AeroMACS. An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems

  • ID: 4460029
  • Book
  • 480 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This is a pioneering textbook on the comprehensive description of AeroMACS technology. It also presents the process of developing a new technology based on an established standard, in this case IEEE802.16 standards suite.

The text introduces readers to the field of airport surface communications systems and provides them with comprehensive coverage of one the key components of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen); i.e., AeroMACS. It begins with a critical review of the legacy aeronautical communications system and a discussion of the impetus behind its replacement with network–centric digital technologies. It then describes wireless mobile channel characteristics in general, and focuses on the airport surface channel over the 5GHz band. This is followed by an extensive coverage of major features of IEEE 802.16–2009 Physical Layer (PHY)and Medium Access Control (MAC) Sublayer. The text then provides a comprehensive coverage of the AeroMACS standardization process, from technology selection to network deployment. AeroMACS is then explored as a short–range high–data–throughput broadband wireless communications system, with concentration on the AeroMACS PHY layer and MAC sublayer main features, followed by making a strong case in favor of the IEEE 802.16j Amendment as the foundational standard for AeroMACS networks.

AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard–Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems covers topics such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), coded OFDMA, scalable OFDMA, Adaptive Modulation–Coding (AMC), Multiple–Input Multiple–Output (MIMO) systems, Error Control Coding (ECC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) techniques, Time Division Duplexing (TDD), Inter–Application Interference (IAI), and so on. It also looks at future trends and developments of AeroMACS networks as they are deployed across the world, focusing on concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity. In addition, this text: 

  • Discusses the challenges posed by complexities of airport radio channels as well as those pertaining to broadband transmissions
  • Examines physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer protocols and signal processing techniques of AeroMACS inherited from IEEE 802.16 standard and WiMAX networks
  • Compares AeroMACS and how it relates to IEEE 802.16 Standard–Based WiMAX

AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard–Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems will appeal to engineers and technical professionals involved in the research and development of AeroMACS, technical staffers of government agencies in aviation sectors, and graduate students interested in standard–based wireless networking analysis, design, and development.

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Preface

Acronyms

Chapter 1: Airport Communications from Analog AM to AeroMACS

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Conventional Aeronautical Communication Domains (Flight Domains)

1.3. VHF Spectrum Depletion

1.4. The ACSAT Project

1.5. Early Digital Communications Technologies for Aeronautics

1.5.1. ACARS Systems

1.5.2. VHF Data Link (VDL) Technologies

1.5.2.1. Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN)

1.5.2.1. VDL Systems

1.5.3. Overlay Broadband Alternatives for Data Transmission

1.5.3.1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Overlay

1.5.3.2 Broadband VHF(B–VHF)

1.5.4. Controller Pilot Data Link Communications; CPDLC

1.6. Selection of a Communications Technology for Aeronautics

1.7. The National Airspace System (NAS) 

1.7.1. Flight Control

1.7.2. United States Civilian Airports

1.8. The Next Generation Air Transportation Systems; NextGen

1.8.1. The NextGen Vision

1.8.2. NextGen Key Components and Functionalities

1.9. Auxiliary Wireless Communications Systems for Airport Surface

1.9.1. Public Safety Mobile Radio

1.9.1.1. Public Safety Communications (PSC) Systems Architecture and Technologies

1.9.1.2. Public Safety Allocated Radio Spectrum

1.9.1.3
700 MHz–Band and the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet)

1.9.2. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) Systems Applications for Airport Surface

1.10. Airport Wired Communications Systems

1.10.1. Airport Fiber Optic Cable Loop System

1.10.2. Applications of CLCS in Airport Surface

1.11. Summary and References

Chapter 2: Cellular Networking and Mobile Radio Channel Characterization

2.1.Introduction

2.2 The Crux of the Cellular Concept

2.2.1 The Pre–Cellular Wireless Mobile Communications Systems

2.2.2 The Core of Cellular Notion

2.2.3. Frequency Reuse and Radio Channel Multiplicity

2.2.3.1. Co–Channel Reuse Ratio (CCRR), Cluster Size, and Reuse Factor

2.2.3.2. Signal to Co–Channel Interference Ratio (SIR)

2.2.3.3. Channel Allocation

2.2.4. Erlang Traffic Theory and Cellular Network Design of Cellular Networks

2.2.4.1. Trunking, Erlang, and Traffic

2.2.4.2. The Grade of Service

2.2.4.3. Blocked Calls Handling Strategies

2.2.4.4. Trunking Efficiency

2.2.4.5. Capacity Enhancement through Cell Splitting

2.2.4.6. Capacity Enhancement via Sectorization

2.3. Cellular Radio Channel Characterization

2.3.1. Cellular Link Impairment

2.3.2. Large Scale (Long–Term) Signal Attenuation (Path–Loss) Computation and Estimation

2.3.2.1. Free Space Propagation and Friis Formula

2.3.2.2. The Key Mechanisms Affecting Radio Wave Propagation

2.3.2.3. The Ray Tracing Technique

2.3.2.4. Ground Reflection and Double Ray Model

2.3.2.5. Empirical Techniques for Large Scale Propagation Loss Estimation

2.3.2.6. Okumura–Hata model

2.3.2.7. COST 231–Hata Model; PCS Extension

2.3.2.8. Stanford University Interim Model (SUI); Erceg Model

2.3.2.9. ECC–33 Model

2.3.3. Large–Scale Fading (Medium Range Attenuation); Shadowing and Foliage

2.3.3.1. Lognormal Shadowing

2.3.3.2. Estimation of Coverage Area and Cell Foot Print

2.3.4. Small–Scale Fading; Multipath Propagation and Doppler Effect

2.3.4.1. Multipath Propagation

2.3.4.2. Double Path Example

2.3.4.3. Doppler Shift

2.3.4.4. Impulse Response of Multipath Channels

2.3.4.5. Delay Spread and Fading Modes

2.3.4.6. Methods of Combating Frequency Selective Fading

2.3.4.7. Coherence Bandwidth and Power Delay Profiles (PDPs)

2.3.4.8. Flat Fading versus Frequency Selective Fading

2.3.4.9. Frequency Dispersion and Coherence Time

2.3.4.10. Classification of Multipath Fading Channels

2.3.4.11. Probabilistic Models for Frequency Flat Fading Channels

2.3.4.12. Rayleigh Fading Channels

2.3.4.13. Rician Fading Channels

2.4. Challenges of Broadband Transmission over the Airport Surface Channel

2.5. Summary and References

Chapter 3: Wireless Channel Characterization for the 5 GHz Band Airport Surface Area
Contributed by David W. Matolak

3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. Importance of Channel Characterization

3.1.2. Channel Definitions

3.1.3. Airport Surface Area Channel

3.2. Statistical Channel Characterization Overview

3.2.1.The Channel Impulse Response and Transfer Function

3.2.2. Statistical Channel Characteristics

3.2.3. Common Channel Parameters and Statistics

3.3. Channel Effects & Signaling

3.3.1. Small–Scale and Large–Scale Fading

3.3.2. Channel Parameters and Signaling Relations

3.4. Measured Airport Surface Area Channels

3.4.1. Measurement Description and Example Results

3.4.2. Path Loss Results

3.5. Airport Surface Area Channel Models

3.5.1. Large/Medium Sized Airports

3.5.2. Small Airports

3.6. Summary and References

Chapter 4: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and Multiple Access

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Fundamental Principles of OFDM Signaling

4.2.1. Parallel Transmission, Orthogonal Multiplexing, Guard Time, and Cyclic Extension

4.2.1.1. Cyclic Prefix and Guard Time

4.2.2. Fourier Transform–Based OFDM Signal

4.2.3. Windowing and Formation of OFDM Signal

4.2.4. OFDM System Implementation

4.2.5. Choice of Modulation Schemes

4.2.6. OFDM System Design: How the Key Parameters are Selected

4.3 Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing: COFDM

4.3.1 Motivation

4.3.2 System–Level Functional Block Diagram of a Fourier–Based COFDM

4.3.3. Classical Applications of COFMA

4.3.3.1. Applications in Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

4.3.3.2. COFDM Applied in Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)

4.3.3.3. Digital Video Broadcasting for Terrestrial TV (DVB–T)

4.4. Performance of Channel Coding in OFDM: Modulation–Coding Combination

4.5. OFDMA

4.5.1. Multiple Access Technologies; TDMA, CDMA, FDMA, and OFDMA

4.5.2. Incentives behind Widespread Applications of OFDMA in Wireless Networks

4.5.3. Subchannelization and Symbol Structure

4.5.4. Permutation Modes for Configuration of Subchannels

4.6. Scalable OFDMA: SOFDMA; the Concept

4.6.1. How to Select Basic Parameters of a SOFDMA System

4.6.2. Options in Scaling

4.7. Summary and References

Chapter 5: The IEEE 802.16 Standards and WiMAX Technology

5.1. Introduction to the IEEE 802.16 Standards for WirelessMAN Networks

5.2. The Evolution and Characterization of the IEEE 802.16 Standards

5.2.1. IEEE 802.16–2004

5.2.2. IEEE 802.16e

5.2.3. IEEE 802.16–2009 and IEEE 802.16–2012

5.2.4. IEEE 802.16j Amendment

5.2.5. The Structure of a WirelessMAN Cell

5.2.6. The Reference Model for IEEE 802.16–2009 

5.3. WiMAX: An IEEE 802.16–Based Technology

5.3.1. Basic Features of WiMAX Systems

5.3.2. WiMAX Physical Layer Characterization

5.3.2.1. OFDMA and SOFDMA for WiMAX Networks

5.3.2.2. Comparison of Duplexing Technologies: TDD Versus FDD

5.3.2.3. Subchannelization for Mobile WiMAX

5.3.2.4. WiMAX TDD Frame Structure

5.3.2.5. Adaptive Modulation and Coding 

5.3.2.6. ARQ and Hybrid ARQ: Multilayer Error Control Schemes

5.3.2.7. Multiple Antenna Techniques, MIMO, and Space–Time Coding

5.3.2.8. Fractional Frequency Reuse to Combat Inter–Cell Interference and to Boost Spectral Efficiency

5.3.2.9. Power Control in WiMAX Networks

5.3.3. WiMAX MAC Layer Description

5.3.3.1. WiMAX Generic MAC Header

5.3.3.2. WiMAX MAC PDU Construction

5.3.3.3. Quality of Service (QoS)

5.3.3.4. Scheduling and Bandwidth

5.3.3.5. Mobility Management

5.3.4. WiMAX Profiles

5.3.4.1. System Profile

5.3.4.2. Certification Profile

5.3.4.3. WiMAX Forum and Release Versions

5.3.5. WiMAX Network Architecture

5.3.5.1. WiMAX Network Reference Model as Presented by WiMAX Forum

5.3.5.2. Characterization of Major Logical and Physical Components of WiMAX NRM

5.3.5.3. Visual Depiction of WiMAX NRM

5.3.5.4. The Description of WiMAX Reference Points

5.4. Summary and References

Chapter 6: Introduction to AeroMACS

6.1. The Origins of the AeroMACS Concept

6.1.1. WiMAX Salient Features and the Standard Genealogy of AeroMACS

6.2. Defining Documents in the Making of AeroMACS Technology

6.3. AeroMACS Standardization

6.3.1. AeroMACS Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)

6.3.2. Harmonization Document

6.3.3. Overview of Most Recent AeroMACS Profile

6.3.3.1. The AeroMACS Profile Background and Concept of Operations

6.3.3.2. AeroMACS Profile Technical Aspects

6.3.3.3. Profile s Key Assumptions for AeroMACS System Design

6.3.3.4. AeroMACS Radio Profile Requirements and Restrictions

6.3.3.5. AeroMACS Profile Common Part and TDD Format

6.3.4. AeroMACS Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS)

6.3.4.1. AeroMACS Capabilities and Operational Applications

6.3.4.2. MOPS Equipment Test Procedures

6.3.4.3. Minimum Performance Standard

6.3.5. AeroMACS Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards (MASPS)

6.3.6. AeroMACS Technical Manual

6.4. AeroMACS Services and Applications

6.5. AeroMACS Prototype Network and Testbed

6.5.1. Testbed Configuration

6.5.2. Early Testing Procedures and Results

6.5.2.1. Mobile Application Testing with ARV

6.5.2.2. The Results of AeroMACS Mobile Tests with Boeing 737–700

6.5.2.3. AeroMACS Performance Validation

6.6. Summary and References

Chapter 7: AeroMACS Networks Characterization

7.1. Introductory Remarks

7.2. AeroMACS Physical Layer Specifications

7.2.1. OFDM and OFDMA for AeroMACS

7.2.2. AeroMACS OFDMA TDD Frame Configuration

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2. 3. AeroMACS Modulation Formats

7.2.3.1. How to Select a Modulation Technique for a Specific Application

7.2.3.2. General Characteristics of Modulation Schemes Supported by AeroMACS

7.2.4. AeroMACS Channel Coding Schemes

7.2.4.1. Mandatory Channel Coding for AeroMACS

7.2.4.2. Optional CC–RS Code Concatenated Scheme 

7.2.4.3. Convolutional Turbo Coding (CTC) Technique

7.2.5. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) for AeroMACS Link Adaptation

7.2.6. AeroMACS Frame Structure

7.2.7. Computation of AeroMACS Receiver Sensitivity

7.2.8. Fractional Frequency Reuse for WiMAX and AeroMACS Networks

7.2.9. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Configurations for AeroMACS

7.3. Spectrum Considerations

7.4. Spectrum Sharing and Interference Compatibility Constraints

7.5. AeroMACS Media Access Control (MAC) Sublayer

7.5.1. Quality of Service for AeroMACS Networks

7.5.2. Scheduling, Resource Allocation, and Data Delivery

7.5.3. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Protocols

7.5.4. Handover (HO) Procedures in AeroMACS Networks

7.5.4.1. MS Initiated Handover Process

7.6. AeroMACS Network Architecture and Reference Model

7.6.1. AeroMACS Network Architecture

7.6.2. AeroMACS Network Reference Model (NRM)

7.7. Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) Revisited

7.8. AeroMACS and the Airport Network

7.9. Summary and References

Chapter 8: AeroMACS Networks Fortified with Multihop Relays

8.1. Introductory Remarks

8.2. IEEE 802.16j Amendment Revisited

8.3. Relays: Definitions, Classification, and Modes of Operation

8.3.1. A Simple Double Hop Relay Configuration: Terminologies and Definitions

8.3.2. Modes of Operation: Transparent versus Non–Transparent

8.3.3. Time Division Transmit and Receive Relays(TTR) Versus Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Relays (STR)

8.3.4. Further Division of Relay Modes of Operation

8.3.5. Relays Classification Based on MAC Layer Functionalities: Centralized and Distributed Modes

8.3.6. Physical Classification of IEEE 802.16j Relays; Relay Types

8.3.7. Modes of Deployment of IEEE 802.16j Relays in Wireless Networks

8.3.8. Frame Structure for Double Hop IEEE 802.16j TDD TRS

8.3.8.1. The Detail of IEEE 802–16j Operation with Transparent Relays

8.3.9. The Frame Structure for TTR–NTRS

8.3.10. The Frame Structure for STR–NTRS

8.3.10.1. STR Implementation in Different Layers 

8.4. Regarding MAC Layers of IEEE 802.16j and NRTS

8.4.1. Data Forwarding Schemes

8.4.1.1. Routing Selection and Path Management

8.4.1.2. Initial Ranging and Network Entry

8.4.2. Scheduling

8.4.3. Security Schemes

8.4.4. Quality of Service (QoS) in Relay Augmented Networks

8.4.4.1. The Impact of Scheduling and Relay Mode on AeroMACS Network Parameters

8.5. Challenges and Practical Issues in IEEE 802.16j–Based AeroMACS

8.5.1. Latency

8.5.2. The Number of Hops

8.5.3. The Output Power and Antenna Selection

8.6. Applications and Usage Scenarios for Relay–Augmented Broadband Cellular Networks

8.6.1. Some Applications of Relay–Fortified Systems

8.6.1.1. The European REWIND Project

8.6.1.2. Vehicular Networks

8.6.1.3. 4G and 5G Cellular Networks

8.6.1.4. Cognitive Femtocell

8.6.2. Potential Usage Scenarios for of IEEE 802.16j

8.6.2.1. Radio Outreach Extension 

8.6.2.2. The Concept of Filling a Coverage Hole

8.6.2.3. Relays for Capacity and Throughput Improvement

8.6.2.4. The Case of Cooperative Relaying

8.6.2.5. Reliable Coverage for In–Building and In–Door Scenarios

8.6.2.6. The Mobile Relays

8.6.2.7. The Temporary Relay Stations

8.7. IEEE 802.16j–Based Relays for AeroMACS Networks

8.7.1. Airport Surface Radio Coverage Situations for which IEEE 802.16j Offers a Preferred Alternative

8.8. Radio Resource Management (RRM) for Relay–Fortified Wireless Networks

8.9. The Multihop Gain

8.9.1. Computation of multihop gain for the simplest case

8.10. Inter Application Interference (IAI) in Relay–Fortified AeroMACS

8.11. Making the Case for IEEE 802. 16j–Based AeroMACS 

8.11.1. The Main Arguments

8.11.2. The Second Argument

8.11.3. How to Select a Relay Configuration

8.11.4. A Note on Cell Footprint Extension

8.12. Summary and References

Index

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Behnam Kamali
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