Sustainable Environmental Engineering

  • ID: 4449618
  • Book
  • 528 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The important resource that explores the twelve design principles of sustainable environmental engineering

Sustainable Environmental Engineering (SEE) is to research, design, and build Environmental Engineering Infrastructure System (EEIS) in harmony with nature using life cycle cost analysis and benefit analysis and life cycle assessment and to protect human health and environments at minimal cost. The foundations of the SEE are the twelve design principles (TDPs) with three specific rules for each principle. The TDPs attempt to transform how environmental engineering could be taught by prioritizing six design hierarchies through six different dimensions. Six design hierarchies are prevention, recovery, separation, treatment, remediation, and optimization. Six dimensions are integrated system, material economy, reliability on spatial scale, resiliency on temporal scale, and cost effectiveness. In addition, the authors, two experts in the field, introduce major computer packages that are useful to solve real environmental engineering design problems. 

The text presents how specific environmental engineering issues could be identified and prioritized under climate change through quantification of air, water, and soil quality indexes. For water pollution control, eight innovative technologies which are critical in the paradigm shift from the conventional environmental engineering design to water resource recovery facility (WRRF) are examined in detail. These new processes include UV disinfection, membrane separation technologies, Anammox, membrane biological reactor, struvite precipitation, Fenton process, photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutants, as well as green infrastructure. Computer tools are provided to facilitate life cycle cost and benefit analysis of WRRF. This important resource:

    Includes statistical analysis of engineering design parameters using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)

    Presents Monte Carlos simulation using Crystal ball to quantify uncertainty and sensitivity of design parameters

    Contains design methods of new energy, materials, processes, products, and system to achieve energy positive WRRF that are illustrated with Matlab

    Provides information on life cycle costs in terms of capital and operation for different processes using MatLab

Written for senior or graduates in environmental or chemical engineering, Sustainable Environmental Engineering defines and illustrates the TDPs of SEE. Undergraduate, graduate, and engineers should find the computer codes are useful in their EEIS design. The exercise at the end of each chapter encourages students to identify EEI engineering problems in their own city and find creative solutions by applying the TDPs. For more information, please visit [external URL]  

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Preface xv

1 Renewable Resources and Environmental Quality 1

1.1 Renewable Resources and Energy 1

1.2 Human Demand and Footprint 5

1.3 Challenges and Opportunities 9

1.4 Carrying Capacity 11

1.5 Air, Water, and Soil Quality Index 13

1.6 Air, Water, and Soil Pollution 19

1.7 Life Cycle Assessment 21

1.8 Environmental Laws 22

1.9 Exercise 24

2 Health Risk Assessment 29

2.1 Environmental Health 29

2.2 Environmental Standards 31

2.3 Health Risk Assessment 36

2.4 QSAR Analysis in HRA 46

2.5 Quantification of Uncertainty 54

2.6 Exercise 62

References 63

3 Twelve Design Principles of Sustainable Environmental Engineering 67

3.1 Sustainability 67

3.2 Challenges and Opportunities 69

3.3 Sustainable Environmental Engineering 74

3.4 SEE Design Principles 78

3.5 Principle 8: Separation 84

3.6 Implementation of the SEE Design Principles 88

3.7 Exercise 91

References 93

4 Integrated and Interconnected Systems 95

4.1 Principle 1 95

4.2 Challenges and Opportunities 98

4.3 Integrated Solid Waste Management 103

4.4 Integrated Air Quality Management (IAQM) 131

4.5 Exercise 132

References 134

5 Reliable Systems on a Spatial Scale 135

5.1 Principle 2 135

5.2 Integrated System Approach 137

5.3 Scale–up of Laboratory or Pilot Design to Full–scale Plant 141

5.4 Exercise 154

References 155

6 Resiliency on Temporal Scale 157

6.1 Principle 3 157

6.2 Challenges and Opportunities 159

6.3 Discharge Standards 159

6.4 Population Growth 160

6.5 Steady Versus Unsteady 162

6.6 Hydraulic Condition of Different Reactors 167

6.7 Chemical Kinetics 168

6.8 Group Theory Predicting Hydroxyl Radical Kinetic Constants 172

6.9 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Halogen–substituted Meta–phenols by UV/TiO2 172

6.10 Environmental Issues on Different Temporal Scales 178

6.11 Exercise 181

References 182

7 Efficiency of Renewable Materials 185

7.1 Principle 4 185

7.2 Stoichiometry 185

7.3 Avoid the Addition of Chemicals 187

7.4 Design Efficient Reactors 203

7.4.1 Cost of Different Volume Reactors 212

7.5 Exercise 213

References 214

8 Efficiency of Renewable Energy 215

8.1 Principle 5 215

8.2 Challenges and Opportunities 216

8.3 Energy Conservation Laws 218

8.4 Energy Balances 223

8.5 Benchmarks for Unit Energy Consumption in WTP and WWTP 225

8.6 Energy Consumption by Pump 232

8.7 Solar Energy 233

8.8 Exercise 235

References 236

9 Prevention 239

9.1 Principle 6 239

9.2 Challenges and Opportunities 240

9.3 Green Infrastructure 241

9.4 Design Tools of Rain Harvest 244

9.5 Design Anaerobic Digester Reactor 262

9.6 Green Roof Design 263

9.7 Rain Garden Design 268

9.8 Exercise 276

References 277

10 Recovery 279

10.1 Principle 7 279

10.2 Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater 280

10.3 Phosphorus Recovery 283

10.4 Capital and Operation Cost of Reclaiming Water for Reuse 286

10.5 Exercise 317

References 319

11 Separation 321

11.1 Principle 8 321

11.2 Challenges and Opportunities 323

11.3 Precipitation 324

11.4 Coagulation and Flocculation 325

11.5 Membrane Filtration Systems 333

11.6 Activated Carbon Adsorption 335

11.7 Anaerobic Membrane Biological Reactor 339

11.8 Air Stripping 341

11.9 LCA Tools for WWTPs 350

11.10 Capital and O&M Costs of Membrane Filtration 353

11.11 Exercise 361

References 362

12 Treatment 365

12.1 Principle 9 365

12.2 Challenges 365

12.3 Environmental Regulations 366

12.4 UV Disinfection 370

12.5 Virus Sensitivity Index of UV Disinfection 376

12.6 Bacteria Sensitivity Index (BSI) with Shoulder Effect 381

12.7 Emerging Treatment Technologies 386

12.8 Design Considerations of UV Disinfection System 389

12.9 Exercise 392

References 392

13 Green Retrofitting and Remediation 395

13.1 Principle 10 395

13.2 Challenges of WWTP Design 395

13.3 Anaerobic Digestion for Biogas Production 396

13.4 Best Practice Benchmark 399

13.5 Green Retrofitting 400

13.6 Sludge Processing and Disposal 406

13.7 Green Remediation 410

13.8 Tools 421

13.8.1 SiteWiseTM 421

13.9 Exercise 421

References 423

14 Optimization through Modeling and Simulation 425

14.1 Principle 425

14.2 Introduction 425

14.3 Challenges and Opportunities 428

14.4 Modeling of the Fenton Process 428

14.5 Simulation 436

14.6 Optimization 437

14.7 Validation and Uncertainty 447

14.8 Exercise 448

References 450

15 Life Cycle Cost and Benefit Analysis 453

15.1 Principle 453

15.2 Challenges and Opportunities 453

15.3 Optimum Pipe Size 454

15.4 Advanced Oxidation Process Costs 461

15.5 Recovery of N and P 465

15.6 Entrepreneur in SEE 492

15.7 Innovation in SEE 495

15.7.1 Innovative Technologies 495

15.8 Exercise 497

References 499

Index 501

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Walter Z. Tang
Mika Sillanpää
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