Understanding Color Management. 2nd Edition. The Wiley-IS&T Series in Imaging Science and Technology

  • ID: 4449391
  • Book
  • 344 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An accessible and technically rigorous guide to color management for users in all market segments

Understanding Color Management 2nd Edition explains the basics of color science needed to understand color profiling software, color measuring instruments, and software applications, such as Adobe Photoshop and proofing RIPs. It also serves as a practical guide to International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles, describing procedures for managing color with digital cameras, LCD displays, inkjet proofers, digital presses, web browsers and tablets. Updates since the first edition include new chapters on iPads, tablets and smartphones, home–cinema projection systems, as well as, with the industrial user in mind, new chapters on large–format inkjet for signage and banner printing, flexography, xerography and spot color workflows.

Key features:

  • Managing color in digital cameras with Camera Raw and DNG.
  • Step–by–step approach to using color management in Adobe Photoshop CC.
  • M0, M1, M2 instrument measurement modes explained.
  • Testing of low cost iPhone color measuring instruments.
  • Updated to include iccMAX (Version 5.0) ICC profiles.
  • G7 calibration explained with practical examples.
  • Conventional printing conditions described – SNAP, GRACoL, SWOP, FOGRA, CRPC.
  • New sections on Pantone EXTENDED GAMUT Guide.
  • Introduction to XML for color management applications.

Understanding Color Management 2nd Edition is a valuable resource for digital photographers, keen amateurs and end–users, graphic designers and artists, web masters, production and prepress operators and supervisors, color scientists and researchers, color consultants, and manufacturers. It is a must–have course text for college and university students of graphics arts, graphic communications, digital photography, print media, and imaging arts and sciences.

WILEY–IS&T SERIES IN IMAGING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

IS&T, the Society for Imaging Science and Technology (imaging.org), is an international, professional society that brings together academia, industry, and government to discuss and disseminate information on the broad field of imaging, with particular emphasis on electronic imaging, 3D printing, human vision and perception, virtual and augmented reality systems, color science, image archiving and preservation, image assessment and reproduction, and automated vehicle imaging systems. A major objective of the Wiley–IS&T series is to advance this goal at the professional level by offering the latest scientific and technological developments in the field of imaging to the world–wide community. IS&T hosts a number of annual international conferences to further promote this goal.

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Foreword to 1st edtion

Foreword to 2nd edition

Preface

Acknowledgement

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Why Do We Need Color Management?

1.2 Closed–Loop Color Control

1.3 Need For An Open System

1.4 A Color Management System

1.5 Color Management Workflows

1.6 ICC – International Color Consortium

1.7 RGB and CMYK Color Specification 14

1.8 CIE 1931 Yxy and CIE 1976 L∗a∗b∗ 17

1.9 Color Conversions 18

1.10 Three Cs of Color Management 20

1.11 Profile Types 21

1.11.1 Custom Profiles 21

1.11.2 Generic Profiles 22

1.11.3 Standard Profiles 23

1.12 Color Gamuts 26

1.13 Rendering Intents 27

1.14 Color Accuracy 30

1.15 Late–Binding Workflows 30

1.16 Spot Colors and Proprietary Systems 31

1.17 Benefits of Color Management 32

1.18 Summary 35

2 PRINCIPLES OF LIGHT AND COLOR 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Light Source – Object – Human Observer 38

2.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 38

2.3.1 The Visible Spectrum 39

2.4 Specifying The Light Source 40

2.4.1 Spectral Power Distribution 40

2.4.2 Color Temperature 43

2.4.3 CIE Illuminants and Standard Sources 44

2.4.4 Viewing Booths 46

2.4.5 Warm and Cold Colors 47

2.5 Measuring the Sample Spectrum 47

2.5.1 Practical Color Samples 48

2.6 Quantifying Human Color Vision 50

2.6.1 CIE Standard Observer 51

2.6.2 Trichromatic Vision 53

2.7 Changing the Light Source 54

2.7.1 Chromatic Adaptation 54

2.7.2 Yellow Sodium–Vapor Street Lighting 56

2.7.3 Metamerism – Matching Jacket and Trousers 58

2.7.4 PANTONE® D50 Lighting Indicator 59

2.8 Vision and Measurement 60

2.8.1 Viewing the Invisible – Infrared 60

2.8.2 Ultraviolet Fluorescence 61

2.8.3 Color Illusions 62

2.8.4 Color Appearance Modeling 63

2.9 Summary 64

3 COLOR BY NUMBERS 67

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Basic Attributes of Color: Hue, Saturation, and Lightness 68

3.3 Munsell Color System 69

3.4 CIE Color Specification 70

3.5 XYZ Tristimulus Values 71

3.5.1 Calculating XYZ 73

3.5.2 XYZ Example Colors 74

3.5.3 XYZ for Light Sources 74

3.6 CIE 1931 Yxy System 75

3.6.1 Advantages of the Yxy Chromaticity Diagram 76

3.6.2 Disadvantages of the Yxy Chromaticity Diagram 77

3.7 CIE 1976 L∗a∗b∗ System 80

3.7.1 L∗a∗b∗ Practical Examples 82

3.7.2 L∗a∗b∗ vs. Spectral Data 84

3.8 CIE 1976 L∗C∗h 85

3.9 Quantifying Color Difference 87

3.9.1 Calculating —E 88

3.9.2 Improved —E Equations 90

3.9.3 Which —E Should I Use? 93

2.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 38

2.3.1 The Visible Spectrum 39

2.4 Specifying The Light Source 40

2.4.1 Spectral Power Distribution 40

2.4.2 Color Temperature 43

2.4.3 CIE Illuminants and Standard Sources 44

2.4.4 Viewing Booths 46

2.4.5 Warm and Cold Colors 47

2.5 Measuring the Sample Spectrum 47

2.5.1 Practical Color Samples 48

2.6 Quantifying Human Color Vision 50

2.6.1 CIE Standard Observer 51

2.6.2 Trichromatic Vision 53

2.7 Changing the Light Source 54

2.7.1 Chromatic Adaptation 54

2.7.2 Yellow Sodium–Vapor Street Lighting 56

2.7.3 Metamerism – Matching Jacket and Trousers 58

2.7.4 PANTONE® D50 Lighting Indicator 59

2.8 Vision and Measurement 60

2.8.1 Viewing the Invisible – Infrared 60

2.8.2 Ultraviolet Fluorescence 61

2.8.3 Color Illusions 62

2.8.4 Color Appearance Modeling 63

2.9 Summary 64

3 COLOR BY NUMBERS 67

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Basic Attributes of Color: Hue, Saturation, and Lightness 68

3.3 Munsell Color System 69

3.4 CIE Color Specification 70

3.5 XYZ Tristimulus Values 71

3.5.1 Calculating XYZ 73

3.5.2 XYZ Example Colors 74

3.5.3 XYZ for Light Sources 74

3.6 CIE 1931 Yxy System 75

3.6.1 Advantages of the Yxy Chromaticity Diagram 76

3.6.2 Disadvantages of the Yxy Chromaticity Diagram 77

3.7 CIE 1976 L∗a∗b∗ System 80

3.7.1 L∗a∗b∗ Practical Examples 82

3.7.2 L∗a∗b∗ vs. Spectral Data 84

3.8 CIE 1976 L∗C∗h 85

3.9 Quantifying Color Difference 87

3.9.1 Calculating —E 88

3.9.2 Improved —E Equations 90

3.9.3 Which —E Should I Use? 93

3.9.4 —E and Images 94

3.10 Summary 95

4 MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 97

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Instrument Types 98

4.3 Instrument Filter Bands 99

4.4 Densitometers 100

4.4.1 Density Equation 100

4.4.2 Status Densitometry 101

4.4.3 Density and Process Control 102

4.5 Colorimeters 104

4.5.1 Filter–Based Colorimetry 104

4.5.2 Improvements in Display Colorimeters 105

4.6 Spectrophotometers 106

4.6.1 Spectrophotometer Features and Functions 109

4.6.2 Ever Popular X–Rite i1Pro2 111

4.6.3 OBA and UV Fluorescence 112

4.6.4 M0, M1, M2, M3 Measurement Modes 112

4.7 Smartphone and Other Low–Cost Systems 117

4.8 Inter–Instrument and Inter–Model Agreement 120

4.9 Instrument Repeatability vs. Accuracy 120

4.10 Instrument Calibration 121

4.11 Summary 122

5 INSIDE PROFILES 125

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 ICC Profile Specification 126

5.3 Hexadecimal Profile Encoding 127

5.4 Structure Of An ICC Profile 128

5.5 Profile Header 128

5.5.1 Preferred CMM 129

5.5.2 Specification Version 130

5.5.3 Profile Class 130

5.5.4 Data Color Space and PCS 132

5.5.5 Flags 133

5.5.6 Rendering Intent 134

5.5.7 PCS Illuminant 134

5.5.8 Profile Creator 134

5.6 Tag Table 135

5.6.1 Profile Description Tag 135

5.6.2 XYZ Primaries Tag 136

5.6.3 Tone Reproduction Curve Tag 136

5.6.4 Media White Point Tag 137

5.6.5 Chromatic Adaptation Tag 138

5.6.6 Lookup Table Tags 139

5.6.7 Target Tag 142

5.6.8 Gamut Tag 143

5.6.9 Optional Tags 144

5.6.10 Private Tags 144

5.7 Version 2 and Version 4 Profiles 144

5.8 Version 5 Profiles and iccMAX 145

5.9 How Does a Lookup Table Work? 147

5.10 Summary 149

6 MANAGING COLOR IN DIGITAL CAMERAS 151

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Scanner Profiling 152

6.2.1 Making A Scanner Profile 152

6.3 Paradigm Shift from Scanners to Digital Cameras 153

6.4 Color Management for a Digital Camera 156

6.4.1 Bayer Color Filter Array 156

6.4.2 In–camera JPEG Processing 157

6.4.3 Camera RAW Processing 159

6.4.4 Camera RAW Color Management 160

6.4.5 Creating a Camera RAW Profile 161

6.4.6 Digital Negative – DNG 163

6.5 File Formats for Digital Cameras 164

6.5.1 JPEG Lossy File Format 165

6.5.2 TIFF Lossless File Format 166

6.6 Studio Color Management 166

6.7 Summary 167

7 MONITOR PROFILES 171

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Three Cs of Monitor Profiling 173

7.3 Monitor Profiling Solutions 173

7.3.1 Free Utilities 174

7.3.2 Commercial Profiling Software 174

7.3.3 Integrated Soft Proofing Solutions 175

7.3.4 Hardware Calibrated Monitor Systems 176

7.4 Monitor Basics 177

7.4.1 External Brightness and Contrast 177

7.4.2 RGB Primaries 179

7.4.3 White Point 180

7.4.4 Monitor Gamma 181

7.4.5 Luminance Levels 182

7.4.6 The Dingy Yellow Effect 182

7.5 Making a Monitor Profile 184

7.6 Checking a Monitor Profile 185

7.7 Monitor Profiles and Windows 186

7.8 Monitor Profiles and Web Browsers 187

7.9 Monitor Profiles and Mobile Devices 189

7.10 Soft Proofing in Adobe Acrobat 189

7.11 Standards for Viewing Booths 190

7.12 Summary 192

8 PRESS AND PRINTER PROFILING 193

8.1 Introduction 193

8.2 The Three Cs in Printer Profiling 194

8.3 Calibration in Inkjet Systems 195

8.3.1 Ink Limiting 195

8.3.2 Ink Hooking 196

8.3.3 Ink Splitting 197

8.4 Calibration in Digital Presses 198

8.5 Calibration in Offset Printing 199

8.5.1 G7 Calibration 200

8.5.2 Shared Neutral Appearance vs. Full Color Match 202

8.6 Printer Test Charts 203

8.6.1 Commonly Used Printer Test Charts 204

8.6.2 Visual vs. Random Layout 206

8.7 Printing and Measuring the Test Chart 207

8.7.1 RGB or CMYK or Halftone Printer? 207

8.7.2 Printing with No Color Management 209

8.7.3 Layout for Different Measuring Instruments 210

8.7.4 White Backing 211

8.7.5 Examining the Measurement File 212

8.7.6 Averaging Measurement Files 213

8.8 Making a Printer Profile 214

8.8.1 Black Channel Generation 214

8.8.2 Profile Quality 217

8.9 Checking the Printer Profile 218

8.9.1 Quantitative Checking 218

8.9.2 Qualitative Checking 219

8.10 Reference Printing Conditions 221

8.10.1 Developing Reference Printing Conditions 222

8.10.2 American and European Reference Printing Conditions 223

8.10.3 Using Reference Printing Conditions in Prepress and Press 225

8.10.4 Printing to the Numbers 227

8.11 Rendering Intents 229

8.11.1 Perceptual Rendering Intent 230

8.11.2 Relative Colorimetric Rendering Intent 231

8.11.3 Absolute Colorimetric Rendering Intent 232

8.11.4 Saturation Rendering Intent 233

8.12 Device Link Workflows 234

8.12.1 ICC Device Linking 234

8.12.2 Proprietary Device Linking 235

8.13 Process Control in Printing 236

8.14 Summary 239

9 SPOT COLORS & EXPANDED GAMUT PRINTING 241

9.1 Introduction 241

9.2 Specifying a Spot Color – PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM® 244

9.2.1 PANTONE Guides 245

9.2.2 Pantone Digital Color Libraries 248

9.2.3 PANTONE Ink Formulation Recipes 249

9.2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the PMS system 249

9.3 Printing a Spot Color 252

9.3.1 Printing With a Spot Color Ink 252

9.3.2 Simulating a Spot Color in CMYK 254

9.4 Spot Colors and Digital Presses 255

9.4.1 Creating a Swatch Book on a Digital Press 255

9.4.2 Spot Color Matching in Digital Presses 257

9.4.3 Spot Color Editor for a Digital Press 258

9.5 Expanded Gamut Printing 259

9.6 Software Solutions for Spot Colors and Expanded Gamut Printing 262

9.6.1 Gamut Warning in Adobe Photoshop 262

9.6.2 Using PANTONE Color Manager 263

9.6.3 Color Conversion with Esko Equinox 264

9.6.4 Gamut Calculation in Esko Color Engine Pilot 264

9.7 Summary 266

10 XML AND COLOR MANAGEMENT 269

10.1 Introduction 269

10.2 Markup Languages 270

10.3 XML Design Principles 271

10.4 Basics of XML 272

10.4.1 Declaration 272

10.4.2 Elements 273

10.4.3 Attributes 274

10.4.4 Schema 274

10.4.5 Private Schemas 275

10.4.6 Validation and Conformance 276

10.5 Working with XML 277

10.5.1 iccMAX 278

10.5.2 Windows Color System (WCS) 278

10.5.3 Color Exchange Format (CxF) 280

10.5.4 X–Rite i1Profiler 282

10.5.5 JDF 282

10.6 XML not–Best Practices 283

10.7 Summary 284

11 COLOR MANAGEMENT IN PHOTOSHOP 287

11.1 Introduction 287

11.2 Photoshop Through The Ages 288

11.3 Photoshop s Color Management Rules 290

11.3.1 Rule 1: Image + Profile 291

11.3.2 Rule 2: Profile – Connection Space – Profile 292

11.3.3 Rule 3: Real Versus Simulated Conversions 292

11.4 Photoshop s Working Space 293

11.5 Menus in Photoshop 293

11.5.1 Opening an Image 295

11.5.2 Image Status 296

11.5.3 Color Settings 298

11.5.4 Assign Profile 299

11.5.5 Convert to Profile 301

11.5.6 Soft Proof Setup 302

11.6 Photoshop and Printing 304

11.6.1 Photoshop s Print Settings 304

11.6.2 Hard Proofing 306

11.7 Putting It All Together 307

11.8 Summary

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