Flat Panel Display Manufacturing. Wiley Series in Display Technology

  • ID: 4398460
  • Book
  • 352 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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AN EXTENSIVE INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURE OF CURRENT AND NEXT–GENERATION FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS

This book provides a broad overview of the manufacturing of flat panel displays, with a particular emphasis on the display systems at the forefront of the current mobile device revolution. It is structured to cover a broad spectrum of topics within the unifying theme of display systems manufacturing. An important theme of this book is treating displays as systems, which expands the scope beyond the technologies and manufacturing of traditional display panels (LCD and OLED) to also include key components for mobile device applications, such as flexible OLED, thin LCD backlights, as well as the manufacturing of display module assemblies.

Flat Panel Display Manufacturing fills an important gap in the current book literature, describing the state of the art in display manufacturing for today′s displays, and looks to create a reference of the development of next generation displays. The editorial team brings a broad and deep perspective on flat panel display manufacturing, with a global view spanning decades of experience at leading institutions in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the USA, and including direct pioneering contributions to the development of displays. The book includes a total of 24 chapters contributed by experts at leading manufacturing institutions from the global FPD industry in Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Germany, Israel, and USA.

  • Provides an overview of the evolution of display technologies and manufacturing
  • Treats display products as systems with manifold applications, expanding the scope beyond traditional display panel manufacturing to key components for mobile devices and TV applications
  • Provides a detailed overview of LCD manufacturing, including panel architectures, process flows, and module manufacturing
  • Provides a detailed overview of OLED manufacturing for both mobile and TV applications, including a chapter dedicated to the young field of flexible OLED manufacturing
  • Provides a detailed overview of the key unit processes and corresponding manufacturing equipment, including manufacturing test & repair of TFT array panels as well as display module inspection and repair
  • Introduces key topics in display manufacturing science and engineering, including productivity and quality, factory architectures, and green manufacturing

Flat Panel Display Manufacturing will appeal to professionals and engineers in R&D departments for display–related technology development, as well as to graduates and Ph.D. students specializing in LCD/OLED/other flat panel displays.

WILEY SID Series in Display Technology

Series Editor: Ian Sage, Abelian Services, Malvern, UK

The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley–SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics.

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List of Contributors xxi

Series Editor s Foreword xxv

Preface xxvii

1 Introduction 1
Fang –Chen Luo, Jun Souk, Shinji Morozumi, and Ion Bita

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Historic Review of TFT –LCD Manufacturing Technology Progress 1

1.3 Analyzing the Success Factors in LCD Manufacturing 5

References 11

2 TFT Array Process Architecture and Manufacturing Process Flow 13
Chiwoo Kim

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Material Properties and TFT Characteristics of a –Si, LTPS, and Metal Oxide TFTs 15

2.3 a –Si TFT Array Process Architecture and Process Flow 22

2.4 Poly –Si TFT Architecture and Fabrication 27

2.5 Oxide Semiconductor TFT Architecture and Fabrication 30

2.6 TFT LCD Applications 32

2.7 Development of SLS –Based System on Glass Display [1, 11, 14, 15– 33

References 35

3 Color Filter Architecture, Materials, and Process Flow 39
Young Seok Choi, Musun Kwak, and Youn Sung Na

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Structure and Role of the Color Filter 39

3.3 Color Filter Manufacturing Process Flow 46

3.4 New Color Filter Design 55

References 57

4 Liquid Crystal Cell Process 59
Heung –Shik Park and Ki –Chul Shin

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Liquid Crystal Cell Process 59

4.3 Conclusions 70

Acknowledgments 70

References 70

5 TFT –LCD Module and Package Process 73
Chun Chang Hung

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 Driver IC Bonding: TAB and COG 73

5.3 Introduction to Large –Panel JI Process 74

5.4 Introduction to Small –Panel JI Process 79

5.5 LCD Module Assembly 83

5.6 Aging 84

5.7 Module in Backlight or Backlight in Module 85

References 86

6 LCD Backlights 87
Insun Hwang and Jae –Hyeon Ko

6.1 Introduction 87

6.2 LED Sources 90

6.3 Light Guide Plate 98

6.4 Optical Films 104

6.5 Direct –Type BLU 111

6.6 Summary 111

References 112

7 TFT Backplane and Issues for OLED 115
Chiwoo Kim

7.1 Introduction 115

7.2 LTPS TFT Backplane for OLED Films 116

7.3 Oxide Semiconductor TFT for OLED 122

7.4 Best Backplane Solution for AMOLED 125

References 127

8A OLED Manufacturing Process for Mobile Application 129
Jang Hyuk Kwon and Raju Lampande

8A.1 Introduction 129

8A.2 Current Status of AMOLED for Mobile Display 130

8A.2.1 Top Emission Technology 130

8A.3 Fine Metal Mask Technology (Shadow Mask Technology) 133

8A.4 Encapsulation Techniques for OLEDs 135

8A.4.1 Frit Sealing 135

8A.4.2 Thin –Film Encapsulation 136

8A.5 Flexible OLED technology 137

8A.6 AMOLED Manufacturing Process 137

8A.7 Summary 140

References 140

8B OLED Manufacturing Process for TV Application 143
Chang Wook Han and Yoon Heung Tak

8B.1 Introduction 143

8B.2 Fine Metal Mask (FMM) 144

8B.3 Manufacturing Process for White OLED and Color Filter Methods 147

8B.3.1 One –Stacked White OLED Device 149

8B.3.2 Two –Stacked White OLED Device 152

8B.3.3 Three –Stacked White –OLED Device 155

References 157

9 OLED Encapsulation Technology 159
Young –Hoon Shin

9.1 Introduction 159

9.2 Principles of OLED Encapsulation 159

9.2.1 Effect of H2O 160

9.3 Classification of Encapsulation Technologies 162

9.4 Summary 170

References 170

10 Flexible OLED Manufacturing 173
Woojae Lee and Jun Souk

10.1 Introduction 173

10.2 Critical Technologies in Flexible OLED Display 174

10.3 Process Flow of F –OLED 181

10.4 Foldable OLED 186

10.5 Summary 188

References 189

11A Metal Lines and ITO PVD 193
Hyun Eok Shin, Chang Oh Jeong, and Junho Song

11A.1 Introduction 193

11A.1.1 Basic Requirements of Metallization for Display 193

11A.1.2 Thin –Film Deposition by Sputtering 195

11A.2 Metal Line Evolution in Past Years of TFT –LCD 198

11A.2.1 Gate Line Metals 199

11A.2.2 Data line (Source/Drain) Metals 202

11A.3 Metallization for OLED Display 205

11A.3.1 Gate Line Metals 205

11A.3.2 Source/Drain Metals 205

11A.3.3 Pixel Anode 206

11A.4 Transparent Electrode 207

References 208

11B Thin –Film PVD: Materials, Processes, and Equipment 209
Tetsuhiro Ohno

11B.1 Introduction 209

11B.2 Sputtering Method 210

11B.3 Evolution of Sputtering Equipment for FPD Devices 212

11B.3.1 Cluster Tool for Gen 2 Size 212

11B.3.2 Cluster Tool for Gen 4.5 to Gen 7 Size 213

11B.3.3 Vertical Cluster Tool for Gen 8 Size 213

11B.4 Evolution of Sputtering Cathode 215

11B.4.1 Cathode Structure Evolution 215

11B.4.2 Dynamic Multi Cathode for LTPS 217

11B.4.3 Cathode Selection Strategy 217

11B.5 Transparent Oxide Semiconductor (TOS) Thin –Film Deposition Technology 218

11B.5.1 Deposition Equipment for TOS –TFT 218

11B.5.2 New Cathode Structure for TOS –TFT 219

11B.6 Metallization Materials and Deposition Technology 221

References 223

11C Thin –Film PVD (Rotary Target) 225
Marcus Bender

11C
1 Introduction 225

11C.2 Source Technology 227

11C.2.1 Planar Cathodes 227

11C.2.2 Rotary Cathodes 229

11C.2.3 Rotary Cathode Array 230

11C.3 Materials, Processes, and Characterization 232

11C.3.1 Introduction 232

11C.3.2 Backplane Metallization 232

11C.3.3 Layers for Metal –Oxide TFTs 234

11C.3.4 Transparent Electrodes 236

11C.3.5 Adding Touch Functionality and Improving End –User Experience 238

References 239

12A Thin –Film PECVD (AKT) 241
Tae Kyung Won, Soo Young Choi, and John M. White

12A.1 Introduction 241

12A.2 Process Chamber Technology 243

12A.2.1 Electrode Design 243

12A.2.2 Chamber Cleaning 246

12A.3 Thin –Film Material, Process, and Characterization 248

12A.3.1 Amorphous Si (a –Si) TFT 248

12A.3.2 Low –Temperature Poly Silicon (LTPS) TFT 258

12A.3.3 Metal –Oxide (MO) TFT 263

12A.3.4 Thin –Film Encapsulation (TFE) 269

References 271

12B Thin –Film PECVD (Ulvac) 273
Masashi Kikuchi

12B.1 Introduction 273

12B.2 Plasma of PECVD 273

12B.3 Plasma Modes and Reactor Configuration 273

12B.4 PECVD Process for Display 276

12B.5 PECVD System Overview 279

12B.6 Remote Plasma Cleaning 279

12B.7 Passivation Layer for OLED 282

12B.8 PECVD Deposition for IGZO TFT 283

12B.9 Particle Generation 284

References 286

13 Photolithography 287
Yasunori Nishimura, Kozo Yano, Masataka Itoh, and Masahiro Ito

13.1 Introduction 287

13.2 Photolithography Process Overview 288

13.3 Photoresist Coating 290

13.4 Exposure 292

13.5 Photoresist Development 300

13.6 Inline Photolithography Processing Equipment 301

13.7 Photoresist Stripping 302

13.8 Photolithography for Color Filters 303

References 310

14A Wet Etching Processes and Equipment 311
Kazuo Jodai

14A.1 Introduction 311

14A.2 Overview of TFT Process 312

14A.3 Applications and Equipment of Wet Etching 313

14A.3.1 Applications 313

14A.3.2 Equipment (Outline) 313

14A.3.3 Substrate Transferring System 315

14A.3.4 Dip Etching System 316

14A.3.5 Cascade Rinse System 316

14A.4 Problems Due to Increased Mother Glass Size and Solutions 317

14A.4.1 Etchant Concentration Management 317

14A.4.2 Quick Rinse 317

14A.4.3 Other Issues 318

14A.5 Conclusion 318

References 318

14B Dry Etching Processes and Equipment 319
Ippei Horikoshi

14B.1 Introduction 319

14B.2 Principle of Dry Etching 319

14B.2.1 Plasma 320

14B.2.2 Ions 321

14B.2.3 Radicals 321

14B.3 Architecture for Dry Etching Equipment 322

14B.4 Dry Etching Modes 323

14B.4.1 Conventional Etching Mode and Each Characteristic 324

14B.4.2 Current Etching Mode and Each Characteristic 325

14B.5 TFT Process 325

14B.5.1 a –Si Process 325

14B.5.2 LTPS Process 326

14B.5.3 Oxide Process 327

References 328

15 TFT Array: Inspection, Testing, and Repair 329
Shulik Leshem, Noam Cohen, Savier Pham, Mike Lim, and Amir Peled

15.1 Defect Theory 329

15.2 AOI (Automated Optical Inspection) 334

15.3 Electrical Testing 352

15.4 Defect Repair 363

16 LCM Inspection and Repair 379
Chun Chang Hung 379

16.1 Introduction 379

16.2 Functional Defects Inspection 379

16.3 Cosmetic Defects Inspection 381

16.4 Key Factors for Proper Inspection 383

16.5 Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) 388

16.6 LCM Defect Repair 388

References 391

17 Productivity and Quality Control Overview 393
Kozo Yano, Yasunori Nishimura, and Masataka Itoh

17.1 Introduction 393

17.2 Productivity Improvement 394

17.3 Yield Management 399

17.4 Quality Control System 406

References 417

18 Plant Architectures and Supporting Systems 419
Kozo Yano and Michihiro Yamakawa

18.1 Introduction 419

18.2 General Issues in Plant Architecture 420

18.3 Clean Room Design 423

18.4 Supporting Systems with Environmental Consideration 433

18.5 Production Control System 437

References 440

19 Green Manufacturing 441
YiLin Wei, Mona Yang, and Matt Chien

19.1 Introduction 441

19.2 Fabrication Plant (Fab) Design 441

19.3 Product Material Uses 443

19.4 Manufacturing Features and Green Management 447

19.5 Future Challenges 453

References 454

Index 457

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Jun Souk
Shinji Morozumi
Fang–Chen Luo
Ion Bita
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