Threats to Homeland Security. Reassessing the All-Hazards Perspective. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 4449622
  • Book
  • 576 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Addresses threats to homeland security from terrorism and emergency management from natural disasters

Threats to Homeland Security, Second Edition examines the foundations of today′s security environment, from broader national security perspectives to specific homeland security interests and concerns. It covers what we protect, how we protect it, and what we protect it from. In addition, the book examines threats from both an international perspective (state vs non–state actors as well as kinds of threat capabilities from cyber–terrorism to weapons of mass destruction) and from a national perspective (sources of domestic terrorism and future technological challenges, due to globalization and an increasingly interconnected world).

This new edition of Threats to Homeland Security updates previous chapters and provides new chapters focusing on new threats to homeland security today, such as the growing nexus between crime and terrorism, domestic and international intelligence collection, critical infrastructure and technology, and homeland security planning and resources as well as the need to reassess the all–hazards dimension of homeland security from a resource and management perspective.

  • Features new chapters on homeland security intelligence, crime and domestic terrorism, critical infrastructure protection, and resource management
  • Provides a broader context for assessing threats to homeland security from the all–hazards perspective, to include terrorism and natural disasters
  • Examines potential targets at home and abroad
  • Includes a comprehensive overview of U.S. policy, strategy, and technologies for preventing and countering terrorism
  • Includes self–assessment areas, key terms, summary questions, and application exercises. On–line content includes PPT lessons for each chapter and a solutions key for academic adopters

Threats to Homeland Security, Second Edition is an excellent introductory text on homeland security for educators, as well as a good source of training for professionals in a number of homeland security–related disciplines.

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Notes on Contributors xiii

Preface  xvi

Acknowledgments  xxiii

1.  The Changing Nature of National Security 1

Introduction 2

1.1 Foundations of American Security Policy 2

1.1.1 Geopolitics at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 3

1.1.2 National Security and World War II 6

Self–Check  8

1.2 Security in the Cold War Era 8

1.2.1 Bipolarity versus Multipolarity 10

1.2.2 Containing Communism  12

1.2.3 Non–Communist Threats  16

Self–Check  17

1.3 Security in the Post–Cold War Era: Pre–9/11 17

1.3.1 Changing Threats 18

1.3.2 New Conflicts, New Responses 18

1.3.3 Reorganization of National Security Policy 20

Self–Check  21

1.4 National Security and Terrorism: Post–9/11 21

1.4.1 Globalization and Geopolitics 22

1.4.2 The Bush Administration s Global War on Terrorism 24

1.4.3 The Obama Administration s New National

Security Strategy 26

1.4.4 Homeland Security and National Security 27

Self–Check  28

Summary  29

Key Terms 30

Assess Your Understanding 35

Summary Questions 35

Applying This Chapter 36

You Try It  37

2.  Reassessing the All–Hazards Perspective  38

Introduction 39

2.1 Natural Disasters: Things We Can Expect to Happen  39

2.1.1 The History of Natural Disasters in the United States 40

2.1.2 Natural Disaster Response  41

2.1.3 Natural Disasters in a Post–9/11 World 44

Self–Check  46

2.2 Accidental Hazards: Things We Can Try to Prevent 46

2.2.1 History of Accidental Hazards in the United States 46

2.2.2 Accidental Hazard Prevention and Response 48

2.2.3 Accidental Hazards in a Post–9/11 World 50

Self–Check  51

2.3 Man–Made Hazards: Things We Hope Don t Happen  51

2.3.1 History of Man–Made Disasters Caused by

Human Error in the United States 52

2.3.2 Man–Made Disaster Mitigation and Response 53

2.3.3 Man–Made Disasters in a Post–9/11 World  55

Self–Check  56

2.4 Reassessing the All–Hazards Perspective and Disasters  56

Self–Check  59

Summary  59

Key Terms 60

Assess Your Understanding 62

Summary Questions 62

Applying This Chapter 63

You Try It  64

3.  Us Homeland Security Interests         65

Introduction 66

3.1 What Is Homeland Security? 66

3.1.1 The Merging of Traditions 67

3.1.2 Prevailing Homeland Security Theories 71

Self–Check  76

3.2 Additional Context for Homeland Security 77

3.2.1 Urban Versus Rural 77

3.2.2 Technologies 78

3.2.3 Political and Economic Factors 79

3.2.4 Security Versus Civil Liberties 81

Self–Check  84

3.3 Homeland Security Enterprise  84

3.3.1 Federal Partners 85

3.3.2 State and Local Partners 90

3.3.3 Whole Community Partners 91

Self–Check  97

3.4 Revisiting the All–Hazards Approach 98

Self–Check  100

Summary  101

Key Terms 101

Assess Your Understanding 105

Summary Questions 105

Applying This Chapter 106

You Try It  108

4.  Understanding Threat Assessments     109

Introduction 110

4.1 Background on Threat Assessments and Risk Management 111

4.1.1 Risk Management and Threat Assessment from the

All–Hazards Perspective  111

4.1.2 Assessing Threats and Civil Liberties  113

4.1.3 Homeland Security Risk Management Doctrine  114

Self–Check  116

4.2 A General Framework of Analysis: What to Assess 116

4.2.1 The Disaster Impact Process 117

4.2.2 Pre–Impact Conditions 117

4.2.3 Event–Specific Conditions 120

4.2.4 Final Thoughts on What to Assess  122

Self–Check  122

4.3 A Matrix Approach: How to Assess 123

4.3.1 Risk Matrices  124

4.3.2 Composite Exposure Indicator 127

4.3.3 HAZUS 128

4.3.4 Vulnerability Assessments 128

4.3.5 Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk

Assessment 129

4.3.6 Final Thoughts on How to Assess 130

Self–Check  133

4.4 The Whole–Community Approach of the National

Preparedness System 133

4.4.1 Prevention  136

4.4.2 Protection 137

4.4.3 Mitigation 137

4.4.4 Response  139

4.4.5 Recovery 140

Self–Check  143

Summary  144

Key Terms 144

Assess Your Understanding 148

Summary Questions 148

Applying This Chapter 148

You Try It  150

5.  Critical Infrastructure Security, Emergency Preparedness, and Operational Continuity            .151

Introduction 152

5.1 Defining Critical Infrastructure 152

5.1.1 Defining the Sectors 153

5.1.2 Information Sharing and Analysis Centers  154

Self–Check  157

5.2 Known Threats to Critical Infrastructure 157

5.2.1 Natural Hazard Threats 158

5.2.2 Terrorism and Human Threats  162

5.2.3 Nontraditional Aviation Technology (NTAT) 165

5.2.4 Cybersecurity Threats 166

Self–Check  168

5.3 Risk Identification, Analysis, and Management 169

5.3.1 Inventory and Critical Assets and Functions 169

5.3.2 Intelligence Functions   .171

Self–Check  175

5.4 Emergency Operations and Continuity of Planning 175

5.4.1 Critical Infrastructure Protection Planning and the All–Hazards Perspective 175

5.4.2 Crisis Management Team 177

Self–Check  178

Summary  178

Key Terms 179

Assess Your Understanding 181

Summary Questions 181

Applying This Chapter 181

You Try It  182

6.  State Actors and Terrorism 183

Introduction 184

6.1 Defining Terrorism and Other Forms of Collective Violence 184

6.1.1 Legal Definitions of Terrorism 190

6.1.2 The Heyday of State–Sponsored Terrorist Groups 193

6.1.3 The End of the Cold War, Globalization, and

the Decline of State Sponsorship 195

Self–Check  197

6.2 Contemporary State Sponsors of Terrorism 197

6.2.1 Iran 199

6.2.2 Sudan 201

6.2.3 Syria 203

Self–Check  205

6.3 International and Domestic Responses to State–Sponsored Terror 205

6.3.1 United Nations Security Council (UNSC) 205

6.3.2 Other Multilateral Efforts 206

6.3.3 US International Counterterrorism Strategy  208

Self–Check  210

Summary  211

Key Terms 214

Assess Your Understanding 216

Summary Questions 216

Applying This Chapter 217

You Try It  218

7.  Non–State Actors and Terrorism   219

Introduction 220

7.1 Explaining the Different Types of Non–state Actors 220

7.1.1 Defining Violent Non–state Actors              .220

7.1.2 Defining Non–state Terrorism 221

7.1.3 Terrorism and Terrorists 221

Self–Check  223

7.2 Non–state Terrorism as a Security Threat 223

7.2.1 Reasons for the Prevalence of Violent Non–state Actors 224

7.2.2 Non–state Terrorism as a Domestic and International Threat 225

7.2.3 Assessing the Threat Posed by Violent Non–state Actors 227

Self–Check  228

7.3 The Typology of Violent Non–state Actors 228

7.3.1 Political/Ideological Terrorism 231

7.3.2 Ethno–Nationalist or Separatist Terrorism 236

7.3.3 Religious Terrorism 240

7.3.4 Motivational Trends in Non–state Terrorism 247

Self–Check  248

7.4 Methods of Non–state Violence 248

7.4.1 Conventional and Unconventional Methods of

Non–state Violence 249

Self–Check  255

7.5 International Strategies for Countering Non–state Violence 255

7.5.1 The Military Option 257

7.5.2 The Political Option 259

Self–Check  260

Summary  261

Key Terms 261

Assess Your Understanding 265

Summary Questions 265

Applying This Chapter 266

You Try It  267

8.  Cyber–Crime, Cyber–Terrorism, and Cyber–Warfare  268

Introduction 269

8.1 The Cyber Threat 269

8.1.1 Defining Cyber–Crime, Cyber–Terrorism, and Cyber–Warfare  271

8.1.2 What Can Cyber–Crime, Cyber–Terrorism, and Cyber–Warfare Do?  272

Self–Check  275

8.2 8.2 Assessing Capability and Intent 275

8.2.1 Who Can Conduct Cyber–Crime, Cyber–Terrorism, and Cyber–Warfare?  275

8.2.2 Tools of Cyber–Terrorism  279

Self–Check  281

8.3 Assessing Consequences 281

8.3.1 Why America Is Vulnerable to Cyber–Attacks 283

8.3.2 The Impact of a Cyber–Terrorist Attack 285

Self–Check  286

8.4 Determining Defenses against Cyber–Crime , Cyber–Terrorism, and Cyber–Warfare  286

8.4.1 The Government and Private Sector Response to Threats in Cyberspace 288

8.4.2 The US Military Response to Cyber–Warfare 291

8.4.3 The New Battlefields of Cyber–Warfare 295

Self–Check  296

Summary  296

Key Terms 297

Assess Your Understanding 301

Summary Questions 301

Applying This Chapter 302

You Try It  303

9.  Weapons of Mass Destruction and Disruption   304

Introduction 305

9.1 Chemical Weapons and Their Consequences  305

9.1.1 History of Chemical Weapons Use 307

9.1.2 Chemical Agents and Their Effects 308

9.1.3 The Threat of Chemical Weapons and Terrorism  311

Self–Check  313

9.2 Biological Weapons and Their Consequences 313

9.2.1 History of Biological Weapons Use 313

9.2.2 Biological Agents and Their Effects 315

9.2.3 The Threat of Biological Weapons and Terrorism  316

Self–Check  319

9.3 Nuclear and Radiological Weapons and Their Consequences 319

9.3.1 Radiological Materials and Their Effects 321

9.3.2 History of Nuclear Material Discoveries and Weapons Development  323

9.3.3 The Threat of Nuclear Weapons and Terrorism 324

9.3.4 Managing Radiological Incidents and Their

Aftermath 327

Self–Check  329

Summary  329

Key Terms 330

Assess Your Understanding 332

Summary Questions 332

Applying This Chapter 333

You Try It  334

10.  Domestic Terrorism   335

Introduction 336

10.1 Terrorism in the United States: Across Time and Space 337

10.1.1 Eighteenth– to Twentieth–Century Terrorism 337

10.1.2 Late Twentieth–Century Terrorism  339

10.1.3 Early Twenty–First–Century Terrorism 340

Self–Check  344

10.2 Homegrown Leaderless Resistance and Foreign Terrorists  344

10.2.1 Understanding Leaderless Resistance  345

10.2.2 Origins of Lone Wolves 346

10.2.3 Assessing the Lone–Wolf Threat in the

United States  347

10.2.4 Foreign Terrorist Organizations  349

10.2.5 Foreign Organizers 350

Self–Check  352

10.3 Crime and Terrorism 353

10.3.1 Why Would Terrorism and Crime Converge? 353

10.3.2 Where Terrorism and Crime Converge and

Why It Matters 354

Self–Check  356

10.4 The US Domestic Response to Terrorism 356

10.4.1 Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) 357

10.4.2 The Lead Agency Approach and Counterterrorism 359

10.4.3 Police and Counterterrorism 360

Self–Check  364

Summary  365

Key Terms 366

Assess Your Understanding 369

Summary Questions 369

Applying This Chapter 370

You Try It  371

11.  Enablers of Mass Effects  372

Introduction 373

11.1 The Power of Information and Ideas 373

11.1.1 Ideas and Terrorism  376

11.1.2 Ideas and Disasters 378

Self–Check  381

11.2 Media and Terrorism 381

11.2.1 The Internet and Terrorism 382

11.2.2 Social Media, Terrorism, and Disaster Response 386

Self–Check  395

11.3 The Role of Educational Institutions 395

11.3.1 Alternative Educational Institutions  396

11.3.2 International Students in the United States 396

Self–Check  399

Summary  399

Key Terms 400

Assess Your Understanding 402

Summary Questions 402

Applying This Chapter 402

You Try It  404

12.  Homeland Security Intelligence  405

Introduction 406

12.1 Intelligence and Homeland Security 406

12.1.1 NYPD Surveillance of Muslim Communities 406

12.1.2 What Is Intelligence?  407

12.1.3 The Limited Historical Role of Intelligence in Domestic Affairs 411

Self–Check  412

12.2 The Structure of Intelligence Organizations  412

12.2.1 National–Level Intelligence Organizations 414

12.2.2 The Department of Homeland Security and Intelligence 418

12.2.3 State, Local, and Tribal Government 420

12.2.4 The Private Sector 422

12.2.5 Intelligence Collaboration 423

Self–Check  427

12.3 Methods of Collecting Intelligence Information  427

12.3.1 Human Intelligence Collection 429

12.3.2 Open–Source Intelligence Collection 430

12.3.3 Technical Intelligence Collection .432

Self–Check  436

12.4 Challenges to Homeland Security Intelligence 436

12.4.1 Balancing Liberty and Security in Homeland

Security Intelligence 437

12.4.2 Intelligence Support to Disaster Relief  440

Self–Check  441

Summary  441

Key Terms 443

Assess Your Understanding 446

Summary Questions 446

Applying This Chapter 447

You Try It  448

13.  Homeland Security Planning and Resources    449

Introduction 450

13.1 Basics of Homeland Security Planning  450

13.1.1 Planning for Homeland Security Activities 451

13.1.2 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review 452

13.1.3 Expanding on the QHSR: The DHS Strategic Plan  454

13.1.4 Final Thoughts on the QHSR 456

Self–Check  457

13.2 Coordinating Homeland Security Planning 457

13.2.1 The Six–Step Planning Process  458

13.2.2 Performance Measurement: The Challenging Art of Measuring Success in Homeland Security Planning 461

13.2.3 SMART Measurement 462

Self–Check  463

13.3 The Logic Model: A Process Framework to Visually Demonstrate the Performance Measurement Process 463

13.3.1 Components of a Logic Model  464

13.3.2 Challenges in Performance Measurement 467

Self–Check  467

13.4 Education in Homeland Security   .468

13.4.1 Homeland Security Education Core Curricula  468

13.4.2 Research in Homeland Security: Trends and Future Thoughts  471

Self–Check  473

Summary  473

Key Terms 474

Assess Your Understanding 476

Summary Questions 476

Applying This Chapter 476

You Try It  478

References    479

Index 538

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Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., is an Assistant Professor of Politics at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC where he teaches courses in Intelligence Operations, Intelligence Analysis, Terrorism and Political Violence, Security Management and Risk Assessment, Homeland Security, and U.S.–Latin American Relations in support of Information Systems Technology, Political Science, and Intelligence and National Security Studies degree programs. He spent 23 years in active duty as an Army Intelligence and Latin America Foreign Area Officer.

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