5G System Design. Architectural and Functional Considerations and Long Term Research

  • ID: 4413488
  • Book
  • 608 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research and standardization progress towards the 5th generation (5G) of mobile communications technology and beyond. It covers a wide range of topics from 5G use cases and their requirements, to spectrum, 5G end–to–end (E2E) system architecture including core network (CN), transport network (TN) and radio access network (RAN) architecture, network slicing, security and network management. It further dives into the detailed functional design and the evaluation of different 5G concepts, and provides details on planned trials and pre–commercial deployments across the globe. While the book naturally captures the latest agreements in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) New Radio (NR) Release 15, it goes significantly beyond this by describing the likely developments towards the final 5G system that will ultimately utilize a wide range of spectrum bands, address all envisioned 5G use cases, and meet or exceed the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) requirements for the year 2020 and beyond (IMT–2020).

5G System Design: Architectural and Functional Considerations and Long Term Research is based on the knowledge and consensus from 158 leading researchers and standardization experts from 54 companies or institutes around the globe, representing key mobile network operators, network vendors, academic institutions and regional bodies for 5G. Different from earlier books on 5G, it does not focus on single 5G technology components, but describes the full 5G system design from E2E architecture to detailed functional design, including details on 5G performance, implementation and roll–out.

  • Includes contributions from the 5th Generation Public Private Partnership (5G PPP) projects 5G–Crosshaul, 5GEx, 5G–NORMA, 5G–Xhaul, COHERENT, CHARISMA, FANTASTIC–5G, Flex5GWare, METIS–II, mmMAGIC, Selfnet, and SPEED–5G.
  • Provides an overview of 5G communications technology to the non–expert reader along with details and the latest findings from research and standardization for technical experts.

5G System Design: Architectural and Functional Considerations and Long Term Research is an essential resource for anyone who wants to obtain the latest comprehensive overview on 5G communications technology, whether a communications expert or someone who wants to get acquainted with the technology.

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Contributor List xvii

Foreword 1 xxiii

Foreword 2 xxv

Acknowledgments xxvii

List of Abbreviations xxix

Part 1 Introduction and Basics 1

1 Introduction and Motivation 3
Patrick Marsch, Ömer Bulakc , Olav Queseth and Mauro Boldi

1.1 5th Generation Mobile and Wireless Communications 3

1.2 Timing of this Book and Global 5G Developments 5

1.3 Scope of the 5G System Described in this Book 8

1.4 Approach and Structure of this Book 10

References 12

2 Use Cases, Scenarios, and their Impact on the Mobile Network Ecosystem 15
Salah Eddine Elayoubi, Micha Maternia, Jose F. Monserrat, Frederic Pujol, Panagiotis Spapis, Valerio Frascolla and Davide Sorbara

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Main Service Types Considered for 5G 16

2.3 5G Service Requirements 17

2.4 Use Cases Considered in NGMN and 5G PPP Projects 18

2.5 Typical Use Cases Considered in this Book 25

2.6 Envisioned Mobile Network Ecosystem Evolution 28

2.7 Summary and Outlook 33

References 34

3 Spectrum Usage and Management 35
Thomas Rosowski, Rauno Ruismaki, Luis M. Campoy, Giovanna D Aria, Du Ho Kang and Adrian Kliks

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Spectrum Authorization and Usage Scenarios 36

3.3 Spectrum Bandwidth Demand Determination 39

3.4 Frequency Bands for 5G 41

3.5 Spectrum Usage Aspects at High Frequencies 44

3.6 Spectrum Management 49

3.7 Summary and Outlook 53

References 54

4 Channel Modeling 57
Shangbin Wu, Sinh L. H. Nguyen and Raffaele D Errico

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Core Features of New Channel Models 59

4.3 Additional Features of New Channel Models 65

4.4 Summary and Outlook 74

References 75

Part 2 5G System Architecture and E2E Enablers 79

5 E2E Architecture 81Marco Gramaglia, Alexandros Kaloxylos, Panagiotis Spapis, Xavier Costa, Luis Miguel Contreras, Riccardo Trivisonno, Gerd Zimmermann, Antonio de la Oliva, Peter Rost and Patrick Marsch

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Enablers and Design Principles 82

5.3 E2E Architecture Overview 88

5.4 Novel Concepts and Architectural Extensions 97

5.5 Internetworking, Migration and Network Evolution 104

5.6 Summary and Outlook 112

References 112

6 RAN Architecture 115
Patrick Marsch, Navid Nikaein, Mark Doll, Tao Chen and Emmanouil Pateromichelakis

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Related Work 116

6.3 RAN Architecture Requirements 118

6.4 Protocol Stack Architecture and Network Functions 119

6.5 Multi Connectivity 129

6.6 RAN Function Splits and Resulting Logical Network Entities 133

6.7 Deployment Scenarios and Related Physical RAN Architectures 141

6.8 RAN Programmability and Control 144

6.9 Summary and Outlook 147

References 148

7 Transport Network Architecture 151
Anna Tzanakaki, Markos Anastasopoulos, Nathan Gomes, Philippos Assimakopoulos, Josep M. Fàbrega, Michela Svaluto Moreolo, Laia Nadal, Jesús Gutiérrez, Vladica Sark, Eckhard Grass, Daniel Camps Mur, Antonio de la Oliva, Nuria Molner, Xavier Costa Perez, Josep Mangues, Ali Yaver, Paris Flegkas, Nikos Makris, Thanasis Korakis and Dimitra Simeonidou

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 Architecture Definition 153

7.3 Technology Options and Protocols 158

7.4 Self Backhauling 165

7.5 Technology Integration and Interfacing 168

7.6 Transport Network Optimization and Performance Evaluation 170

7.7 Summary 178

References 178

8 Network Slicing 181
Alexandros Kaloxylos, Christian Mannweiler, Gerd Zimmermann, Marco Di Girolamo, Patrick Marsch, Jakob Belschner, Anna Tzanakaki, Riccardo Trivisonno, Ömer Bulakç , Panagiotis Spapis, Peter Rost, Paul Arnold and Navid Nikaein

8.1 Introduction 181

8.2 Slice Realization in the Different Network Domains 183

8.3 Operational Aspects 196

8.4 Summary and Outlook 202

References 204

9 Security 207
Carolina Canales Valenzuela, Madalina Baltatu, Luciana Costa, Kai Habel, Volker Jungnickel, Geza Koczian, Felix Ngobigha, Michael C. Parker, Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui, Eleni Trouva and Stuart D. Walker

9.1 Introduction 207

9.2 Threat Landscape 208

9.3 5G Security Requirements 209

9.4 5G Security Architecture 211

9.5 Summary 224

References 224

10 Network Management and Orchestration 227
Luis M. Contreras, Víctor López, Ricard Vilalta, Ramon Casellas, Raúl Muñoz, Wei Jiang, Hans Schotten, Jose Alcaraz Calero, Qi Wang, Balázs Sonkoly and László Toka

10.1 Introduction 227

10.2 Network Management and Orchestration Through SDN and NFV 228

10.3 Enablers of Management and Orchestration 233

10.4 Orchestration in Multi Domain and Multi Technology Scenarios 238

10.5 Software Defined Networking for 5G 245

10.6 Network Function Virtualization in 5G Environments 251

10.7 Autonomic Network Management in 5G 252

10.8 Summary 258

References 259

Part 3 5G Functional Design 263

11 Antenna, PHY and MAC Design 265
Frank Schaich, Catherine Douillard, Charbel Abdel Nour, Malte Schellmann, Tommy Svensson, Hao Lin, Honglei Miao, Hua Wang, Jian Luo, Milos Tesanovic, Nuno Pratas, Sandra Roger and Thorsten Wild

11.1 Introduction 265

11.2 PHY and MAC Design Criteria and Harmonization 267

11.3 Waveform Design 269

11.4 Coding Approaches and HARQ 283

11.5 Antenna Design, Analog, Digital and Hybrid Beamforming 293

11.6 PHY/MAC Design for Multi Service Support 300

11.7 Summary and Outlook 310

References 311

12 Traffic Steering and Resource Management 315
Ömer Bulakç , Klaus Pedersen, David Gutierrez Estevez, Athul Prasad, Fernando Sanchez Moya, Jan Christoffersson, Yang Yang, Emmanouil Pateromichelakis, Paul Arnold, Tommy Svensson, Tao Chen, Honglei Miao, Martin Kurras, Samer Bazzi, Stavroula Vassaki, Evangelos Kosmatos, Kwang Taik Kim, Giorgio Calochira, Jakob Belschner, Sergio Barberis and Taylan ahin

12.1 Motivation and Role of Resource Management in 5G 315

12.2 Service Classification: A First Step Towards Efficient RM 317

12.3 Dynamic Multi Service Scheduling 321

12.4 Fast Timescale Dynamic Traffic Steering 328

12.5 Network based Interference Management 335

12.6 Multi Slice RM 350

12.7 Energy efficient RAN Moderation 354

12.8 UE Context Management 359

12.9 Summary and Outlook 360

References 361

13 Initial Access, RRC and Mobility 367
Mårten Ericson, Panagiotis Spapis, Mikko Säily, Klaus Pedersen, Yinan Qi, Nicolas Barati, Tommy Svensson, Mehrdad Shariat, Marco Giordani, Marco Mezzavilla, Mark Doll, Honglei Miao and Chan Zhou

13.1 Introduction 367

13.2 Initial Access 369

13.3 States and State Handling 381

13.4 Mobility 391

13.5 Summary and Outlook 404

References 404

14 D2D and V2X Communications 409
Shubhranshu Singh, Ji Lianghai, Daniel Calabuig, David Garcia Roger, Nurul H. Mahmood, Nuno Pratas, Tomasz Mach and Maria Carmela De Gennaro

14.1 Introduction 409

14.2 Technical Status and Standardization Overview 412

14.3 5G Air Interface Candidate Waveforms for Sidelink Support 418

14.4 Device Discovery on the Sidelink 424

14.5 Sidelink Mobility Management 427

14.6 V2X Communications for Road Safety Applications 430

14.7 Industrial Implementation of V2X in the Automotive Domain 434

14.8 Further Evolution of D2D Communications 438

14.9 Summary and Outlook 445

References 446

Part 4 Performance Evaluation and Implementation 451

15 Performance, Energy Efficiency and Techno Economic Assessment 453
Micha Maternia, Jose F. Monserrat, David Martín Sacristán, Yong Wu, Changqing Yang, Mauro Boldi, Yu Bao, Frederic Pujol, Giuseppe Piro, Gennaro Boggia, Alessandro Grassi, Hans Otto Scheck, Ioannis Prodromos Belikaidis, Andreas Georgakopoulos, Katerina Demesticha and Panagiotis Demestichas

15.1 Introduction 453

15.2 Performance Evaluation Framework 454

15.3 Network Energy Efficiency 467

15.4 Techno Economic Evaluation and Analysis of 5G Deployment 473

15.5 Summary 478

References 479

16 Implementation of Hardware and Software Platforms 483
Chia Yu Chang, Dario Sabella, David García Roger, Dieter Ferling, Fredrik Tillman, Gian Michele Dell Aera, Leonardo Gomes Baltar, Michael Färber, Miquel Payaró, Navid Nikaein, Pablo Serrano,Raymond Knopp, Sandra Roger, Sylvie Mayrargue and Tapio Rautio

16.1 Introduction 483

16.2 Solutions for Radio Frontend Implementation 484

16.3 Solutions for Digital HW Implementation 492

16.4 Flexible HW/SW Partitioning Solutions for 5G 502

16.5 Implementation of SW Platforms 504

16.6 Implementation Example: vRAN/C RAN Architecture in OAI 506

16.7 Summary 516

References 517

17 Standardization, Trials, and Early Commercialization 521
Terje Tjelta, Olav Queseth, Didier Bourse, Yves Bellego, Raffaele de Peppe, Hisham Elshaer, Frederic Pujol, Chris Pearson, Chen Xiaobei, Takehiro Nakamura, Akira Matsunaga, Hitoshi Yoshino, Yukihiko Okumura, Dong Ku Kim, Jinhyo Park and Hong Beom Jeon

17.1 Introduction 521

17.2 Standardization Roadmap 522

17.3 Early Deployments 526

17.4 Summary 547

References 547

Index 551

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DR. PATRICK MARSCH has been heading research and R&D departments in NSN and Nokia, Poland, from 2011 to 2017, and is now Senior Project Manager, Digital Rail at Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany. Patrick has also been the technical manager of the 5G PPP METIS–II project, from which parts of this book have originated.

DR. ÖMER BULAKÇI is Senior Research Engineer, Huawei German Research Center (GRC), Munich, Germany. He has been vice–chairman of the 5G PPP Architecture Working Group, and work package leader in 5G PPP METIS–II and 5G–MoNArch projects.

DR. OLAV QUESETH, is Master Researcher, Ericsson Research, Sweden. He has been chairman of the 5G PPP Pre–standards Working Group and the coordinator of the 5G PPP METIS–II project.

MAURO BOLDI works at Wireless Innovation, Telecom Italia, Italy. He has been the leader of dissemination and standardization in many European projects, such as 5G PPP METIS–II and 5G–MoNArch.

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