Electrically Conductive Polymers and Polymer Composites. From Synthesis to Biomedical Applications

  • ID: 4340582
  • Book
  • 264 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A comprehensive and up–to–date overview of the latest research trends in conductive polymers and polymer hybrids, summarizing recent achievements.

The book begins by introducing conductive polymer materials and their classification, while subsequent chapters discuss the various syntheses, resulting properties and up–scaling as well as the important applications in biomedical and biotechnological fields, including biosensors and biodevices. The whole is rounded off by a look at future technological advances.

The result is a well–structured, essential reference for beginners as well as experienced researchers.

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About the Editors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Bioinspired Polydopamine and Composites for Biomedical Applications 1
Ziyauddin Khan, Ravi Shanker, Dooseung Um, Amit Jaiswal, and Hyunhyub Ko

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Synthesis of Polydopamine 2

1.2.1 Polymerization of Polydopamine 2

1.2.2 Synthesis of Polydopamine Nanostructures 3

1.3 Properties of Polydopamine 5

1.3.1 General Properties of Polydopamine 5

1.3.2 Electrical Properties of Polydopamine 6

1.3.2.1 Amorphous Semiconductor Model (ASM) of Melanin Conductivity 7

1.3.2.2 Spin Muon Resonance Model (SMRM) of Melanin Conductivity 8

1.4 Applications of Polydopamine 10

1.4.1 Biomedical Applications of Polydopamine 11

1.4.1.1 Drug Delivery 11

1.4.1.2 Tissue Engineering 12

1.4.1.3 Antimicrobial Applications 12

1.4.1.4 Bioimaging 15

1.4.1.5 Cell Adhesion and Proliferation 16

1.4.1.6 Cancer Therapy 16

1.5 Conclusion and Future Prospectives 21

References 23

2 Multifunctional Polymer–Dilute Magnetic Conductor and Bio–Devices 31
Imran Khan, Weqar A. Siddiqui, Shahid P. Ansari, Shakeel Khan, Mohammad Mujahid Ali khan, Anish Khan, and Salem A. Hamid

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Magnetic Semiconductor–Nanoparticle–Based Polymer Nanocomposites 34

2.3 Types of Magnetic Semiconductor Nanoparticles 34

2.3.1 Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 34

2.3.2 Ferrites 35

2.3.3 Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors 36

2.3.4 Manganites 37

2.4 Synthetic Strategies for Composite Materials 37

2.4.1 Physical Methods 38

2.4.2 Chemical Methods 40

2.4.2.1 In Situ Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Polymer Nanocomposites 40

2.4.2.2 In Situ Polymerization in the Presence of Magnetic Nanoparticles 41

2.5 Biocompatibility of Polymer/Semiconductor–Particle–Based Nanocomposites and Their Products for Biomedical Applications 42

2.5.1 Biocompatibility 42

2.6 Biomedical Applications 43

References 43

3 Polymer Inorganic Nanocomposite and Biosensors 47
Anish Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Abdullah M. Asiri, Salman A. Khan, Imran Khan, and Mohammad Mujahid Ali Khan

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Nanocomposite Synthesis 48

3.3 Properties of Polymer–Based Nanocomposites 48

3.3.1 Mechanical Properties 48

3.3.2 Thermal Properties 51

3.4 Electrical Properties 52

3.5 Optical Properties 53

3.6 Magnetic Properties 54

3.7 Application of Polymer Inorganic Nanocomposite in Biosensors 54

3.7.1 DNA Biosensors 54

3.7.2 Immunosensors 58

3.7.3 Aptamer Sensors 61

3.8 Conclusions 62

References 63

4 Carbon Nanomaterial–Based Conducting Polymer Composites for Biosensing Applications 69
Mohammad O. Ansari

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Biosensor: Features, Principle, Types, and Its Need in Modern–Day Life 70

4.2.1 Important Features of a Successful Biosensor 71

4.2.2 Types of Biosensors 71

4.2.2.1 Calorimetric Biosensors 71

4.2.2.2 Potentiometric Biosensors 72

4.2.2.3 Acoustic Wave Biosensors 72

4.2.2.4 Amperometric Biosensors 72

4.2.2.5 Optical Biosensors 72

4.2.3 Need for Biosensors 72

4.3 Common Carbon Nanomaterials and Conducting Polymers 73

4.3.1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Graphene (GN) 73

4.3.2 Conducting Polymers 73

4.4 Processability of CNTs and GN with Conducting Polymers, Chemical Interactions, and Mode of Detection for Biosensing 74

4.5 PANI Composites with CNT and GN for Biosensing Applications 75

4.5.1 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Sensors 75

4.5.2 Glucose Biosensors 76

4.5.3 Cholesterol Biosensors 77

4.5.4 Nucleic Acid Biosensors 78

4.6 PPy and PTh Composites with CNT and GN for Biosensing Applications 79

4.7 Conducting Polymer Composites with CNT and GN for the Detection of Organic Molecules 80

4.8 Conducting Polymer Composites with CNT and GN for Microbial Biosensing 83

4.9 Conclusion and Future Research 83

References 84

5 Graphene and Graphene Oxide Polymer Composite for Biosensors Applications 93
Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Anish Khan, and Abdullah M. Asiri

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Polymer Graphene Nanocomposites and Their Applications 96

5.2.1 Polyaniline 97

5.2.2 Polypyrrole 102

5.3 Conclusions, Challenges, and Future Scope 106

References 108

6 Polyaniline Nanocomposite Materials for Biosensor Designing 113
Mohammad Oves, Mohammad Shahdat, Shakeel A. Ansari, Mohammad Aslam, and Iqbal IM Ismail

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Importance of PANI–Based Biosensors 118

6.3 Polyaniline–Based Glucose Biosensors 118

6.4 Polyaniline–Based Peroxide Biosensors 120

6.5 Polyaniline–Based Genetic Material Biosensors 121

6.6 Immunosensors 122

6.7 Biosensors of Phenolic Compounds 123

6.8 Polyaniline–Based Biosensor for Water Quality Assessment 123

6.9 Scientific Concerns and Future Prospects of Polyaniline–Based Biosensors 124

6.10 Conclusion 126

References 126

7 Recent Advances in Chitosan–Based Films for Novel Biosensor 137
Akil Ahmad, Jamal A. Siddique, Siti H. M. Setapar, David Lokhat, Ajij Golandaj, and Deresh Ramjugernath

7.1Introduction 137

7.2 Chitosan as Novel Biosensor 139

7.3Application 151

7.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 152

Acknowledgment 153

References 153

8 Self Healing Materials and Conductivity 163
Jamal A. Siddique, Akil Ahmad, and Ayaz Mohd

8.1Introduction 163

8.1.1 What Is Self–Healing? 163

8.1.2 History of Self–Healing Materials 163

8.1.3 What Can We Use Self–Healing Materials for? 164

8.1.4 Biomimetic Materials 164

8.2Classification of Self–Healing Materials 164

8.2.1 Capsule–Based Self–Healing Materials 165

8.2.2 Vascular Self–Healing Materials 165

8.2.3 Intrinsic Self–Healing Materials 167

8.3Conductivity in Self–Healing Materials 169

8.3.1 Applications and Advantages 170

8.3.2 Aspects of Conductive Self–Healing Materials 171

8.4Current and Future Prospects 171

8.5Conclusions 172

References 173

9 Electrical Conductivity and Biological Efficacy of Ethyl Cellulose and Polyaniline–Based Composites 181
Faruq Mohammad, Tanvir Arfin, Naheed Saba, Mohammad Jawaid, and Hamad A. Al–Lohedan

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Conductivity of EC Polymers 183

9.2.1 Synthesis of EC Inorganic Composites 183

9.2.2 Conductivity of EC–Based Composites 184

9.3 Conductivity of PANI Polymer 187

9.3.1 Synthesis of PANI–Based Composites 189

9.3.2 Conductivity of PANI–Based Composites 190

9.4 Biological Efficacy of EC and PANI–Based Composites 192

9.5 Summary and Conclusion 194

Acknowledgments 195

References 195

10 Synthesis of Polyaniline–Based Nanocomposite Materials and Their Biomedical Applications 199
Mohammad Shahadat, Shaikh Z. Ahammad, Syed A. Wazed, and Suzylawati Ismail

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 Biomedical Applications of PANI–Supported Nanohybrid Materials 201

10.2.1 Biocompatibility 201

10.2.2 Antimicrobial Activity 202

10.2.3 Tissue Engineering 204

10.3 Conclusion 211

Acknowledgment 211

References 211

11 Electrically Conductive Polymers and Composites for Biomedical Applications 219
Haryanto and Mohammad Mansoob Khan

11.1 Introduction 219

11.2 Conducting Polymers 219

11.2.1 Conducting Polymer Synthesis 221

11.2.1.1 Electrochemical Synthesis 221

11.2.1.2 Chemical Synthesis 221

11.2.2 Types of Conducting Polymer Used for Biomedical Applications 221

11.2.2.1 Polypyrrole 221

11.2.2.2 Polyaniline 222

11.2.2.3 Polythiophene and Its Derivatives 222

11.3 Conductive Polymer Composite 223

11.3.1 Types of Conductive Polymer Composite 223

11.3.1.1 Composites or Blends Based on Conjugated Conducting Polymers 223

11.3.1.2 Composites or Blends Based on Non–Conjugated Conducting Polymers 224

11.3.2 Methods for the Synthesis of Conductive Polymer Composites 225

11.3.2.1 Melt Processing 225

11.3.2.2 Mixing 225

11.3.2.3 Latex Technology 225

11.3.2.4 In Situ Polymerization Method 225

11.4 Biomedical Applications of Conductive Polymers 226

11.4.1 Electrically Conductive Polymer Systems (ECPs) for Drug Targeting and Delivery 226

11.4.2 Electrically Conductive Polymer System (ECPs) for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 227

11.4.3 Electrically Conductive Polymer Systems (ECPs) as Sensors of Biologically Important Molecules 227

11.5 Future Prospects 228

11.6 Conclusions 228

References 228

Index 237

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Anish Khan
Mohammad Jawaid
Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan
Abdullah M. Asiri
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