Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment. Challenges in Water Management Series

  • ID: 4449327
  • Book
  • 584 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A groundbreaking book on the application of the economic and environmentally effective treatment of industrial wastewater

Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment contains a review of the state–of–the–art applications of constructed wetland technology for industrial wastewater treatment. This green technology offers many economic, environmental, and societal advantages. The text examines the many unique uses and the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of complex and heavily polluted wastewater from various industrial sources.

The editor a noted expert in the field and the international author team (93 authors from 22 countries) present vivid examples of the current state of constructed wetlands in the industrial sector. The text is filled with international case studies and research outcomes and covers a wide range of applications of these sustainable systems including facilities such as the oil and gas industry, agro–industries, paper mills, pharmaceutical industry, textile industry, winery, brewery, sludge treatment and much more. The book reviews the many system setups, examines the different removal and/or transformational processes of the various pollutants and explores the overall effectiveness of this burgeoning technology. This important resource:

  • Offers the first, groundbreaking text on constructed wetlands use for industrial wastewater treatment
  • Provides a single reference with summarized information and the state–of–the–art knowledge of the use of Constructed Wetlands in the industrial sector through case studies, research outcomes and review chapters
  • Covers a range of industrial applications such as hydrocarbons/oil and gas industry, food and beverage, wood and leather processing, agro–industries, pharmaceuticals and many others
  • Includes best practices drawn by a collection of international case studies
  • Presents the latest technological developments in the industry

Written for civil and environmental engineers, sustainable wastewater/water managers in industry and government, Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment is the first book to offer a comprehensive review of the set–up and effectiveness of constructed wetlands for a wide range of industrial applications to highlight the diverse economic and environmental benefits this technology brings to the industry.

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 List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxv

Acknowledgements xxvii

Introduction to Constructed Wetland Technology 1
Alexandros I. Stefanakis

1 From Natural to Constructed Wetlands 1

2 The Need for Sustainable Solutions 3

3 Constructed Wetlands or Conventional Systems Pros and Cons 3

4 Classification of Constructed Wetlands 6

4.1 Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands (FWS CWs) 7

4.2 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands  (HSF CWs) 7

4.3 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands  (VFCWs) 8

4.4 Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) 9

4.5 Sludge Treatment Wetlands (STWs) 10

4.6 Aerated Constructed Wetlands  11

5 Design Considerations of Constructed Wetlands  11

6 Constructed Wetlands  as a Sustainable Solution for the Industrial Sector 14

7 Scope of this Book 16

References 17

Part I Petrochemical and Chemical Industry 23

1 Integrated Produced Water Management in a Desert Oilfield Using Wetland Technology and Innovative Reuse Practices 25
Alexandros I. Stefanakis, Stephane Prigent and Roman Breuer

1.1 Introduction 25

1.2 Constructed Wetland for Produced Water Treatment 27

1.2.1 Location and Description 27

1.2.2 Weather Station 28

1.2.3 Chemical Analyses 30

1.3 Results and Discussion 32

1.3.1 Weather Data 32

1.3.2 Water Quality 32

1.3.3 Environmental Performance 35

1.4 Treated Effluent Reuse for Saline Irrigation 36

1.5 Conclusions 39

References 39

2 Constructed Wetlands  Treating Water Contaminated with Organic Hydrocarbons 43
Martin Thullner, Alexandros I. Stefanakis and Saeed Dehestani

2.1 Introduction 43

2.1.1 Benzene Removal in Constructed Wetlands  44

2.2 MTBE Removal in Constructed Wetlands  48

2.3 Phenol Removal in Constructed Wetlands  51

2.4 Combined Treatment of Different Compounds 54

References 56

Part II Food and Beverage Industry 65

3 Aerated Constructed Wetlands  for Treatment of Municipal and Food Industry Wastewater 67
A. Pascual, D. De la Varga, M. Soto, D. Van Oirschot, R.M. Kilian, J.A. Álvarez, P. Carvalho and C.A. Arias

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Aerated Constructed Wetlands  68

3.2.1 Oxygen Transfer at theWater Biofilm Interface 69

3.2.2 Benefits of Artificial Aeration in Constructed Wetlands  70

3.2.3 Dissolved Oxygen Profile along CWs 71

3.2.4 TSS Removal 71

3.2.5 COD Removal 71

3.2.6 Nitrogen Removal 72

3.3 HIGHWET Project 72

3.3.1 KT Food Pilot Plant 73

3.3.2 Research Operational Plan of KT Food Treatment Plant 73

3.3.2.1 Campaign 1 77

3.3.2.2 Campaign 2 78

3.3.2.3 Campaign 3 80

3.3.2.4 Campaign 4 82

3.3.2.5 Campaign 5 84

3.3.3 Comparison of Results 85

3.4 Conclusions 87

Acknowledgements 88

References 88

4 Treatment of Wineries and Breweries Effluents using Constructed Wetlands  95
F. Masi, A. Rizzo, and R. Bresciani

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Wastewater Production and Characterization 96

4.2.1 Wineries 96

4.2.2 Breweries 96

4.3 Applications and Configurations 97

4.3.1 Wineries 97

4.3.1.1 Multistage CW with Nature–Based Composting as Pretreatment for Wastewater: An Italian Case Study 98

4.3.1.2 Multistage CW with Technological Composting as Pretreatment for Wastewater: A Spanish Case Study 99

4.3.1.3 Multistage CW with Technological Aerobic Reactor and Subsequent Composting on CW: A French Case Study 100

4.3.2 Breweries 101

4.4 Discussion and Conclusions 101

4.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Multistage CW Treatment Plants 101

4.4.2 Future Perspectives of CW for Brewery Waste water Treatment 103

References 103

5 Treatment of Effluents from Fish and Shrimp Aquacultures in Constructed Wetlands 105
Yaln Tepe and Fulya Aydin Temel

5.1 Introduction 105

5.1.1 Concerns in Aquaculture 105

5.2 Overview of Aquaculture and Effluent Treatment 107

5.2.1 Effluent Water Quality Considerations 108

5.3 Use of Constructed Wetlands  for Treatment of Fish and Shrimp Culture Effluents 112

5.3.1 Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands  (FWS CWs) 113

5.3.2 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands  (SFCWs) 114

5.3.3 Hybrid Systems (HS) 115

5.4 Conclusions 119

References 120

6 Evaluation of Treatment Wetlands of Different Configuration for the Sugarcane–Mill Effluent under Tropical Conditions 127
E. Navarro, R. Pastor, V. Matamoros and J.M. Bayona

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Modeling Water Consumption Minimization 130

6.2.1 First Approach to Linearity 131

6.2.2 A MILP Approach to the Problem 131

6.3 Type of Effluent and Pretreatment 133

6.3.1 Physical Chemical Methods 133

6.3.2 Intensive Biological Processes 133

6.3.2.1 Suspended Bed Reactor 133

6.3.2.2 Fixed Bed Reactor 133

6.3.2.3 Fluidized Bed Reactor 134

6.3.3 Extensive Biological Processes 134

6.4 Constructed Wetlands  (CWs) 135

6.4.1 Case Studies 135

6.4.1.1 India 135

6.4.1.2 Kenya 137

6.4.1.3 Mexico 137

6.4.1.4 South Africa 138

6.4.1.5 Thailand 138

6.4.2 Effects of Design and Operation on the COD, BOD and Nutrient Removal 139

6.4.3 Other Water Quality Parameters 140

6.4.3.1 Turbidity 140

6.4.3.2 Pigments 140

6.4.3.3 Sulfate 140

6.4.3.4 Nitrogen Removal 141

6.4.3.5 Phosphorus 141

6.5 Research Needs 141

Acknowledgements 141

References 142

7 Treatment of Effluents from Meat, Vegetable and Soft Drinks Processing using Constructed Wetlands  145
Marco Hartl, Joseph Hogan and Vassia Ioannidou

7.1 Treatment of Slaughterhouse and Meat Processing Wastewater 145

7.2 Treatment of Potato Washing Wastewater 150

7.3 Treatment of Molasses Wastewater 153

7.4 Treatment of Effluents from Coffee Processing 157

References 160

Part III Agro–Industrial Wastewater 163

8 Olive Mill Wastewater Treatment in Constructed Wetlands  165
F. Masi, A. Rizzo, R. Bresciani, D. Vayenas, C. Akratos, A. Tekerlekopoulou and A.I. Stefanakis

8.1 Introduction 165

8.2 Wastewater Production and Characterization 166

8.3 Applications and Configurations 166

8.3.1 The Greek Experiences 168

8.3.1.1 FreeWater Surface CWs 168

8.3.1.2 Horizontal Subsurface Flow CWs 170

8.3.1.3 Vertical Flow CWs 170

8.3.1.4 HybridWetland Systems 171

8.4 Evaporation Plus Constructed Wetlands : An Italian Innovative Approach 172

8.5 Discussion and Conclusions 172

References 173

9 Dairy Wastewater Treatment with Constructed Wetlands : Experiences from Belgium, the Netherlands and Greece 175
Christos S. Akratos, Dion van Oirschot, Athanasia G. Tekerlekopoulou, Dimitrios V. Vayenas and Alexandros Stefanakis

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Brief Literature Review onWetland Systems for DairyWastewater Treatment 176

9.3 Experiences from the Netherlands and Belgium 181

9.3.1 Wetland System Description 182

9.3.2 Operation 183

9.3.3 Results from the Netherlands 184

9.3.3.1 Experimental Projects 184

9.3.3.2 Stimulation of Denitrification through Recirculation of Effluent 185

9.3.3.3 Phosphorus Removal 185

9.3.4 Results from Belgium 187

9.3.4.1 System at Poppe, Eeklo 187

9.3.4.2 System at De Paep, Sint–GillisWaas in Belgium 188

9.3.4.3 System at PDLT, Geel in Belgium 189

9.3.4.4 AeratedWetland (FBA) at PDLT, Geel in Belgium 190

9.4 Experiences from Greece 192

9.4.1 First Experimental Project 192

9.4.2 Second Experimental Project 196

9.5 Conclusions 197

References 198

10 The Performance of Constructed Wetlands  for Treating Swine Wastewater under Different Operating Conditions 203
Gladys Vidal, Catalina Plaza de Los Reyes and Oliver Sáez

10.1 Introduction 203

10.1.1 The Swine Sector and the Generation of Slurries 203

10.1.2 Characterization of Slurries 203

10.1.3 Environmental Effects of the Application of Slurry in Soils 205

10.1.4 Integrated Management for Treating Swine Slurry 205

10.1.5 Primary Treatment (Solids Removal) 207

10.1.6 Secondary Treatment (Organic Matter Removal) 207

10.1.6.1 Anaerobic Treatment Systems 207

10.2 Removal of Nutrients by Constructed Wetlands  207

10.2.1 ConstructedWetland (CW) 208

10.2.1.1 Macrophyte Species Used in Constructed Wetlands  209

10.2.1.2 Nitrogen Elimination Mechanisms in Constructed Wetlands  209

10.2.1.3 Incorporation into Plant Tissue (Assimilation) 212

10.2.1.4 Ammonium Sedimentation/Adsorption 212

10.2.1.5 Anammox (or Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation) 213

10.3 Removal of Nutrients by Constructed Wetlands  using Biological Pretreatments 213

Acknowledgements 216

References 216

Part IV Mine Drainage and Leachate Treatment 223

11 Constructed Wetlands  for Metals: Removal Mechanism and Analytical Challenges 225
Adam Sochacki, Asheesh K. Yadav, Pratiksha Srivastava, Naresh Kumar, MarkWilliam Fitch and Ashirbad Mohanty

11.1 Sources of Metal Pollution and Rationale for Using Constructed Wetlands  to Treat Metal–Laden Wastewater 225

11.2 Removal Mechanisms 226

11.2.1 Adsorption 226

11.2.2 Filtration and Sedimentation 226

11.2.3 Association with Metal Oxides and Hydroxides 227

11.2.4 Precipitation as Sulfides 227

11.2.4.1 Mechanism of the Process 228

11.2.4.2 Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in Constructed Wetlands  230

11.2.4.3 Carbon Source for Sulfate–Reducing Bacteria 231

11.2.5 Microbial Removal Processes 232

11.2.6 Plant Uptake of Metals in Constructed Wetlands  232

11.2.6.1 Metal Uptake by Aquatic Macrophytes 232

11.2.6.2 Metal Uptake by the Roots 233

11.2.6.3 Metal Uptake by the Shoots 233

11.2.6.4 Indirect Assistance in Metal Removal by Plants 233

11.2.6.5 Role of Plants in Removing Metals from Industrial Wastewater 234

11.2.7 Other Processes 235

11.3 Analytical Challenges 235

11.3.1 Background and Overview of Methods 235

11.3.2 Sequential Extraction Procedures and their Applicability to Wetland Substrates 237

11.3.3 State–of–the–Art Instrumental Methods 238

11.3.4 Advanced Analytical Techniques 239

References 241

12 A Review on the Use of Constructed Wetlands  for the Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage 249
C. Sheridan, A. Akcil, U. Kappelmeyer and I. Moodley

12.1 What is Acid Mine Drainage? 249

12.2 Sources of AMD 250

12.3 Environmental and Social Impacts of AMD 251

12.3.1 Environmental Impacts 251

12.3.2 Social Impacts of AMD 253

12.4 Remediation of AMD 253

12.4.1 Constructed Wetlands  254

12.4.1.1 ConstructedWetland Configuration Types 254

12.4.1.2 Mechanism by which CWs Remediate Most AMD/ARD 254

12.4.1.3 Constructed Wetlands  for Treating AMD Prior to 2000 255

12.4.1.4 Constructed Wetlands  for Treating AMD Between 2001 and 2010 256

12.4.1.5 Constructed Wetlands  for Treating AMD from 2010 to the Present 258

12.5 Summary 259

References 259

13 Solid Waste (SW) Leachate Treatment using Constructed Wetland Systems 263
K.B.S.N. Jinadasa, T.A.O.K. Meetiyagoda andWun Jern Ng

13.1 The Nature of SolidWaste (SW) and SWLeachate 263

13.2 Characteristics of SWLeachate in Tropical Developing Countries 265

13.3 TreatmentMethods for SWLeachate 267

13.3.1 Advantages of Constructed Wetlands  for Leachate Treatment Under Tropical Climate 269

13.4 ExperimentalMethodology for Plant Species and CWPerformance Evaluation 270

13.5 Effect of Plant Species on Leachate Components 273

13.5.1 Effect on Organic Compounds 273

13.5.2 Effect on Removal and Transformation of Nitrogen Compounds 276

13.6 Summary 279

References 279

Part V Wood and Leather Processing 283

14 Cork Boiling Wastewater Treatment in Pilot Constructed Wetlands  285
Arlindo C. Gomes, Alexandros Stefanakis, António Albuquerque and Rogério Simões

14.1 Introduction 285

14.1.1 Cork Production and Manufacture 285

14.1.2 Cork Boiling Wastewater Characteristics 286

14.2 Cork Boiling Wastewater Treatment 289

14.2.1 Physico–Chemical Treatment 289

14.2.2 Biological Treatment 298

14.2.3 Sequential Treatment 299

14.3 Constructed Wetland Technology 300

14.3.1 Experimental Setup of Microcosm–Scale Constructed Wetlands 301

14.3.2 Experimental Results 302

14.4 Conclusions 304

Acknowledgements 305

References 305

15 Constructed Wetland Technology for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment 309
Satish Kumar and Ashutosh Kumar Choudhary

15.1 Introduction 309

15.2 Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Characteristics 310

15.3 Remediation of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Pollution 311

15.4 Constructed Wetlands  312

15.4.1 Performance of CWs for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment 312

15.5 Conclusions 322

References 322

16 Treatment of Wastewater from Tanneries and the Textile Industry using Constructed Wetland Systems 327
Christos S. Akratos, Athanasia G. Tekerlekopoulou and Dimitrios V. Vayenas

16.1 Introduction 327

16.1.1 Tannery Wastewaters 327

16.1.2 Azo Dye and Textile Industries 330

16.2 Discussion 332

16.3 Constructed Wetlands  for Cr(VI) Removal: A Case Study 332

16.4 Conclusions 337

References 338

Part IV Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics Industry 343

17 Removal Processes of Pharmaceuticals in Constructed Wetlands  345
A. Dordio and A.J.P. Carvalho

17.1 Introduction 345

17.2 Pharmaceutical Compounds in the Environment: Sources, Fate and Environmental Effects 348

17.3 Pharmaceuticals Removal in Constructed Wetlands  352

17.3.1 Removal Efficiency of Pharmaceuticals in CWS 352

17.3.2 Main Removal Processes for Pharmaceuticals in SSF–CWS 365

17.3.2.1 Abiotic Processes 365

17.3.2.2 Biotic Processes 367

17.3.3 The Role of SSF–CWS Components in Pharmaceutical Removal 370

17.3.3.1 The Role of Biotic Components (Plants and Microorganisms) in Pharmaceuticals Removal 370

17.3.3.2 The Role of the Support Matrix in Pharmaceuticals Removal 381

17.4 Final Remarks 385

References 386

18 Role of Bacterial Diversity on PPCPs Removal in Constructed Wetlands  405
María Hijosa–Valsero, Ricardo Sidrach–Cardona, Anna Pedescoll, Olga Sánchez and Eloy Bécares

18.1 Introduction 405

18.2 Mesocosm–Scale Experiences 406

18.2.1 Description of the Systems 406

18.2.2 Sampling Strategy 406

18.2.3 Analytical Methodology 408

18.3 Pollutant Concentrations and Removal Efficiencies in Mesocosms CWs 409

18.4 Microbiological Characterization 409

18.5 Link between Microbiological Richness and Pollutant Removal in CWs 413

18.5.1 Microbial Richness and Conventional Pollutant Removal 413

18.5.1.1 Roots 413

18.5.2 Microbial Richness and PPCP Removal 414

18.5.2.1 Gravel 414

18.5.2.2 Interstitial Liquid 414

18.5.2.3 Roots 414

18.5.3 Effect of Physico–Chemical Parameters on Microbial Richness 416

18.5.3.1 Gravel 416

18.5.3.2 Interstitial Liquid 416

18.5.3.3 Roots 416

18.6 Mechanisms and Design Parameters Involved in PPCPs Removal 418

18.7 Conclusions 420

Acknowledgements 421

References 421

Part VII Novel Industrial Applications 427

19 Dewatering of Industrial Sludge in Sludge Treatment Reed Bed Systems 429
S. Nielsen and E. Bruun

19.1 Introduction 429

19.2 Methodology 431

19.2.1 Description of an STRB 431

19.2.2 Description of STRB Test–System 432

19.3 Treatment of Industrial Sludge in STRB Systems 434

19.3.1 Organic Material in Sludge 434

19.3.2 Fats and Oil in Sludge 434

19.3.3 Heavy Metals in Sludge 435

19.3.4 Nutrients in Sludge 436

19.3.5 Hazardous Organic Compounds in Sludge 436

19.4 Case Studies Treatment of Industrial Sludge in Full–Scale and Test STRB Systems 437

19.4.1 Case 1: Treatment of Industrial Sewage Sludge with High Contents of Fat 437

19.4.2 Case 2: Treatment of Industrial Sewage Sludge with High Contents of Heavy Metal (Nickel) 438

19.4.3 Case 3: Treatment of Water Works Sludge 440

19.4.3.1 Feed Sludge and Resulting Filtrate Quality 442

19.4.3.2 Sedimentation and Capillary Suction Time 443

19.4.3.3 Sludge Volume Reduction and Sludge Residue Development 446

19.4.3.4 Filtrate Water Flow 447

19.5 Discussion and Conclusions 448

19.5.1 Industrial Sludge 448

19.5.2 Water Works Sludge 449

Acknowledgements 450

References 450

20 Constructed Wetlands  for Water Quality Improvement and Temperature Reduction at a Power–Generating Facility 453
Christopher H. Keller, Susan Flash and John Hanlon

20.1 Introduction 453

20.2 Basis of Design 453

20.2.1 Design for Ammonia and Copper Reduction 454

20.2.2 Design for pH, Toxicity, and Specific Conductance 456

20.2.3 Design for Temperature Reduction 456

20.2.4 Process Flow and Final Design Criteria 458

20.3 Construction 458

20.4 Operational Performance Summary 459

20.4.1 Inflow and Outflow Rates and Wetland Water Depths 459

20.4.2 Ammonia 463

20.4.3 Copper 463

20.4.4 pH 463

20.4.5 Temperature 464

20.4.6 Whole Effluent Toxicity 466

20.4.7 Specific Conductance 466

20.5 Discussion 466

References 468

21 Recycling of Carwash Effluents Treated with Subsurface Constructed Wetlands 469
A. Torrens, M. Folch, M. Salgot and M. Aulinas

21.1 Introduction 469

21.2 Case Study: Description 471

21.2.1 Pilot Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 471

21.2.2 Pilot Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland 471

21.2.3 Operation and Monitoring 472

21.3 Case Study: Results and Discussion 474

21.3.1 Influent Characterization 474

21.3.2 Effluent Quality for Recycling 477

21.3.3 Performance of the Constructed Wetland Pilots 478

21.3.3.1 Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland 478

21.3.3.2 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 482

21.3.3.3 Comparison of Performances 486

21.4 Design and Operation Recommendations 488

21.4.1 Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland 488

21.4.2 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 489

21.5 Conclusions 489

References 490

22 Constructed Wetland–Microbial Fuel Cell: An Emerging Integrated Technology for Potential Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Bio–Electricity Generation 493
Asheesh Kumar Yadav, Pratiksha Srivastava, Naresh Kumar, Rouzbeh Abbassi and Barada Kanta Mishra

22.1 Introduction 493

22.2 The Fundamentals of MFC and Microbial Electron Transfer to Electrode 495

22.3 State of the Art of CW–MFCs 496

22.3.1 Design and Operation of CW–MFCs 496

22.3.2 Performance Evaluation of the Various CW–MFCs 497

22.4 Potential IndustrialWastewater Treatment in CW–MFCs 500

22.5 Challenges in Generating Bio–Electricity in CW–MFCs During IndustrialWastewater Treatment 502

22.6 Future Directions 503

Acknowledgements 504

References 504

23 Constructed Wetlands  for Storm water Treatment from Specific (Dutch) Industrial Surfaces 511
Floris Boogaard, Johan Blom and Joost van den Bulk

23.1 Introduction 511

23.2 Storm water Characteristics 511

23.2.1 Storm water Quality in Urban Areas 511

23.2.2 Industrial Storm water Quality 513

23.2.3 Fraction of Pollutants Attached to Particles 513

23.2.3.1 Particle Size Distribution 515

23.2.4 Removal Efficiency 515

23.3 Best Management Practices of (Dutch)Wetlands at Industrial Sites 515

23.3.1 Amsterdam Westergasfabriekterrein 518

23.3.2 Constructed Wetland Oostzaan: Multifunctional High Removal Efficiency 518

23.3.3 Constructed Wetland Hoogeveen, Oude Diep 520

23.3.4 Cost 520

23.3.5 Choosing Best Location(s) of Wetlands on Industrial Areas 520

23.4 Innovation in Monitoring Wetlands 522

23.4.1 Innovative Determination of Long–Term Hydraulic Capacity of Wetlands 523

23.4.2 Innovating Monitoring of Removal Efficiency and Eco–Scan 524

23.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 525

23.5.1 Conclusions 525

23.5.2 Recommendations 527

References 527

Part VIII Managerial Aspects 529

24 A Novel Response of Industry to Wastewater Treatment with Constructed Wetlands: A Managerial View through System Dynamic Techniques 531
Ioannis E. Nikolaou and Alexandros I. Stefanakis

24.1 Introduction 531

24.2 Theoretical Underpinning 532

24.2.1 Constructed Wetlands  A Short Review 532

24.2.2 Constructed Wetlands : An Economic Environmental Approach 533

24.2.3 Constructed Wetlands : An Industrial Viewpoint 534

24.2.4 CWs Through a CSR Glance 534

24.3 Methodology 536

24.3.1 Research Structure 536

24.3.2 The CSR–CWs Agenda 537

24.3.3 CSR–CWs Balanced Scorecard 537

24.3.4 CSR–CWs Balanced Scorecard System Dynamic Model 539

24.3.5 Some Certain Scenario Developments 540

24.4 Test of Scenarios and a Typology Construction for Decision Making 541

24.4.1 Scenario Analysis 541

24.4.1.1 The Proactive Industry The Business Case Approach 541

24.4.1.2 Proactive Industry The Ethical Case Approach 541

24.4.1.3 Reactive Industry The Business Case Approach 543

24.4.1.4 Reactive Industry The Ethical Case Approach 543

24.4.2 A Typology of Industry Decision Making in CSR–CWs Agenda 544

24.5 Conclusion and Discussion 545

References 546

25 A Construction Manager s Perception of a Successful Constructed Wetland Project 551
Emmanuel Aboagye–Nimo, Justus Harding and Alexandros I. Stefanakis

25.1 Key Performance Indicators for Construction Projects 551

25.2 Function and Values of Constructed Wetlands  552

25.2.1 Constructed Wetland Components 553

25.3 Clear Deliverables of Project 554

25.3.1 Health and Safety Considerations in Construction Projects 555

25.3.2 Hazard Identification and Risk Screening 556

25.3.3 Securing the Project 556

25.4 Critical Points in Constructing Wetlands 556

25.5 Summary 559

References 560

Index 563

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Alexandros I. Stefanakis
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