Sustainable Urban Logistics. Planning and Evaluation

  • ID: 4456942
  • Book
  • 304 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Urban logistics has been a subject of interest to researchers and practitioners for more than 20 years in France and Europe, and more than 40 in the United States. Nevertheless, the subject remains difficult to address by a lack of unification in the definitions and proposed methods but also by what makes its great richness: the diversity of actors and the pluridisciplinarity of the methods and techniques available.

This book, which synthesizes more than 10 years of personal research on the subject, but also experience within different teams and projects, intends to bring a unified vision (and more and more followed at the international level) on logistics planning Urban development. It begins with an overview of research in urban logistics and then describes and defines the main components: flows, actors, infrastructures, management components, technologies, regulations and financing actions. A unified vision of these elements as well as the definition of sustainable urban logistics is proposed.

Then, the book presents the basics of planning and managing sustainable urban logistics. First, the basics of the before–after analysis are introduced, not only for the experiments but also for the simulation of scenarios. To carry out this type of analysis, two main groups of methods are needed: methods for estimating flows and methods for calculating evaluation indicators. The book presents the main global standards and dominant models for the estimation of the urban freight transport demand, i.e. of freight transport needs in urban areas. Then it presents the methods for estimating and simulating transport and distribution schemes (i.e. transport supply) as well as a proposal for integrated supply–demand modeling. All these methods are presented for immediate application to practitioners, accompanied by summary tables and parameters necessary for their implementation.

As far as evaluation is concerned, the book presents a framework for the choice of sustainable indicators and scorecards. Second, the main methods for economic, environmental, social and accessibility assessment are presented. They are accompanied by tables and figures necessary for their implementation. Finally, the main applications of the proposed methods are introduced. The book is meant to be a practical guide to applying the main methods from scientific research to a practical context, and presents examples of quantified and explained application. It is thus the first book that summarizes and presents the main unified methods to help the different decision–makers to implement them in their actions of planning and management of the urban logistics and the transport of goods in town.
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Preface ix

Chapter 1. Where Are We After 20 Years of Urban Logistics? 1

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. The valorization of research in urban logistics: French and international approaches 7

1.3. From research to practice: a plethora of projects, initiatives and their practical application 14

1.3.1. France 23

1.3.2. Italy 25

1.3.3. Southern Europe (Spain, Greece, Portugal and other countries of Mediterranean Europe) 27

1.3.4. Germany 30

1.3.5. Belgium and the Netherlands 32

1.3.6. The United Kingdom 33

1.3.7. Northern Europe (Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark) 33

1.3.8. North America 34

1.3.9. Asia–Pacific Region 35

1.3.10. South America 36

1.3.11. Other regions of the world 37

1.4. Key questions in the quantitative and qualitative identification of urban logistics 38

Chapter 2. A Unified Definition of Sustainable Urban Logistics 43

2.1. The components of sustainability 43

2.2. The flows considered in urban freight transport 49

2.3. The stakeholders involved and their interests 52

2.3.1. Introduction 52

2.3.2. The urban logistics interests of these two categories of stakeholders 54

2.4. Visions for sustainable urban logistics 56

2.4.1. The main definitions of urban logistics 56

2.4.2. Vision of collective utility versus individual profitability 58

2.5. A unified definition of sustainable urban logistics 60

Chapter 3. The Evaluation, Assessment and Analysis of Scenarios as Decision–Making Tools 65

3.1. Assessment and evaluation in urban logistics: a body of work with little unification? 65

3.2. The role of scenario construction in assessments and evaluations 71

3.3. Before after assessments 73

3.4. Proposal of a methodological framework for the assessment and evaluation of the impacts of sustainable urban logistics 76

Chapter 4. Estimating Inter–establishment Flows 83

4.1. Data collection and modeling: close links but not homogeneous 83

4.2. Methodological proposal 94

4.3. Demand generation 96

4.4. Demand distribution models 101

4.5. The construction of routes and distances 106

Chapter 5. The Estimation of Other Urban Freight Transport Flows 121

5.1. Estimating end consumer and urban management flows: a topic less studied, but nevertheless more standardized 121

5.2. Estimating household purchasing activities 125

5.2.1. Some general information on household purchasing activities 125

5.2.2. Proposed methodology 132

5.2.3. Shopping trip generation 133

5.2.4. Distribution of purchase trips: the gravity model 137

5.2.5. Construction of shopping trip chains 139

5.3. Estimating delivery routes to households and delivery depots 143

5.4. Estimation of urban management flows 145

Chapter 6. Estimating and Modeling Change in Urban Logistics 147

6.1. Aims, goals and principles of modeling change in urban logistics 147

6.2. Examples of assessments and analyses using change modeling 151

6.2.1. Modeling the changes induced by the introduction of the SimplyCité UCC to Saint–Étienne 151

6.2.2. Modeling the change(s) brought about by restricting access to the city center 154

6.2.3. Modeling the change brought about by new forms of e–commerce 156

6.3. Generalizing the examples of overall change modeling framework 157

6.4. The importance of solution probleming in change analysis 159

Chapter 7. Indicators and Dashboards for the Evaluation of Sustainable Urban Logistics 165

7.1. The need to evaluate sustainable urban logistics for the definition of dashboards 165

7.2. Methodological proposals 168

7.2.1. The expert network method 171

7.2.2. The co–constructive consensus method 173

7.3. Examples of use 177

7.4. Inputs and limitations of the proposed methodology 182

Chapter 8. Estimating the Impact of Sustainable Urban Logistics 185

8.1. Introduction 185

8.2. Economic evaluation 186

8.2.1. Estimating the direct costs of transportation and storage 187

8.2.2. Analysis of margin on variable costs 189

8.2.3. Cost benefit analysis 193

8.2.4. Example uses of economic valuation methods 198

8.3. Methods for estimating environmental impacts 205

8.3.1. Main methods for estimating environmental impacts 205

8.3.2. Introduction to life cycle analysis 207

8.4. Spatial indicators: centrality, inequality, attractiveness and accessibility 213

8.4.1. Service level indicators 214

8.4.2. Distance and cost indicators 216

8.4.3. Gravitational indicators 217

8.5. Practical considerations of indicator estimation methods 220

Conclusion 225

Bibliography 231

Index 279

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Jesus Gonzalez–Feliu
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