Emerging Pollutants. Origin, Structure, and Properties

  • ID: 4302719
  • Book
  • 528 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An excellent, concise, and interdisciplinary overview of different classes of emerging pollutants arising, for example, from pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, and industrial chemicals and their impact on water, soil, and air.

Following an introduction to chemical pollutants, with special attention focused on organic compounds and their properties, the book goes on to describe major emerging pollutants grouped according to their applications in different sectors of industrial or economic activity. For each type of compound, the chemical structure, main properties, and source are presented, along with their fate in the environment as pollutants, the latest analytical methods for detection, possible health or ecology consequences, as well as current regulatory laws. New developments, such as nanotechnology as a pollution source, are also included. The book closes with a chapter devoted to conclusions and future perspectives.

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Epigraph xv

Abbreviations xvii

Glossary xxiii

Preface xxvii

Acknowledgment xxix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Chemistry and Development 1

1.2 Pollution and Contamination 3

1.3 Chemical pollutants 4

1.4 Pollutants in the Environment 6

1.5 Concept of Emerging Pollutants 7

1.6 Historical Background of Emerging Pollutants 8

1.7 Classification of Emerging Pollutants 9

1.8 Regulations and Normatives 11

References 13

2 Occurrence and Removal of Environmental Pollutants 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Pollutants in the Atmosphere 19

2.3 Pollutants in Ground and SurfaceWaters: Quality Parameters 20

2.4 Pollutants in the Ground and Soil 23

2.5 Sources of Emerging Pollutants or CECs 23

2.5.1 CECs fromWWTPs 24

2.5.2 CECs inWastewater Biosolids 25

2.5.3 CECs from Agriculture and Livestock 25

2.5.4 CECs in Soils 26

2.5.5 CECs in Groundwater 27

2.5.6 CECs in Landfill 28

2.5.7 CECs in Seawater 29

2.6 Treatment of CECs 30

2.6.1 Treatment of CECs inWWTPs 30

2.6.2 Treatment of CECs in Landfill Leachates 32

2.6.3 Wastewater Reuse 33

2.7 Toxicity of CECs 34

References 37

3 Detection and Analysis of Chemical Pollutants 43

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Sample Preparation 43

3.2.1 Extraction with Organic Solvents 44

3.2.2 Microwave–Assisted Extraction (MAE) 44

3.2.3 Dispersive Liquid Liquid Microextraction (DLLME) 45

3.2.4 Vortex–Assisted Liquid Liquid Microextraction (VALLME) 45

3.2.5 Single–Drop Microextraction 45

3.2.6 Solid–Phase Extraction (SPE) 46

3.2.7 Solid–Phase Microextraction (SPME) 47

3.2.8 Dispersive Solid Phase Microextraction (DSPE/DSPME) 47

3.2.9 Matrix Solid–Phase Dispersion (MSPD) 48

3.2.10 Passive Sampling 48

3.2.11 Immunosorbent Extraction 49

3.2.12 Extraction of Volatile Compounds 49

3.2.13 Online Extraction 50

3.2.14 Extraction with Nanomaterials 50

3.2.15 Sampling from Biological Materials 50

3.3 AnalyticalMethods for Identifying EPs 50

3.3.1 SeparationMethods 52

3.3.2 CharacterizationMethods 52

References 53

4 Overview of Pharmaceutical Products as Emerging Pollutants 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Therapeutic Classes of PCs Detected in the Environment 59

4.3 Sources of PCs in the Environment 59

4.4 Detection and Analysis of PCs in the Environment 61

4.5 Occurrence of PCs in the Environment 63

4.5.1 Pharmaceuticals inWWTPs 64

4.5.2 PCs in HospitalWastewater 64

4.5.3 PCs in SurfaceWater and Groundwater 66

4.5.4 PCs in Seawater 68

4.5.5 PCs in DrinkingWater 68

4.5.6 PCs in Soil 69

4.6 Ecotoxicological Aspects of PCs on Environment 72

4.7 Removal of PCs 75

4.7.1 Conventional Systems for Removing PCs inWater–Treatment Systems 76

4.7.2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon 77

4.7.3 Technologies Based on Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) 77

4.8 Conclusions 79

References 80

5 Therapeutic Classes of PCs in the Environment 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Antibiotics (ABs) 105

5.2.1 Chemical Classes of Antibiotics 105

5.2.2 The Problem of the Resistance of Antibiotics 114

5.2.3 Antibiotics in the Environment 114

5.2.4 Degradation/Removal of Antibiotics 116

5.2.5 An Example of ABs in the Environment: Sulfonamides 116

5.3 Estrogens and Hormonal Compounds 117

5.3.1 Estrogens in the Environment 117

5.4 Drugs with Endocrine Disruption Properties 120

5.5 Analgesic, Anti–inflammatory, Antiarthritic, and Antirheumatic Compounds 124

5.5.1 Non–Narcotic Analgesics Drugs 124

5.5.2 Narcotic Analgesics Drugs 125

5.5.3 Non–Steroidal Anti–Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) 125

5.6 Psychotropic Drugs 128

5.6.1 Environmental Impact of Psychotropic Drugs 129

5.7 Antiepileptic Drugs 131

5.8 –Blockers/Diuretics 133

5.8.1 –Blockers in the Environment 133

5.9 Lipid Regulators 135

5.10 2–Sympathomimetic Drugs 136

5.11 Antidiabetic Drugs 138

5.12 X–Ray Contrast Drugs: Diagnostic Agents 139

5.13 Cytostatic PCs: Antineoplastics 140

5.14 Veterinary Drugs: Anthelmintics 141

5.14.1 Classes of Anthelmintics 142

5.14.2 Anthelmintics in the Environment 145

References 146

6 Illegal Drugs, Occurrence, and Fate in Environment 167

6.1 Introduction 167

6.2 What is an Illicit Drug? 168

6.2.1 Differences Between Licit and Illicit Drugs as Environmental Contaminants 169

6.3 Classes of Illicit Drugs 171

6.3.1 Opiates 171

6.3.2 Other Central Nervous System Depressants 172

6.3.3 Central Nervous System Stimulants: Cocaine 173

6.3.4 Central–Nervous–System Stimulants: Amphetamine–Type Substances (ATSs) 173

6.3.5 Hallucinogens 176

6.3.6 Cannabis 177

6.4 AnalyticalMethods for Detecting of Illicit Drugs 177

6.5 Illicit Drugs in the Environmental Compartments 178

6.5.1 Illicit Drugs inWastewater 179

6.5.2 Illicit Drugs in SurfaceWater 181

6.5.3 Illicit Drugs in Seawater 182

6.5.4 Illicit Drugs in DrinkingWater 182

6.5.5 Illicit Drugs in Soil 183

6.5.6 Illicit Drugs in Ambient Air 184

6.5.7 Illicit Drugs on Currency Notes 184

6.6 Estimation of Drug Consumption in Communities (Sewage–Based Epidemiology) 185

References 187

7 Pesticides as Pollutants 197

7.1 Introduction 197

7.2 Classification of Pesticides 198

7.2.1 Classification of Pesticides by Activity 199

7.2.2 Classification of Pesticides by Toxicity 199

7.2.3 Classification of Pesticides by Chemical Structure 200

7.3 Organic Pesticides 200

7.3.1 Organochlorine Pesticides 200

7.3.2 Organophosphorus Pesticides 202

7.3.3 Carbamates 203

7.3.4 Thiocarbamates 204

7.3.5 Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids 205

7.3.6 Phenoxy Carboxylic Acids 205

7.3.7 Triazines 206

7.3.8 Uracils and Ureas 207

7.3.9 Azoles and Related Compounds 208

7.3.10 Morpholine Derivatives 209

7.3.11 Bipyridines 210

7.3.12 Amides 211

7.3.13 Neonicotinoids 211

7.3.14 Other Classes of Herbicides 213

7.4 Pesticides in the Environment 215

7.4.1 Degradation and Transformation of Pesticides in Environment 217

7.4.2 Pesticide TPs in the Environment 217

7.4.3 Analysis of Pesticides 218

7.4.4 Pesticides inWater 220

7.5 An Example of National Survey: Pesticides in Italy 221

7.6 An Example of Pesticides in the Environment: Neonicotinoid Insecticides 223

References 224

8 Lifestyle Products as Emerging Pollutants 233

8.1 Introduction 233

8.2 Stimulants 233

8.2.1 Caffeine 234

8.2.2 Nicotine 236

8.3 Food Additives 238

8.3.1 Toxicology of Food Additives 239

8.3.2 Global Regulation on Food Additives 240

8.4 Classes of Food Additives 241

8.4.1 Substances with Nutritive and Other Dietary Effects 241

8.4.2 Substances with Stabilizing Effects 242

8.4.3 Substances with Sensory Effects (Organoleptic Substances) 245

8.4.4 Substances as Processing Aids 247

8.4.5 Dietary Supplements 249

8.5 Food Additives as Emerging Organic Contaminants 250

8.6 Antioxidants in the Environment 250

8.7 Artificial Sweeteners in the Environment 251

8.7.1 Metabolism of Artificial Sweeteners 252

8.7.2 Occurrence of the Artificial Sweeteners in the Environment 253

8.7.3 Artificial Sweeteners as Pollution Markers 255

References 257

9 Industrial Chemicals as Emerging Pollutant 265

9.1 Introduction 265

9.2 Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFASs) 266

9.2.1 PFASs in the Environment 268

9.2.2 Analysis of PFASs 269

9.2.3 Toxicology and Regulation of PFASs 270

9.3 Plasticizers 271

9.3.1 Bisphenol A (BPA) 271

9.3.2 Phthalates 274

9.3.3 N–Butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBSA) 280

9.4 Flame Retardants 281

9.5 Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) 281

9.5.1 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) 282

9.5.2 Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) 289

9.5.3 Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs) 291

9.5.4 Hexabromobenzene (HBB) 291

9.5.5 Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) 292

9.5.6 Decabromodiphenyl Ethane (DBDPE) 292

9.5.7 1,2–Bis(2,4,6–Tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) 292

9.6 Polychlorinated Alkanes (C10 C13) 292

9.6.1 Use and Consumption of PCAs 293

9.6.2 Properties of PCAs 294

9.6.3 PCAs in the Environment 295

9.6.4 Toxicology and Regulations of PCAs 296

9.7 Organophosphate Flame Retardants (OPFRs) 297

9.7.1 Use and Demand of OPFRs 297

9.7.2 Properties of OPFRs 298

9.7.3 OPFRs in the Environment 299

9.7.4 Toxicology and Regulations of OPFRs 300

9.8 Corrosion Inhibitors: Benzothiazoles and Benzotriazoles 302

9.8.1 Benzotriazoles 302

9.8.2 Benzothiazoles 303

9.9 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) 304

9.10 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 306

9.10.1 Hazardous Compounds Originating from Oil Products 308

9.10.2 Gasoline Additives: MTBE 309

9.11 Other Industrial Chemicals 310

9.11.1 Siloxanes 310

9.11.2 1,4–Dioxane 311

9.11.3 Nitroaromatic Compounds 311

9.11.4 Naphthenic Acids 312

9.11.5 Other Chlorinated Compounds 312

9.11.6 Perchlorate 313

References 314

10 Surfactants in the Environment 341

10.1 Introduction 341

10.2 Structure and Classification 342

10.3 Nonionic Surfactants 343

10.3.1 Fatty Alcohols 344

10.3.2 Alcohol Ethoxylates 344

10.3.3 Ethylene Oxide/Propylene Oxide–Block Polymers 345

10.3.4 Alkylphenol Ethoxylates 345

10.3.5 Ethoxylated Oils and Fats 346

10.3.6 Alkanolamides 346

10.3.7 Esters 347

10.3.8 Nonionic Surfactants Derived from Carbohydrates and Related Compounds 347

10.3.9 Ester/Ether Surfactants 349

10.3.10 Amine Oxides 351

10.4 Anionic Surfactants 351

10.4.1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives 351

10.4.2 Sulfuric and Sulfonic Acid Derivatives 353

10.4.3 Phosphoric Acid Esters and Salts 356

10.4.4 Acylamino Acids and Salts 356

10.5 Cationic Surfactants 357

10.5.1 Alkyl Amines 357

10.5.2 Alkylimidazolines 358

10.5.3 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 358

10.5.4 Ethoxylated Alkyl Amines 359

10.5.5 Esterified Quaternaries 360

10.6 Amphoteric Surfactants 360

10.6.1 Acyl Ethylenediamines and Derivatives 360

10.6.2 N–Alkyl Amino Acids or Imino Diacids 361

10.6.3 Alkyl Betaines 361

10.7 Alkoxylated Polysiloxanes 362

10.8 Fluorosurfactants 362

10.9 Toxicological Aspects (Environmental Impact) of Surfactants 363

10.9.1 Environmental Impact of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEOs) 364

10.10 Environmental Occurrence of the Surfactants 365

10.10.1 Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEOs), andTheir Degradation Products in the Environment 366

10.10.2 LASs and Their Degradation Products 368

10.11 Biodegradation of Surfactants 368

10.11.1 Aerobic Biodegradation 371

10.11.2 Anerobic Biodegradation 371

References 373

11 Personal–Care Products 385

11.1 Introduction 385

11.2 Musks: Fragrances 385

11.3 Biocides 388

11.3.1 Triclosan 389

11.3.2 Chlorophene and Dichlorophene 391

11.3.3 Parabens 392

11.4 Sunscreen Agents: UV Filters 396

11.4.1 Analysis of UV–Filters 397

11.4.2 UV–Filters as Endocrine Disrupters 398

11.4.3 UV Filters in the Environment 399

11.5 Insect Repellents: N,N–diethyl–m–toluamide (DEET) 403

11.6 Other PCPs 405

References 407

12 Water Disinfectant By–Products 423

12.1 Introduction 423

12.2 Wastewater Treatments 424

12.2.1 Water Reuse 425

12.2.2 DrinkingWater Treatments 425

12.2.3 Water Disinfection 425

12.3 Disinfection Methods 426

12.3.1 Chlorination 426

12.3.2 Chlorine Dioxide 427

12.3.3 Chloramination 428

12.3.4 Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate 428

12.3.5 Ozonization 429

12.3.6 UV Irradiation 429

12.3.7 Other Methods of Disinfection 429

12.4 Water DPBs 430

12.4.1 DBPs from Chlorination 430

12.4.2 Other Halogenated DBPs 432

12.4.3 Nitrogenous DBPs 433

12.4.4 Carbonaceous DPBs from Ozonation 435

12.5 Methods of Analysis of DBPs 435

12.6 Disinfection By–Products (DBPs) in DrinkingWater 437

12.7 Disinfection By–Products in Swimming Pools 438

12.8 Changes in Oxidation/Disinfection Strategies 439

12.9 Toxicological Studies on DBPs 441

12.10 Regulations/Guidelines of DBPs in DrinkingWater 442

References 444

13 Other Contaminants of Emerging Concern 453

13.1 Introduction 453

13.2 Nanotechnology as a Pollution Source 453

13.2.1 Detection of NMs 454

13.2.2 NMs in the Environment 456

13.2.3 Toxicity of NMs 457

13.3 Microplastics (MPs) 458

13.4 Toxic Elements and Elemental Species 460

13.4.1 Arsenic (As) 462

13.4.2 Cadmium (Cd) 462

13.4.3 Lead (Pb) 463

13.4.4 Mercury (Hg) 464

13.4.5 Manganese (Mn) 465

13.4.6 Antimony (Sb) 466

13.4.7 Technology–Critical Elements 466

13.4.8 Radionuclides 467

13.5 Biotoxins 467

13.5.1 Mycotoxins 468

13.5.2 Algal Toxins 469

13.5.3 Other Marine Toxins 472

13.5.4 Bacterial Toxins 473

13.5.5 Naturally Occurring Toxins in Vegetable Foodstuffs 473

13.6 Microorganisms 473

13.7 Contaminants on the Horizon: Ionic Liquids and Prions 474

References 475

A InChI Key for theMost Relevant Compounds in this Book 487

Index 493

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Francisco G. Calvo–Flores
Joaquin Isac–Garcia
Jose A. Dobado
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