Digital Libraries and Crowdsourcing

  • ID: 4449364
  • Book
  • 228 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Instead of outsourcing tasks to providers using labor–intensive countries, libraries around the world increasingly appeal to the crowds of Internet users, making their relationship with users more collaborative . These internet users can be volunteers or paid, work consciously, unconsciously or in the form of games. They can provide the workforce, skills, knowledge or financial resources that libraries need in order to achieve unimaginable goals.

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Preface ix

Introduction xiii

Chapter 1. A Conceptual Introduction to the Concept of Crowdsourcing in Libraries: A New Paradigm?   1

1.1. A rapidly growing economic model  1

1.1.1. What made this new economic model possible   1

1.1.2. Application to digital libraries   5

1.1.3. Growing interest from politicians, Internet users and academics  7

1.2. Origin, definition and scope of crowdsourcing  10

1.2.1. Explicit crowdsourcing: using volunteers   16

1.2.2. Implicit crowdsourcing: using involuntary and unconscious work  16

1.2.3. Gamification: using players   16

1.2.4. Paid crowdsourcing: using microemployees 16

1.2.5. Crowdfunding: institutional begging    17

1.3. Historical chronology of crowdsourcing 17

1.4. Philosophical and political controversies   21

1.5. Economic, sociological and legal consequences 33

1.5.1. Economy of crowdsourcing   33

1.5.2. The users of crowdsourcing   39

1.6. Managerial, library science and technological consequences 41

1.6.1. The cultural factor  41

1.6.2. The corporatist factor 41

1.6.3. The reign of the amateur: toward mediocracy?   44

1.6.4. Crowdsourcing: the highest stage of outsourcing?  45

Chapter 2. Overview of Several Crowdsourcing Projects Applied to the Digitization of Libraries 49

2.1. Putting content online and participative curation: the Oxford s Great War Archive and Europeana 1914 1918   49

2.2. Digitization on demand in the form of crowdfunding applied to digital libraries: the European eBooks on Demand network  50

2.3. Printing on demand (POD): the Espresso Book Machine  63

2.4. Participative OCR correction and participative transcription of manuscripts   70

2.4.1. Explicit crowdsourcing: volunteer correction/transcription   73

2.4.2. Gamification, OCR correction through play: Digitalkoot (National Library of Finland) 83

2.4.3. Implicit crowdsourcing: involuntary OCR correction via reCAPTCHA in the service of Google Books   86

2.4.4. Paid crowdsourcing: the Amazon Mechanical Turk market place   92

2.5. Folksonomy, cataloguing and participative indexing  108

2.5.1. Explicit crowdsourcing through volunteer tagging: Flickr: the Commons   108

2.5.2. The use of gamification: Art Collector   109

Chapter 3. Overview and Keys to Success   117

3.1. Typologies and taxonomies of projects 117

3.1.1. Explicit crowdsourcing   128

3.1.2. Implicit crowdsourcing   128

3.1.3. Gamification 129

3.2. Communication and marketing for recruiting volunteers  136

3.3. The question of motivations   139

3.3.1. Intrinsic motivations 142

3.3.2. Extrinsic motivations 144

3.3.3. The opposition between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations   145

3.3.4. The specific motivation of gamification projects  146

3.3.5. Crowdsourcing and rewards  147

3.3.6. Other theories on motivation  149

3.3.7. The motivations of cultural institutions and the prerequi–sites for launching a crowdsourcing project  151

3.4. Sociology of the contributors and community management  154

3.4.1. Sociology of contributors   154

3.4.2. Crowdsourcing or community sourcing?   156

3.4.3. The work of professionals on these projects and community management 157

3.5. The question of the quality of the contributions 161

3.5.1. Systems for evaluating and moderation of contributions  162

3.5.2. Comparison between the quality of the data produced by amateurs and that produced by professionals   166

3.5.3. Reintegration of the data produced 168

3.5.4. The legal status of contributions: crowdsourcing and the semantic web   169

3.6. The evaluation of crowdsourcing projects   170

3.6.1. Factors in success and failure  172

3.6.2. Quantitative evaluation of crowdsourcing projects and their costs   174

3.7. Change management   178

Conclusion 183

Bibliography 185

Index  203

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Mathieu Andro
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