Metal Nanoparticles. Synthesis and Applications in Pharmaceutical Sciences

  • ID: 4290434
  • Book
  • 265 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A much–needed summary of the importance, synthesis and applications of metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical sciences, with a focus on gold, silver, copper and platinum nanoparticles. After a brief introduction to the history of metal complexes in medicine and fundamentals of nanotechnology, the chapters continue to describe different methods for preparation of metal nanoparticles. This section is followed by representative presentations of current biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, chemotherapy, and diagnostic imaging.

Aimed at stimulating further research in this field, the book serves as an reference guide for academics and professionals working in the field of chemistry and nanotechnology.

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1 Introduction 1
Sreekanth Thota and Debbie C. Crans

1.1 History of Metal Complexes 1

1.1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.2 Metal Complexes 1

1.1.3 Metal Complexes in Medicine 2

1.2 Nanotechnology 2

1.2.1 Introduction 2

1.2.2 Development of Nanotechnology 2

1.2.3 Nanotechnology in Medicine 3

1.3 Nanoparticles 4

1.3.1 Introduction 4

1.3.2 Development of Nanoparticles 5

1.3.2.1 Liposome–Based Nanoparticles 5

1.3.2.2 Polymeric Nanoparticles 5

1.3.2.3 Metal Nanoparticles 5

1.3.3 Nanoparticles in Science and Medicine 6

1.4 Nanotechnology–Supported Metal Nanoparticles 7

Acknowledgment 7

References 7

2 Methods for Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles 15
Siavash Iravani

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Methods for Preparation ofMetallic NPs 15

2.2.1 Physical and Chemical Methods 15

2.2.2 Green and Bio–based Strategies 19

2.3 Conclusion 24

References 24

3 Metal Nanoparticles as Therapeutic Agents: A Paradigm Shift in Medicine 33
Mahendra Rai, Dipali Nagaonkar, and Avinash P. Ingle

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Metal Nanoparticles in Diagnostics 35

3.2.1 Nanoparticles as Biolabels 35

3.2.2 Nanoparticulate Detection of Proteins 35

3.2.3 Nanobiosensing 36

3.2.4 In vivo Imaging 37

3.3 Advanced Drug Delivery 38

3.4 Nanoparticle–Mediated Gene Transfer 39

3.5 Nanotechnology in RegenerativeTherapies 41

3.5.1 Tissue Engineering and Implants 41

3.5.2 Bone Regeneration Materials 41

3.5.3 In Dentistry 42

3.5.4 CellTherapy 43

3.6 Nanoparticles Essential Oils Combination Against Human

Pathogens 43

3.7 Conclusion 44

Acknowledgment 44

References 44

4 Soft–Oxometalates: A New State of Oxometalates and Their Potential Applications as Nanomotors 49Apabrita Mallick and Soumyajit Roy

4.1 Introduction to Soft–Oxometalates (SOMs) 49

4.1.1 Classification of Soft–Oxometalates 50

4.1.1.1 Spontaneously Formed Soft–Oxometalates 50

4.1.1.2 Designed Soft–Oxometalates 50

4.2 Application of Soft–Oxometalates 51

4.2.1 Control of Morphology of SOMs 51

4.2.2 SOMs in Catalysis 52

4.2.3 SOMs in Patterning 52

4.3 Active Nano/micro Motors 55

4.3.1 CatalyticMotors 55

4.3.2 Magnetically Propelled Motors 55

4.3.3 Electrically Propelled Motors 56

4.3.4 Light Driven Motors 56

4.3.5 Ultrasonically Driven Motors 56

4.4 Micro–Optomechanical Movement (MOM) in Soft–Oxometalates 56

4.5 Autonomous Movements Induced in Heptamolybdate SOMs 58

4.6 SOMs asWater Oxidation Catalysts 60

4.7 Conclusion 61

Acknowledgment 61

References 61

5 Medicinal Applications of Metal Nanoparticles 67
Ayan K. Barui, Rajesh Kotcherlakota, and Chitta R. Patra

5.1 Overview 67

5.2 Introduction and Background 67

5.2.1 History of Medicinal Use of Metals,Metal Ions, and Complexes 69

5.2.2 Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine 70

5.2.3 Application of Disease–Specific Nanomedicine 71

5.2.4 Importance of Metal Nanoparticles in Biology 71

5.3 Biomedical Applications of Metal Nanoparticles 72

5.3.1 Delivery of Biomolecules Using Metal Nanoparticles 73

5.3.1.1 Drug Delivery 73

5.3.1.2 Nucleic Acid Delivery 78

5.3.1.3 Immunological Molecule Delivery 79

5.3.2 Anticancer Activities of Metal Nanoparticles 80

5.3.3 AntiangiogenicTherapy Using Metal Nanoparticles 82

5.3.4 Proangiogenic Properties of Metal Nanoparticles 83

5.3.5 Metal Nanoparticles in Bioimaging 85

5.3.6 Biosensing Applications of Metal Nanoparticles 86

5.3.7 Antimicrobial Activity of Metal Nanoparticles 88

5.3.8 Metal Nanoparticles in Neurodegenerative Diseases 90

5.3.9 Metal Nanoparticles in Tissue Engineering 92

5.3.10 Metal Nanoparticles in Diabetes 92

5.3.11 Metal Nanoparticles for Retinal Disorder 93

5.3.12 Anti–Inflammatory Effects of Metal Nanoparticles 93

5.3.13 Biologically Synthesized Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications 94

5.4 Pharmacokinetics of Metal Nanoparticles 95

5.5 Status of Metal Nanoparticles in Clinical Study 97

5.6 Future Prospect of Metal Nanoparticles in Medicine 98

Acknowledgment 99

Abbreviations 99

References 101

6 Metal Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine: Advantages and Scope 121
Tapan K. Sau, Arunangshu Biswas, and Parijat Ray

6.1 Introduction 121

6.1.1 Therapeutic Use of Metals: Historical Perspective 121

6.1.2 Nanomedicines and Metals 122

6.2 Advantages Associated with Metal Nanosystems 123

6.2.1 Metals as Nanosystems 124

6.2.1.1 Small Size and Large Surface Area–to–Volume Ratio 124

6.2.1.2 Shape and Morphology Dependence 125

6.2.2 Varieties of Metal Nanoparticles, Synthesis, and Fabrication Techniques 125

6.2.3 Inertness, Biocompatibility, and Ease of Surface Modifications 126

6.2.4 Optical Properties: Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) 128

6.2.5 Large Scattering and Absorption Cross Sections and Photothermal Effects 132

6.2.6 Enhanced Local Electromagnetic Field: Surface–Enhanced Spectroscopies 133

6.3 Applications and Scope 135

6.3.1 Targeted Drug Delivery and Controlled Release 135

6.3.2 Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapies and Cancer Treatment 139

6.3.3 Antimicrobial andWound Healing Effects 141

6.3.4 Clinical Diagnostics 143

6.3.4.1 Medical Imaging 144

6.4 Concluding Remarks 151

Acknowledgments 151

References 151

7 Applications of Metal Nanoparticles in Medicine/Metal Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents 169
Wenjie Mei and QiongWu

7.1 Advantages of Metal Nanoparticles 169

7.1.1 Stability and Homogeneity 169

7.1.2 Luminescence Property 170

7.1.3 Biocompatibility 170

7.1.4 Metabolic Pathways 170

7.2 Metal Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents 171

7.3 Gold Nanoparticles 171

7.3.1 AuNPs as Therapeutic Agents 172

7.3.1.1 AuNPs in Plasmonic PhotothermalTherapy 172

7.3.1.2 AuNPs in Photodynamic Therapy 173

7.3.1.3 AuNPs as aTherapeutic Agent 173

7.3.2 AuNPs as Drug Carriers 174

7.3.2.1 Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Drugs 174

7.3.2.2 Delivery of Genes 175

7.3.3 AuNPs in Cancer Imaging 175

7.4 Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) 176

7.4.1 Synthesis of AgNPs 176

7.4.1.1 Chemical Methods 176

7.4.1.2 Physical Methods 176

7.4.1.3 Biological Methods 176

7.4.2 AgNPs as Inhibitor in Chemotherapy 177

7.4.2.1 AgNPs as Promising Inhibitor Against Tumor 177

7.4.3 AgNPs as Drug Carrier 178

7.4.4 AgNPs in Cellular Imaging and Clinic Diagnostics 179

7.4.5 Cytotoxicity of AgNPs 179

7.5 Copper Nanoparticles 180

7.5.1 Synthesis of CuNPs 180

7.5.2 Antibacterial Activity 180

7.5.3 Anticancer Activity 180

7.5.4 Molecular Imaging 181

7.5.5 Drug Carrier 182

7.6 Conclusion 183

Acknowledgments 183

References 183

8 Noble Metal Nanoparticles and Their Antimicrobial Properties 191
Lini Huo and Peiyuan Li

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Synthesis of Antibacterial Noble Metal Nanoparticles 191

8.2.1 Physical Methods 191

8.2.2 Chemical Methods 192

8.2.3 Green Synthesis Methods 193

8.3 Antibacterial Nanomaterials and Their AntibacterialMechanism 193

8.3.1 Mechanisms of Nanoparticles Antibacterial Activity 194

8.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook 195

References 196

9 Metal Nanoparticles and Their Toxicity 203
Ivan Pacheco and Cristina Buzea

9.1 Introduction to Metal Nanoparticles Toxicity 203

9.2 Metal Nanoparticle Internalization and Biodistribution 204

9.3 Physicochemical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles 206

9.4 Nanoparticle Size and Toxicity 207

9.4.1 Size and Uniformity of Metal Nanoparticles 207

9.4.2 Nanoparticle Size–Dependent Toxicity 207

9.5 Nanoparticle Composition and Toxicity 210

9.5.1 Nanoparticles Composition 210

9.5.2 Comparative Toxicity of Metal Nanoparticles 212

9.5.3 Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles 215

9.5.4 Toxicity of Metal Oxides 215

9.5.4.1 Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Toxicity 215

9.5.4.2 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Toxicity 216

9.5.4.3 Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity 216

9.5.4.4 Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Toxicity 216

9.6 Nanoparticle Morphology and Toxicity 217

9.6.1 Nanoparticles Morphology 217

9.6.2 Nanoparticle Morphology–Dependent Toxicity 218

9.7 Nanoparticle Crystalline Structure and Toxicity 220

9.7.1 Nanoparticle Crystalline Structure 220

9.7.2 Crystalline Structure–Dependent Toxicity 221

9.8 Nanoparticle Surface and Toxicity 221

9.8.1 Hydrophobicity and Hydrophilicity 221

9.8.2 Catalytic Activity 222

9.8.3 Surface Functionalization–Dependent Toxicity 222

9.8.4 Surface Charge–Dependent Toxicity 223

9.9 Nanoparticle Magnetism and Toxicity 223

9.9.1 Magnetism of Nanoparticles Magnetic in Bulk Form 223

9.9.2 Magnetism of Nanoparticles Nonmagnetic in Bulk Form (Au, Pt, Pd) 227

9.9.3 Magnetic Nanoparticles Toxicity 227

9.9.3.1 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Toxicity 228

9.9.3.2 Cobalt and Nickel Compounds Nanoparticles Toxicity 228

9.9.4 Gold and Platinum Nanoparticle Toxicity 229

9.9.4.1 Gold Nanoparticles Toxicity 229

9.9.4.2 Platinum Nanoparticle Toxicity 229

9.10 Interaction of NanoparticlesWithin Organisms 230

9.10.1 Formation of Protein Corona 230

9.10.2 Metal Nanoparticle Uptake by Cells 231

9.10.3 Nanoparticles Crossing the Placental Barrier 233

9.10.4 Nanoparticles Association to Cardiovascular Diseases 233

9.10.5 Central Nervous System Interaction with Nanoparticles 236

9.10.6 Immune System Interaction with Nanoparticles 236

9.10.7 Liver, Kidneys, and Other Organ Interaction with Nanoparticles 237

9.11 Other Novel Properties of Metal Nanoparticles 238

9.11.1 Optical Properties 238

9.11.2 Melting Temperature 240

9.12 Conclusions 242

References 242

Index 261

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Sreekanth Thota is a Visiting Researcher at the Center for Technological Development in Health, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz – Fiocruz in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He studied Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Kakatiya University (India) and Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences (Bangalore, India) and obtained his Ph.D from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad (India) in 2011. He then did postdoctoral work at Colorado State University, USA. He received the 2013 CAPES–Fiocruz, Visiting Researcher award and has published over 40 articles in peer–reviewed journals. His research interest is focused on the drug discovery, medicinal chemistry, fundamental chemistry and biochemistry of ruthenium and other transition metal ions leading to applications in medicine.

Debbie C. Crans is Professor of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry and in the Cell and Molecular Biology Program at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA. She obtained her Ph.D. in Chemistry from Harvard University with George M. Whitesides, USA, in 1985. She did a postdoctoral fellowship with Orville L. Chapman and Paul D. Boyer at UCLA in 1986. Her research interests lie in biological chemistry with expertise in metals in medicine and coordination chemistry with a focus on transition metals such as vanadium and platinum and interests in membrane model systems and hydrophobic compounds and lipids such as menaquinone. She received the Vanadis Award in 2004 and in the 2015 Cope Scholar Award. She has published over 190 articles in peer–reviewed journals.

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