Crystallization of Lipids. Fundamentals and Applications in Food, Cosmetics, and Pharmaceuticals

  • ID: 4380008
  • Book
  • 520 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An authoritative reference that contains the most up–to–date information, knowledge, approaches, and applications of lipid crystals

Crystallization of Lipids is a comprehensive resource that offers the most current and emerging knowledge, techniques and applications of lipid crystals. With contributions from noted experts in the field, the text covers the basic research of polymorphic structures, molecular interactions, nucleation and crystal growth and crystal network formation of lipid crystals which comprise main functional materials employed in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The authors highlight trans–fat alternative and saturated–fat reduction technology to lipid crystallization. These two issues are the most significant challenges in the edible–application technology of lipids, and a key solution is lipid crystallization.

The text focuses on the crystallization processes of lipids under various external influences of thermal fluctuation, ultrasound irradiation, shear, emulsification and additives. Designed to be practical, the book′s information can be applied to realistic applications of lipids to foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This authoritative and up–to–date guide:

  • Highlights cutting–edge research tools designed to help analyse lipid crystallization with the most current and the conventional techniques
  • Offers a thorough review of the information, techniques and applications of lipid crystals
  • Includes contributions from noted experts in the field of lipid crystals
  • Presents cutting–edge information on the topics of trans–fat alterative and saturated–fat reduction technology

Written for research and development technologists as well as academics, this important resource contains research on lipid crystals which comprise the main functional materials employed in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

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Preface xiii

List of Contributors xv

1 Introduction: Relationships of Structures, Properties, and Functionality 1
Kiyotaka Sato

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Lipid Species 1

1.3 Physical States and the Functionality of Lipid Products 5

1.4 Formation Processes of Lipid Crystals 7

1.5 Polymorphism 9

1.6 Aging and Deterioration 11

1.7 Trans–Fat Alternative and Saturated–Fat Reduction Technology 13

References 15

2 Polymorphism of Lipid Crystals 17
Kiyotaka Sato

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Thermal Behavior of Polymorphic Transformations 17

2.3 Molecular Properties 20

2.4 Fatty Acids 27

2.5 Monoacylglycerols and Diacylglycerols 37

2.6 Triacylglycerols (TAGs) 41

2.7 Conclusions 54

References 54

3 Molecular Interactions and Mixing Phase Behavior of Lipid Crystals 61
Eckhard Floeter, Michaela Haeupler, and Kiyotaka Sato

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Thermodynamic Considerations 63

3.3 Effects of Molecular Structures on the Phase Behavior 70

3.4 Mixing Behavior of TAGs in Natural and Interesterified Fats 92

3.5 Crystallization Properties 97

3.6 Conclusions 98

References 100

4 Fundamental Aspects of Crystallization of Lipids 105
Hironori Hondoh, Satoru Ueno, and Kiyotaka Sato

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Physical and Structural Properties of Lipid Liquids 105

4.3 Driving Forces for Crystallization 112

4.4 Nucleation 114

4.5 Kinetics of Crystal Growth 125

4.6 Conclusions 135

Acknowledgment 136

References 136

5 Supramolecular Assembly of Fat Crystal Networks from the Nanoscale to the Mesoscale 143
Fernanda Peyronel, Nuria C. Acevedo, David A. Pink, and Alejandro G. Marangoni

5.1 Introduction 143

5.2 Cryo–TEM 144

5.3 Physical Interactions, Models, and Mathematical Methods 154

5.4 Ultra Small Angle X–Ray Scattering (USAXS) 164

5.5 Concluding Remarks 174

Acknowledgments 175

References 175

6 Effects of Dynamic Temperature Variations on Microstructure and Polymorphic Behavior of Lipid Systems 183
Laura Bayés–García, Teresa Calvet, and Miquel À. Cuevas–Diarte

6.1 Introduction 183

6.2 Influence on the Polymorphic Behavior in Bulk State 183

6.3 Colloidal Dispersion States 193

6.4 Role of Thermal Treatments on End Food Products Properties 198

6.5 Conclusions 206

References 207

7 Lipid Crystal Networks Structured under Shear Flow 211
Farnaz Maleky and Gianfranco Mazzanti

7.1 Introduction 211

7.2 Overview of the Formation of Fat Crystals 212

7.3 Temperature Gradients and Optimal Supercooling 213

7.4 Basic Concepts on Shear Flow 214

7.5 Fat Crystallization under Shear 216

7.6 Concluding Remarks 233

References 234

8 Tailoring Lipid Crystal Networks with High–Intensity Ultrasound 241
Yubin Ye, Peter R. Birkin, and Silvana Martini

8.1 Introduction 241

8.2 Fundamentals of Sonication 242

8.3 Tailoring Lipid Crystal Networks 246

8.4 Practical Considerations 255

8.5 Conclusions and Future Research 258

References 259

9 Effects of Foreign and Indigenous Minor Components 263
Kevin W. Smith and Kiyotaka Sato

9.1 Introduction 263

9.2 Basic Understanding 264

9.3 Effects of Foreign Components 265

9.4 Other Additives 276

9.5 Conclusions 278

References 279

10 Crystallization Properties of Milk Fats 283
Christelle Lopez

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Milk Fat: A Wide Diversity of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols (TAGs) 284

10.3 Crystallization Properties of Bovine Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) 285

10.4 Crystallization of TAGs in Bovine Milk Fat Globules and Emulsion Droplets 296

10.5 Crystallization Properties of Milk Fat in Dairy Products 306

10.6 TAG Compositions Affecting Crystallization Properties of Milk Fat 308

10.7 Liquid TAG Phase 316

10.8 Conclusions 317

References 318

11 Crystallization Behavior of Sunflower Oil Based Fats for Edible Applications 323
Maria L. Herrera and Silvana Martini

11.1 Introduction 323

11.2 High Stearic High Oleic Sunflower Oil 324

11.3 Blends of Sunflower Oil and Milk Fat 337

11.4 HSHO–Based CBE 347

11.5 Conclusions 348

References 348

12 Physical Properties of Organogels Developed with Selected Low–Molecular–Weight Gelators 353
Jorge F. Toro–Vazquez, Flor Alvarez–Mitre, and Miriam Charó–Alonso

12.1 Introduction 353

12.2 Basic Aspects of LMOGs: From Molecular Architecture to Functional Assemblies 355

12.3 Why Developing Organogels with Vegetable Oils? 356

12.4 Organogels of Candelilla Wax 373

12.5 Conclusions 377

References 379

13 Formation and Properties of Biopolymer–Based Oleogels 385
Ashok R. Patel

13.1 Introduction 385

13.2 Formation of Polymer–Based Oleogels 386

13.3 Properties of Polymer–Based Oleogels 393

13.4 Potential Applications of Polymer–Based Oleogels 397

13.5 Conclusions: Opportunities and Challenges 398

Acknowledgments 401

References 402

14 Lipid Crystallization in Water–in–Oil Emulsions 405
Nicole L. Green and Dérick Rousseau

14.1 Introduction 405

14.2 Basics of Emulsion Properties 406

14.3 Emulsifier Effects on W/O Emulsions 408

14.4 Stabilization Modes of W/O Emulsions 415

14.5 Conclusions 423

References 424

15 Crystallization of Lipids in Oil–in–Water Emulsion States 431
John N. Coupland

15.1 The Basic Concepts 431

15.2 Surface Nucleation 432

15.3 Polymorphic Transitions in Droplets 436

15.4 Morphology of Crystalline Droplets 437

15.5 Colloidal Stability of Crystalline Droplets 439

15.6 Conclusions 442

References 443

16 Lipid Crystals and Microstructures in Animal Meat Tissues 447
Michiyo Motoyama, Genya Watanabe, and Keisuke Sasaki

16.1 Introduction 447

16.2 Depot Fat and Crystalline State 448

16.3 Fat Crystals and Quality of Porcine Adipose Tissue 450

16.4 Crystal Microstructures in Adipose Tissues 460

16.5 Concluding Remarks 462

Acknowledgments 462

References 462

17 Conventional and New Techniques to Monitor Lipid Crystallization 465
Annelien Rigolle, Koen Van Den Abeele, and Imogen Foubert

17.1 Introduction: What Would Be a Perfect Technique? 465

17.2 Conventional Techniques (and Advances Made) 466

17.3 New Techniques with Potential for Online Monitoring 478

17.4 Conclusions 485

Acknowledgments 486

References 487

Index 493

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About the Editor
KIYOTAKA SATO
is Professor Emeritus, Hiroshima University, Japan.

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