Air Quality Control Report Ed1 2018

  • ID: 4456867
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 177 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Alstom
  • Babcock & Wilcox
  • Beijing Guodian
  • China Boqi
  • Chinese AQCS vendors
  • Doosan Heavy Industries
  • MORE

A strong trend towards installing super- and ultra-supercritical power plants has been evident over the past two decades. Nonetheless, the great majority of installed coal-fired power plants still operate under subcritical steam conditions, and, these plants do not reach performance levels of state-of-the-art power generation technology. The total capacity of new subcritical power plants has reached a record high due to additional installations over the last five years. Ten countries represent all together more than 85% of the world’s total CO2 emissions and large proportions of SO2, NOx and PM emissions from production of electricity and heat using coal and peat - in total about 8.5 Gt of CO2 are emitted from China, the United States, India, Germany, Russia, Japan, South Africa, Australia, Korea and Poland.

Highlights:

  • Market forecasts of AQCS in $ to 2022 for each country and technology.
  • The penetration of each AQCS technology is tabulated for the eleven countries which account for 80% of global emissions from 2000, with forecasts of penetration to 2020.
  • Air Quality has made extraordinary progress in the last two decades, but is it enough? Can this progress keep up with the ever rising demand for energy in the developing world? What will happen in 25 years?
  • Europe, the United States and Japan have set demanding emissions limits. China, the world’s largest emitter, has exceeded these limits, so has Korea. After a slow start, India is now rising to its huge challenge. Indonesia is actively studying both countries to map its own path.
  • The AQCS technologies are analysed in detail, and co-benefits outlined.
  • CCS Carbon Capture and Storage has been a successful technology in industry for 30 years. The reasons and economics are analysed and application for the power sector is analysed.
  • The EU ETS and UN CDM carbon markets - their structure and failures.
  • Competitive analysis of AQCS vendors.
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
2 of 5

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Alstom
  • Babcock & Wilcox
  • Beijing Guodian
  • China Boqi
  • Chinese AQCS vendors
  • Doosan Heavy Industries
  • MORE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
HELE
Secondary air control - AQCS - Air Quality Controls Systems
Penetration of AQCS technologies in power sector in leading countries, 2015
Co-benefits
Control technology emission reduction effect on all technologies
SO2 reduction - FGD
NOx reduction, LNB, SCR & SNCR
PM Particulate matter
Mercury
Fly ash - gypsum
Acid rain
CCS - Carbon capture and storage
AQCS vendors
Alstom
MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
Doosan Heavy Industries
Babcock & Wilcox
Ducon
MET Marsulex
Installed bases of global AQCS leaders
Chinese AQCS vendors

1. THE ENVIRONMENTAL EQUATION
Greenhouses gases (GHGs)
Air pollutants
Primary and secondary reductions in emissions

2. THE EMISSIONS AND THEIR SOURCES
Focus of this report
Air pollutants
1. Sulphur oxides - SOx
2. Nitrogen oxides - NOx
3. Particulate matter - PM
Sources of pollution
Stationary and mobile man-made sources of emissions
Stationary sources (man-made)
Mobile sources (man-made)
Natural stationary sources
Causes of pollution

3. HELE TECHNOLOGY
Supercritical technology
What is critical pressure - the three stages?
Definitions of pressure - Subcritical - Supercritical - Ultra-supercritical
Trend to supercritical and ultra-supercritical power plants
Development of supercritical technology
SC financing regulations
Fluidised bed combustion
Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants
The materials question
Penetration of HELE technology
China
United States
India
EU
Germany
Poland
Russia
Japan
South Africa
Australia
South Korea

4. OTHER PRIMARY AIR QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
Supply side measures to reduce man made emissions
Improved efficiency in energy use
Appliance efficiency
Demand response
Alternative energy sources - Renewables instead of hydrocarbons
Use of low sulphur coal, or with lower volatile matter
Low-NOx burners (LNB)

5. SECONDARY AQCS, END-OF-PIPE CONTROL MEASURES
Penetration of AQCS technologies in leading countries
Average cost

6. SO2 - FGD, FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION
Sulphur dioxide - SO2
FGD processes
Wet scrubbers
Co-benefits of wet FGD
Seawater scrubber
Lime spray dryer (LSD)
Dry scrubbers
Co-benefits of dry FGD
Furnace or dry sorbent injection (DSI)
Co-benefits of DSI
Alternative technologies for FGD
Wet versus Dry
Upgrades to existing wet FGD systems
FGD penetration
Legislation for FGD in Europe
Legislation for FGD in the USA
FGD wastewater
The history of FGD
Economics of FGD
Major FGD players
FGD demand

7. NOx REDUCTION, SCR & SNCR
Nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
Primary - Combustion controls
LNB
OFA
FGR
Co-benefits of combustion NOx controls
Secondary - Post-Combustion NOx Controls
Reburning
SCR
SNCR
Hybrid NOx controls
Legislation and penetration of LNB and SCR
United States
China
Japan
Korea
India

8. EUROPE’S MAJOR COAL PLANT EMITTERS OF SO2 & NOx
Europe and AQCS

9. PM PARTICULATE MATTER
What is particulate matter?
Fly ash
PM emission standards
Primary measures of PM reduction
Secondary measures of PM reduction
ESP electrostatic precipitators
Wet electrostatic precipitators
Advantages of ESPs:
Disadvantages:
ESP penetration
ESP manufacturers
Cyclones dust collectors (CYC)
Advantages of cyclones:
Disadvantages:
Fabric filters/Baghouses
Filter cake
HED High efficiency dedusters
Wet scrubbers
Advantages of wet scrubbers
Disadvantages
Hybrid technology
Co-benefits of PM controls
Industrial AQCS applications
Some industrial dedusting systems
Biomass and coal dedusting
Cement, clinker cooler and pre-heater dedusting
Pyrolysis, incineration and gasification
Glass and ceramic furnaces

10. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS- MERCURY
Mercury emissions
Activated carbon injection (ACI)
Halogen addition
Co-benefit methods for mercury capture

11. FLY ASH - GYPSUM
Co-firing with biomass
Gypsum

12. ACID RAIN
Forms of acid deposition
Wet deposition
Dry deposition

13. NATIONAL EMISSIONS PROFILES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
United States
The power sector
The industrial sector
European Union
The power sector
The industrial sector
The transport sector
China
The outlook for air quality to 2040
The industrial sector
The transport sector
The buildings sector
India
The power sector
The industry sector
The transport sector
The buildings sector
Southeast Asia ASEAN
The power sector
The industry sector
The transport policies
The buildings sector
National profiles of Southeast Asia
Cambodia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Viet Nam
Africa
The power sector
The industry sector
The transport sector
The buildings sector

14. CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE
Carbon abatement
Capture
Pre-combustion capture
Post-combustion capture
Oxy-fuel combustion systems
Transport
Storage
Clusters
Cost of CCS
Industry experience
Carbon capture milestones
Natural gas processing
Fertiliser production
Hydrogen production
Coal gasification
Iron and steel making
Ethanol production
Primary recovery
Secondary recovery
Enhanced, or tertiary recovery
Thermally enhanced oil recovery TEOR
Chemical injection
Gas injection, CO2-EOR
Liquid carbon dioxide superfluids
Microbial treatment
Next generation CO2 EOR
Cost of EOR
Japanese EOR

15. THE CARBON MARKET AND PRICING
Two main types of carbon pricing; emissions trading systems (ETS) and carbon taxes.
EU ETS
Features of EU ETS phase 3
Outcomes of the EU ETS
Countries with the greatest reduction in carbon emissions

16. AQCS SALES

17. AQCS VENDORS
Alstom
MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
Doosan Heavy Industries
Babcock & Wilcox
Ducon
MET Marsulex
Chinese AQCS vendors
Fujian Longking Co Ltd
Zhejiang Feida MHPS High Efficiency Flue Gas Cleaning System Engineering Co Ltd (FMH)
Beijing Guodian
Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co Ltd
China Boqi

GLOSSARY

METHODOLOGY

Penetration of AQCS

AQCS Technologies
Countries

Figures
Figure 1: The greenhouse effect - natural and human enhanced
Figure 2: Beijing after rain and on a day with smog
Figure 3: Possible reductions in GHG emissions by 2050
Figure 4: Mapping air pollution from sources to impacts
Figure 5: Selected primary air pollutants and their sources
Figure 6: Energy-related SO2 emissions by region and sector, 2015
Figure 7: Energy-related NOx emissions by region and sector, 2015
Figure 8: Energy-related PM2.5 emissions by region and sector, 2015
Figure 9: Total coal-fired power plant capacity by age and performance
Figure 10: Annual installed capacity of global coal fired plant capacity
Figure 11: China, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 12: United States, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 13: India, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 14: EU coal-fired fleet, by age
Figure 15: Germany, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 16: Poland, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 17: Russia, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 18: Transition of Japanese energy generation mix after the Fukushima disaster)
Figure 19: Japan, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 20: South Africa, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 21: Australia, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 22: South Korea, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
Figure 23: Main AQCS technologies
Figure 24: Coal-fired power plant flue gas ‘Treatment Train’
Figure 25: India Is Overtaking China as the World’s Largest Emitter of Anthropogenic Sulphur Dioxide
Figure 26: The most common FGD technologies
Figure 27: Sub-divisions of FGD processes which included other pollutants such as NOx
Figure 28: Wet flue gas desulphurisation
Figure 29: Wet flue gas desulphurisation
Figure 30: SO2 air quality in the United States, 1980 to 2014
Figure 31: The growth of FGD in GW capacity from 1930 to 2020
Figure 32: FGD plants built in the US, 1969-1999
Figure 33: Cumulative capacity of FGD on coal-fired power plants, 1972-2005
Figure 34 : FGD prices in $000 per MW in the USA from
Figure 35: Low NOx burners with OFA
Figure 36: Overfire air
Figure 37: Fuel reburning
Figure 38: SCR Selective catalytic reduction
Figure 39: SNCR Selective con-catalytic reduction
Figure 40: The history of NOx regulation in Japan
Figure 41: Comparison of Tokyo environment in 1970 and today.
Figure 42: Utility shares of Europe’s major emitting power stations
Figure 43: Alternative technologies for removing particulate matter
Figure 44: A typical ESP
Figure 45: A fabric filter or bag house
Figure 46: Biomass and coal dedusting
Figure 47: Clinker cooler and pre-heater dedusting
Figure 48: Pyrolysis, incineration and gasification
Figure 49: Glass and ceramic furnaces
Figure 50: US gypsum use in gypsum board
Figure 51: Cement production, wastes and byproducts, and the specific amount of wastes and byproducts used in cement production
Figure 52: Acid rain pathway
Figure 53: Measuring acid rain
Figure 54: Coal power capacity equipped with flue-gas desulphurisation and related SO2 emissions in the United States
Figure 55: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in the United States in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 56: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in the United States in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 57: Emissions by air pollutant and by energy sector in the EU in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 58: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in the EU in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 59: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in the EU in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 60: Emissions limits for selected air pollutants in road transport in the EU
Figure 61: Emissions by air pollutant and by energy sector in China in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 62: Coal power capacity equipped with flue-gas desulphurisation and related SO2 emissions in China
Figure 63: Change in electricity generation and air pollutant emissions in China in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 64: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in China in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 65: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in China in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 66: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in China in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 67: Emissions by air pollutant and by energy sector in India in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 68: Change in electricity generation and air pollutant emissions in India in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 69: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in India in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 70: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in India in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 71: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in India in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 72: Emissions by air pollutant and energy sector in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 73: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 74: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 75: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 76: Emissions by pollutant and by energy sector in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 77: SO2 emissions from the power sector in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 78: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 79: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 80: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 81: Main Carbon Capture & Storage Industry Divisions
Figure 82: A pre-combustion capture system
Figure 83: Post combustion scrubbing technology
Figure 84: An oxy-fuel system
Figure 85: Diagram showing how CO2 is stored underground
Figure 86: Major CCS clusters
Figure 87: A CO2 transport network; a capture cluster, capture/collection hub and storage hub
Figure 88: Enhanced recovery
Figure 89: Gas flow from CO2 source to capture and injection facilities
Figure 90: Aerial photo of the CO2 capture and injection facilities
Figure 91: Map of existing, emerging and potential carbon pricing instruments (ETS and tax)
Figure 92: EU ETS emissions by main activity type in 2016
Figure 93: The evolution of the EU carbon price
Figure 94: EU coal plants
Figure 95: Annual sales of AQCS equipment in real (2018) and nominal $
Figure 96: Total AQCS sales in 2018 in $ billion by country, 2018
Figure 97: Historical background of Alstom since 1920
Figure 98: Alstom as No 1 supplier
Figure 99: Global AQCS base of MHPS
Figure 100: Babcock & Wilcox penstocks for the Hoover Dam

Tables
Table 1: Penetration of AQCS technologies in power sector in leading countries, 2015
Table 2: Control technology emission reduction effect on all technologies
Table 3: Average costs per MW, efficiency and installation time in the US for AQCS technologies
Table 4: FGD penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2000 to 2020
Table 5: FGD penetration in industrial grate boilers by major country, 2005 to 2010
Table 6: Market shares for FGD in the United States
Table 7: SCR and LNB penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2005 to 2020
Table 8: LNB penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2005 to 2020
Table 9: LNB and SCR penetration in gas generation in East Asia, 2005 to 2010
Table 10: Penetration of industrial grate boilers with WET in East Asia
Table 11: The 108 largest emitting power plants of SO2 and NOx in Europe
Table 12: ESP penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2000 to 2020
Table 13: HED penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2005 to 2020
Table 14: ESP penetration in industrial grate boilers by major country, 2005 to 2010
Table 15: Cyclone penetration in industrial grate boilers by major country, 2005 to 2010
Table 16: FF penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2000 to 2020
Table 17: Penetration of power generation and industrial grate boilers with HED in East Asia, 2005 to 2010
Table 18: Penetration of power generation and industrial grate boilers with WET in East Asia, 2005 to 2010
Table 19: Overview of co-benefit mercury removal in AQCS
Table 20: Total AQCS sales in 2018 in $ million by country, 2018 to 2022
Table 21: Alstom AQCS offerings.
Table 22: Installed bases of global AQCS leaders

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  • Alstom
  • Babcock & Wilcox
  • Beijing Guodian
  • China Boqi
  • Chinese AQCS vendors
  • Doosan Heavy Industries
  • Ducon
  • Fujian Longking Co Ltd
  • MET Marsulex
  • MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
  • Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co Ltd
  • Zhejiang Feida MHPS High Efficiency Flue Gas Cleaning System Engineering Co Ltd (FMH)
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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