Beyond One Health. From Recognition to Results

  • ID: 4421347
  • Book
  • 368 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Tackling One Health from a multi–disciplinary perspective, this book offers in–depth insight into how our health and the health of every living creature and our ecosystem are all inextricably connected. This collection of critical population health topics, written by an international group of experts, addresses the technical aspects of the subjects and also offers potential policy solutions to help mitigate current threats and prevent additional threats from occurring.

Beyond One Health: From Recognition to Results begins with a chapter describing epidemiology as the scientific basis for the One Health concept, with subsequent chapters covering emerging, infectious, and chronic diseases, environmental toxicant exposures, and food and water safety and security. It also covers One Health impacts in a changing climate; biodiversity and health; wildlife and companion animals and health; zoological institutions; the social cost of carbon; One Health education and public policy; and more. Each chapter proposes policy solutions, many of which are summarized in the concluding chapter, to move One Health thinking forward from recognition to results.

Anyone with an interest in the health of humans, animals, or the planet, from students and practitioners in architecture to urban planning, and many disciplines in between, will find Beyond One Health: From Recognition to Results to be a must–read text.

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List of Contributors xiii

Foreword by Chadia Wannous and David Nabarro xvii

Foreword by Lonnie King xix

Preface xxi

Section 1 The Science of One Health 1

1 Epidemiology: Science as a Tool to Inform One Health Policy 3
Yvette J. Johnson ]Walker and John B. Kaneene

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Enhancing Our Understanding of Health and Disease 5

1.2.1 Causes of Disease 5

1.2.1.1 Deterministic Models of Disease 6

1.2.1.2 Hill s Causal Criteria 7

1.2.1.3 Multifactorial Models of Disease Causation 8

1.2.1.4 Breaking the Chain of Transmission 8

1.2.2 Assessing the Impact of Disease 10

1.2.3 Natural Course of Disease 13

1.2.3.1 Reservoirs of Disease 13

1.2.3.2 Humans as a Reservoir 14

1.2.3.3 Domestic Animal Reservoirs 14

1.2.3.4 Wildlife Reservoirs 17

1.2.3.5 Environmental Reservoirs 17

1.3 From Understanding Epidemiology to Public Policy 19

1.3.1 Assessments of Diagnostic Test Reliability 20

1.3.2 Determination of Safety and Effectiveness of New Treatments and Vaccines 20

1.3.3 Assessment of Health at the Level of the Individual, Community, or Ecosystem and Establish Standards of Care for Prevention and Treatment Protocols/Programs 21

1.3.4 Establishing Disease Response Regulations and Control Standards 22

1.4 Examples of the Benefits of Using a One Health Approach 23

1.4.1 Overall Summary of Practical Experiences Applying a One Health Approach 25

References 28

2 Health Impacts in a Changing Climate 31
Donald J. Wuebbles

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Our Changing Climate 32

2.2.1 Climate Change Effects on Temperature 33

2.2.2 Climate Change Effects on Precipitation 34

2.2.3 Climate Change Effects on Severe Weather 37

2.3 The Basis for a Human Cause for Climate Change 41

2.4 Twenty ]first Century Projections of Climate Change 43

2.5 Climate and Health 49

2.5.1 Temperature ]Related Death and Illness 49

2.5.2 Air Quality Impacts 50

2.5.3 Vector ]Borne Diseases 50

2.5.4 Water ]Related Illnesses 52

2.5.5 Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution 52

2.5.6 Extreme Weather ]Related Impacts 54

2.5.7 Mental Health and Well ]being 54

2.5.8 Climate Health Risk Factors and Populations of Concern 55

2.6 Summary and a Look Forward 55

References 56

3 Food Safety and Security 61
Megin Nichols, Lauren Stevenson, Casey Barton Behravesh, and Robert V. Tauxe

3.1 Evolution of Food Production 61

3.2 Foodborne Illness 63

3.3 A One Health Approach to Foodborne Illness Detection and Response 68

3.4 Antibiotic Resistance and Food Safety 75

3.5 Zoonotic Disease and Foodborne Pathogens 78

3.6 Outbreak Response Communication 80

References 83

4 Water Security in a Changing World 89
Jeffrey M. Levengood, Ari Hörman, Marja ]Liisa Hänninen, and Kevin O Brien

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Waterborne Pathogens and Contaminants : Technologies for Drinking Water Treatment and Management of Water Safety 90

4.2.1 Waterborne Pathogens 90

4.2.2 Antibiotic ]Resistant Bacteria in Source and Drinking Water 91

4.2.3 Chemical Hazards in the Drinking Water 93

4.2.4 Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater and Raw Water Sources 93

4.2.5 Water Treatment Methods 93

4.2.5.1 Thermal Treatment 94

4.2.5.2 Chemical Disinfection 94

4.2.5.3 Filtration 95

4.2.5.4 Other Treatment Methods 96

4.2.6 Surveillance for Waterborne Diseases 96

4.2.7 Requirements for Drinking Water Quality 96

4.2.8 Water Safety Plans (WSPs) 97

4.3 The Water/Energy/Food Nexus: Mitigating Global Risks 99

4.3.1 Water/Energy Nexus 99

4.3.1.1 Nuclear 102

4.3.1.2 Coal 103

4.3.1.3 Natural Gas 103

4.3.1.4 Renewables 103

4.3.1.5 Water/Energy Nexus Summary 104

4.3.2 Water/Food Nexus 104

4.3.2.1 Water/Food Nexus Summary 107

4.3.3 Water/Energy/Food Nexus: Summary and Next Steps 107

Acknowledgments 108

References 108

5 One Toxicology, One Health, One Planet 115
Daniel Hryhorczuk, Val R. Beasley, Robert H. Poppenga, and Timur Durrani

5.1 Introduction 115

5.1.1 History 115

5.1.2 Toxic Chemicals in Our Environment 117

5.1.3 One Toxicology 118

5.2 Key Concepts 120

5.2.1 Dose ]Response Relationships 120

5.2.2 Differences in Susceptibility 120

5.2.3 Periods of Increased Susceptibility 122

5.2.4 Receptors 122

5.2.5 Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics 123

5.3 Ecotoxicology and Human Exposures 124

5.3.1 Everyday Toxicology and Ecotoxicology: Contrasts, Complexities, and Challenges 124

5.3.2 Toxicant Fate in the Environment 125

5.3.3 Contrasts in Feasibility: Examinations and Interventions 129

5.3.4 Indirect Effects of Chemicals 132

5.3.5 Direct Immunotoxicity and Indirectly Mediated Immunosuppression 137

5.3.6 Neurotoxicity 138

5.3.7 Endocrine Disruption 138

5.3.8 Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity 140

5.4 Toxicological Risk Assessment and One Health 141

5.4.1 Risk Assessment 141

5.4.2 Regulatory Toxicology 141

5.4.3 One Health and One Toxicology on One Earth 142

5.5 Conclusions 143

References 144

6 Biodiversity and Health 153
Dominic A. Travis, Jonathan D. Alpern, Matteo Convertino, Meggan Craft, Thomas R. Gillespie, Shaun Kennedy, Cheryl Robertson, Christopher A. Shaffer, and William Stauffer

6.1 Introduction 153

6.2 Connectivity 155

6.2.1 Biodiversity as an Indicator of Health 155

6.2.2 Social Factors 158

6.3 Grand Challenges, Development Goals, Global Health Security, and Ecosystem Health 159

6.3.1 The Case of Agriculture, Food Security, and Biodiversity 161

6.3.2 The Case of Wildlife Trade, Bushmeat, and Biodiversity 162

6.3.3 The Case of Infectious Diseases and Biodiversity 165

6.3.4 The Case of Climate Change, Conflict, and Human and Animal Migration 166

6.4 Conclusions and a Way Forward 168

6.4.1 The Application of Complexity Science and Technology Tools to Optimize Health and Environmental Outcomes 168

References 170

7 Emerging Infectious Diseases: Old Nemesis, New Challenges 177
Ronald C. Hershow and Kenneth E. Nusbaum

7.1 Introduction 177

7.2 Rabies 180

7.2.1 Natural History 180

7.2.2 The Epizoology of Rabies Virus 181

7.2.3 Global Burden 181

7.3 Avian Influenza 182

7.3.1 Natural History 182

7.3.2 Recent Outbreaks 183

7.4 Zika Virus 186

7.5 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) 188

7.6 Summary 189

Acknowledgments 190

References 190

8 Reigning Cats and Dogs: Perks and Perils of Our Courtship with Companion Animals 195Sandra L. Lefebvre and Robert V. Ellis

8.1 Introduction 195

8.2 Benefits and Hazards of Human ]Pet Relationships 197

8.2.1 Physical and Mental Health 197

8.2.1.1 Impacts on Humans 197

8.2.1.2 Impacts on Pets 200

8.2.2 Overweight and Obesity 202

8.2.3 Feeding Practices and Illness 203

8.2.3.1 Human Illness Related to Pet Feeding Practices 203

8.2.3.2 Pet Illness Related to Feeding Practices 205

8.2.4 Infectious Disease Transmission 206

8.2.4.1 Companion Animal ]to ]Human Transmission 206

8.2.4.2 Human ]to ]Companion Animal Transmission 216

8.2.5 Pets, People, and Antimicrobial Resistance 216

8.2.6 Social and Community Health 221

8.2.7 Domestic Health and Violence 223

8.3 Interactions Among Humans, Pets, and the Environment 223

8.3.1 Working Dogs 223

8.3.2 Environmental Toxicants 224

8.3.3 Pets and the External Environment 225

8.3.4 Disaster Preparedness 227

8.3.5 Climate Change 228

8.3.6 Zoonotic Disease Surveillance for Both People and Pets 228

8.4 Conclusion 229

Disclaimer 230

References 230

9 Zoological Institutions and One Health 243
Thomas P. Meehan and Yvonne Nadler

9.1 Introduction 243

9.2 Zoos, Aquariums, and Field Conservation 243

9.3 Zoos, Aquariums, and the Care of Animals 244

9.4 Social Aspects of Zoos and Aquariums 245

9.5 Zoonotic Disease Challenges: Protecting Visitors, Staff, and Animals 246

9.6 Case Studies in One Health from Zoological Institutions 249

9.6.1 West Nile Virus: A Case Study for the One Health Paradigm 249

9.6.1.1 Emergence of West Nile Virus in North America 249

9.6.1.2 Centers for Disease Control: ArboNET 250

9.6.1.3 A Failure of Early Coordination 251

9.6.1.4 Lessons Learned from the West Nile Virus Outbreak, 1999 252

9.6.1.5 Zoological Institutions as Forerunners to the One Health Paradigm 253

9.6.1.6 Zoological Parks as Sentinels for Human Disease 253

9.6.1.7 A Model for Sentinel Surveillance: The Zoological WNV Surveillance Project 254

9.6.1.8 Lessons Learned from the Zoological WNV Surveillance Project 254

9.6.1.9 The Role of Zoological Institutions in Preparing for Pandemics 255

9.6.2 The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus, 1999 255

9.6.2.1 Consequences of HPAI Detection in a Zoological Institution 256

9.6.2.2 The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Prepares for HPAI 257

9.6.2.3 Lessons Learned from HPAI Surveillance System 258

9.7 Conclusion 259

References 260

Section 2 Four Perspectives on One Health Policy 265

10 One Health Leadership and Policy 267
William D. Hueston, Ed G.M. van Klink, and Innocent B. Rwego

10.1 Introduction and Definitions 267

10.2 Grand Challenges in Health (aka Wicked Problems ) 267

10.3 Implications of Grand Challenges for One Health Leadership 268

10.4 Critical Competencies for One Health Leadership 268

10.5 Policy ]Making with One Health in Mind 269

10.6 Integrating One Health Leadership Approaches in Hierarchical Organizations 270

10.7 Demonstrating One Health Leadership and Policy in Action 271

10.8 Case Study 1: National One Health Policy Development in Cameroon and Rwanda 272

10.8.1 Cameroon 272

10.8.2 Rwanda 272

10.9 Case Study 2: The Campaign for Global Elimination of Dog ]Mediated Human Rabies 273

10.10 Case Study 3: Antimicrobial Resistance USA 274

References 276

11 Implementing One Health 277
Laura H. Kahn

11.1 Financing One Health Initiatives 277

11.2 Conclusion 279

References 279

12 The Social Cost of Carbon 281
William J. Craven

12.1 Introduction 281

12.2 Some Context on Cost ]Benefit Analyses 282

12.3 The Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) 282

12.3.1 Looking at Costs 283

12.3.2 Getting the SCC as Good as it Can Get 285

12.4 Current Challenges to Reducing and Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change 287

References 288

13 Complex Problems, Progressive Policy Solutions, and One Health 291
John A. Herrmann

13.1 One Health as Prevention 291

13.1.1 Successes 291

13.1.2 Failures 292

13.2 Translating Science: Risk Communication and Science Literacy 293

13.2.1 Communication of Science 294

13.2.2 Liberal Education and the Sciences 295

13.2.3 Community Empowerment and Participatory Democracy 299

13.3 The Economics of One Health 300

13.4 From Here to There 302

References 302

Section 3 Conclusion 305

14 The Long and Winding Road 307
John A. Herrmann and Yvette J. Johnson ]Walker

14.1 One Health: Many Facets, All Interrelated 307

14.2 One Health Policy Development 310

14.2.1 Policy Basics and Challenges to Enacting One Health ]based Policies 310

14.2.2 Microeconomic One Health Dilemmas 311

14.2.3 One Health Research in Emerging Infectious Diseases: Macroeconomic Dilemmas 312

14.2.4 The Long and Winding Road Forward 313

References 321

Index

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The Editors
John A. Herrmann, DVM, MPH, DACT, is Director of the DVM–MPH Program and the Center for One Health Illinois at the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in Urbana, Illinois, USA and Affiliate Professor at the School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, in Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Yvette J. Johnson–Walker, DVM, MS, PhD, is Lecturer of Epidemiology at the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in Urbana, Illinois, USA.

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