substrate 195

8.5.2 Structured Carrier Substrate 195

8.6 Conclusions 197

Acknowledgments 197

References 197

9 Laser–Induced Forward Transfer of Soft Materials 199
Zhengyi Zhang, Ruitong Xiong, and Yong Huang

9.1 Introduction 199

9.2 Background 200

9.3 Jetting Dynamics during Laser Printing of Soft Materials 201

9.3.1 Jet Formation Dynamics during Laser Printing of Newtonian Glycerol Solutions 202

9.3.1.1 Typical Jetting Regimes 202

9.3.1.2 Jetting Regime as Function of Fluid Properties and Laser Fluence 204

9.3.1.3 Jettability Phase Diagram 206

9.3.2 Jet Formation Dynamics during Laser Printing of Viscoelastic Alginate Solutions 208

9.3.2.1 Ink Coating Preparation and Design of Experiments 208

9.3.2.2 Typical Jetting Regimes 209

9.3.2.3 General Observation of the Jetting Dynamics 212

9.3.2.4 Effects of Laser Fluence on Jetting Dynamics 212

9.3.2.5 Effects of Alginate Concentration on Jetting Dynamics 214

9.3.2.6 Jettability Phase Diagram 215

9.4 Laser Printing Applications Using Optimized Printing Conditions 218

9.5 Conclusions and FutureWork 220

Acknowledgments 221

References 222

10 Congruent LIFT with High–Viscosity Nanopastes 227

Raymond C.Y. Auyeung, Heungsoo Kim, and Alberto Piqué

10.1 Introduction 227

10.2 Congruent LIFT (or LDT) 229

10.3 Applications 235

10.4 Achieving Congruent Laser Transfers 242

10.5 Issues and Challenges 245

10.6 Summary 246

Acknowledgment 247

References 247

11 Laser Printing of Nanoparticles 251
Urs Zywietz, Tim Fischer, Andrey Evlyukhin, Carsten Reinhardt, and Boris Chichkov

11.1 Introduction, Setup, and Motivation 251

11.2 Laser–Induced Transfer 252

11.3 Materials for Laser Printing of Nanoparticles 254

11.4 Laser Printing from Bulk–Silicon and Silicon Films 254

11.5 Magnetic Resonances of Silicon Particles 261

11.6 Laser Printing from Prestructured Films 261

11.7 Applications: Sensing, Metasurfaces, and Additive Manufacturing 263

11.8 Outlook 266

References 266

Part III Applications 269

12 Laser Printing of ElectronicMaterials 271
Philippe Delaporte, Anne–Patricia Alloncle, and Thomas Lippert

12.1 Introduction and Context 271

12.2 Organic Thin–Film Transistor 272

12.2.1 Operation and Characteristics of OTFTs 272

12.2.2 Laser Printing of the Semiconductor Layer 275

12.2.3 Laser Printing of Dielectric Layers 277

12.2.4 Laser Printing of Conducting Layers 279

12.2.5 Single–Step Printing of Full OTFT Device 279

12.3 Organic Light–Emitting Diode 281

12.4 Passive Components 285

12.5 Interconnection and Heterogeneous Integration 287

12.6 Conclusion 290

References 291

13 Laser Printing of Chemical and Biological Sensors 299
Ioanna Zergioti

13.1 Introduction 299

13.2 Conventional PrintingMethods for the Fabrication of Chemical and Biological Sensors 300

13.2.1 Contact PrintingMethods 301

13.2.1.1 Pin Printing Approach 301

13.2.1.2 Microcontact Printing (or Microstamping) Technique 302

13.2.1.3 Nanotip Printing 303

13.2.2 Noncontact Printing Methods 303

13.2.2.1 Photochemistry–Based Printing 303

13.2.2.2 Inkjet Printing Technique 304

13.2.2.3 Electrospray Deposition (ESD) 304

13.3 Laser–Based Printing Techniques: Introduction 305

13.3.1 Laser–Induced Forward Transfer 305

13.3.2 LIFT of Liquid Films 307

13.4 Applications of Direct Laser Printing 308

13.4.1 Biosensors 308

13.4.1.1 Background 308

13.4.1.2 Printing of Biological Materials for Biosensors 309

13.4.2 Chemical Sensors 316

13.5 Conclusions 319

List of Abbreviations 319

References 320

14 Laser Printing of Proteins and Biomaterials 329
Alexandra Palla Papavlu, Valentina Dinca, and Maria Dinescu

14.1 Introduction 329

14.2 LIFT of DNA in Solid and Liquid Phase 332

14.3 LIFT of Biomolecules 333

14.3.1 Streptavidin and Avidin Biotin Complex 333

14.3.2 Amyloid Peptides 337

14.3.3 Odorant–Binding Proteins 339

14.3.4 Liposomes 340

14.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 343

Acknowledgments 343

Conflict of Interest 343

References 344

15 Laser–Assisted Bioprinting of Cells for Tissue Engineering 349
Olivia Kérourédan,Murielle Rémy, Hugo Oliveira, Fabien Guillemot, and Raphaël Devillard

15.1 Laser–Assisted Bioprinting of Cells 349

15.1.1 The History of Cell Bioprinting and Advantages of Laser–Assisted Bioprinting for Tissue Engineering 349

15.1.2 Technical Specifications of Laser–Assisted Bioprinting of Cells 353

15.1.3 Effect of Laser Process and Printing Parameters on Cell Behavior 356

15.2 Laser–Assisted Bioprinting for Cell Biology Studies 358

15.2.1 Study of Cell Cell and Cell Microenvironment Interactions 358

15.2.2 Cancer Research 359

15.3 Laser–Assisted Bioprinting for Tissue–Engineering Applications 359

15.3.1 Skin 360

15.3.2 Blood Vessels 362

15.3.3 Heart 364

15.3.4 Bone 365

15.3.5 Nervous System 367

15.4 Conclusion 368

References 369

16 Industrial, Large–Area, and High–Throughput LIFT/LIBT Digital Printing 375
Guido Hennig, Gerhard Hochstein, and Thomas Baldermann

16.1 Introduction 375

16.1.1 State of the Art in Digital Printing 376

16.1.2 History of Lasersonic LIFT 376

16.2 Potential Markets and their Technical Demands on Lasersonic LIFT 377

16.2.1 Digital Printing Market Expectations and Challenges 377

16.2.2 Demands on a LIFT/LIBT Printing Unit for Special Printing Markets 378

16.3 Lasersonic LIFT/LIBT PrintingMethod 379

16.3.1 LIFT for Absorbing and LIBT for Transparent Inks 379

16.4 Optical Concept and Pulse Control of the Lasersonic Printing Machine 382

16.4.1 Ultrafast Pulse Modulation at High Power Level 382

16.4.2 Time Schemes 383

16.4.3 Data Flow 385

16.4.4 Ultrafast Scan of the Laser Beam 385

16.5 The Four–Color Lasersonic Printing Machine 387

16.5.1 Large–Area, High–Throughput LIFT/LIBT Inline R2R Printing System 387

16.5.2 Printing Heads for Absorptive (Black) and for Transparent (Colored) Inks 388

16.5.3 Inking Units 390

16.5.4 Synthetic Approaches to the Absorption Layer of the LIBT Donor Surface 392

16.6 Print Experiments and Results 392

16.7 Discussion of Effects 397

16.7.1 LIFT Process with Continuous–Wave Laser Source and Fast Modulation 397

16.7.2 Special Test Pattern to Study the Transfer Behavior at High Pixel Rate 399

16.8 Future Directions 401

16.9 Summary 402

Acknowledgments 403

References 403

17 LIFT of 3D Metal Structures 405
Ralph Pohl, ClaasW. Visser, and Gert–willem Römer

17.1 Introduction 405

17.2 Basic Aspects of LIFT of Metals for 3D Structures 407

17.2.1 Ejection Regimes of Pure Metal Picosecond LIFT 408

17.2.1.1 Velocity of the Ejected Donor Material 409

17.2.1.2 Origin of Fragments in Cap–Ejection Regime 409

17.2.2 Droplet Impact and Solidification 411

17.3 Properties of LIFT–Printed FreestandingMetal Pillars 413

17.3.1 Reproducibility 414

17.3.2 Metallurgical Microstructure 416

17.3.3 Mechanical Properties 417

17.3.4 Electrical Properties 418

17.3.5 Inclined Pillars 420

17.4 Demonstrators and Potential Applications 420

17.5 Conclusions and Outlook 423

References 423

18 Laser Transfer of Entire Structures and Functional Devices 427
Alberto Piqué, Nicholas A. Charipar, Raymond C. Y. Auyeung, Scott A. Mathews, and Heungsoo Kim

18.1 Introduction 427

18.2 Early Demonstrations of LIFT of Entire Structures 428

18.3 Process Dynamics 431

18.3.1 Lase–and–Place 432

18.4 Laser Transfer of Intact Structures 435

18.4.1 Laser Transfer of Metal Foils for Electrical Interconnects 436

18.5 Laser Transfer of Components for Embedded Electronics 437

18.6 Outlook 438

18.7 Summary 440

Acknowledgments 441

References 441

Index 445

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Alberto Piqué
Pere Serra
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