Materials, Chemicals and Methods for Dental Applications

  • ID: 4470759
  • Book
  • 330 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Includes both a broad technical overview of dental materials and the chemicals that are used for the preparation and fabrication of dental materials in all dental applications

This book focuses on the materials used for dental applications by looking at the fundamental issues and the developments that have taken place the past decade. While it provides a broad overview of dental materials, the chemicals that are used for the preparation and fabrication of dental materials are explained as well. Also, the desired properties of these materials are discussed and the relevance of the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties is elucidated. Methods for the characterization and classification, as well as clinical studies are reviewed here. In particular, materials for dental crowns, implants, toothpaste compositions, mouth rinses, as well as materials for toothbrushes and dental floss are discussed. For example, in toothpaste compositions, several classes of materials and chemicals are incorporated, such as abrasives, detergents, humectants, thickeners, sweeteners, coloring agents, bad breath reduction agents, flavoring agents, tartar control agents, and others. These chemicals, together with their structures, are detailed in the text.

Audience

This text is of prime importance to researchers, formulators, and product developers in dentistry and dental hygiene, therapy and nursing. Chemists and materials scientists who work in or are interested in the topic will benefit from reading this book.

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Preface v

1 Dental Materials 1

1.1 History 1

1.2 Properties 2

1.2.1 Acronyms for Compounds in Dental Com– pounds 2

1.2.2 Standards in Dentistry 2

1.2.3 Adhesion in Restorative Dentistry 11

1.2.4 Fracture Toughness 12

1.2.5 Biocompatibility of Dental Adhesives 12

1.2.6 Testing the Cytotoxicity 13

1.2.7 Degradation of Dental Polymers 14

1.2.8 E ect of Modulated Photoactivation on Poly– merization Shrinkage 15

1.2.9 Ceramics Versus Resin Composites 16

1.3 Materials 17

1.3.1 Provisional Restoratives 17

1.3.2 Restorative Material Kit 18

1.3.3 Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane 27

1.3.4 Fiber Reinforced Dental Composites 28

1.3.5 Polymer–Coated Glass Filler 29

1.3.6 Glass Ionomers 32

1.3.7 Bioactive Glass 36

1.3.8 Restorative Dental Glass Ceramics 38

1.3.9 Curable Acrylate Polymer Compositions   . . . 39

1.3.10 Hydrophilic Polymer Sponge Structures 40

1.3.11 Hybrid Polymer Network Compositions for Artificial Teeth 42

1.3.12 Urethane Macromers 43

1.3.13 Catechol–Functionalized Polymer 43

1.3.14 High Refractive Index Monomers 44

1.3.15 Antibacterial Polymers for Dental Adhesives . 45

1.3.16 Chemical  Composition   of   Contemporary Dental Adhesives 49

1.3.17 Nanostructured Antibacterial and Remineral–izing Dental Bonding Agents 50

1.3.18 Rechargeable Calcium Phosphate–Containing Dental Materials 51

1.3.19 Dental Alloys 53

1.3.20 Tooth Desensitizing Oral Care Compositions . 54

1.3.21 Commercially Available Compositions 55

1.4 Special Fabrication Methods 60

1.4.1 Photoinitiator System for Hybrid Polymers .
60 1.4.2 Nanotechnology 61

1.4.3 Extensive Dark Curing 63

1.4.4 Oral Implantology 70

1.4.5 Dental Inlays 74

References 75

2 Implants 85

2.1 Dental Restoration Methods 86

2.2 Implant Designs 88

2.3 Dental Restoration Composition 89

2.3.1 Heparin 102

2.4 Hybrid Implants 103

2.4.1 Electrophoretically Prepared Hybrid Materials 104 2.5 CAD/CAM Implants 107

2.5.1 CAD/CAM Implant–Supported Crown 107

2.5.2 High–Density Polymer CAD/CAM Interim Restorations 109

2.5.3 Biocompatibility of Polymer–Infiltrated–Ce– ramic–Network 110

2.6 Powder Injection Molding 110

2.7 Composite Bone Grafts 112

2.8 Sphene Biocoating on cp–Ti Substrates 113

2.9 Cell–Material Interactions 114

2.9.1 Temperature Changes in One–Piece Implants . 114

2.10 Dental Implant with Porous Body 116

2.10.1 Porous Coatings 116

2.10.2 Porous Implant Material 117

2.11 Implant with a Polymeric Post 118

2.12 Short Dental Implants Versus Standard Dental Implants122

2.13 Adjustable Dental Implants 123

2.14 Materials for Implants 124

2.14.1 Poly(ether ether ketone) 124

2.14.2 Expandable Polymer Dental Implant 135

2.14.3 Endosseous Dental Implant Assembly 136

2.14.4 Titanium–Polymer Composites 138

2.14.5 Titanium Implant Functionalization with Phosphate–Containing Polymers 139

2.14.6 Zirconia Dental Implants 139

2.14.7 Shape–Memory Polymers 143

2.14.8 Tetracycline Polymer Nanofiber Modified Ti– tanium Disks 145

2.14.9 Biopolymers 146

References 150

3 Dentures 157

3.1 Properties 157

3.1.1 Plaque Index 157

3.1.2 Inhibition of Denture Plaque Deposition . .
158 3.2 Materials 160

3.2.1 Longevity of Fiber Reinforced Composite . . . 160

3.2.2 Denture Tooth and Material 160

3.2.3 Fixed Partial Dentures Made from Fiber Rein– forced Polymer 163

3.2.4 Denture Adhesives 163

3.3 Fabrication Methods 171

3.3.1 Rapid Prototyping in Dentistry 171

3.3.2 Computer–Aided System 172

3.3.3 Two–Step Impression for Complete Denture Fabrication 173

3.3.4 Gingival Retraction Methods 173

References 174

4 Toothpaste Compositions 177

4.1 History 178

4.2 Ingredients for Toothpastes 179

4.2.1 Abrasive Materials 179

4.2.2 Fluoride 183

4.2.3 Detergents 184

4.2.4 Humectants 184

4.2.5 Thickeners 184

4.2.6 Sweeteners 184

4.2.7 Coloring Agents 192

4.2.8 Organic Antimicrobial Agents 192

4.2.9 Bad Breath Reduction Agents 198

4.2.10 Flavoring Agents 198

4.3 Compositions 198

4.3.1 Processes for Preparing Toothpaste Compositions 198

4.3.2 Non–fluorinated Compositions 205

4.3.3 Alkyl Sulfate and Orthophosphate Free Com– position 209

4.3.4 Thin Film Toothpaste Strip 213

4.3.5 Enamel Protectant and Repair Toothpaste . . . 214

4.3.6 Striped Toothpastes 215

4.3.7 Color Changing Compositions 218

4.3.8 Two Phase Toothpaste 220

4.3.9 Composition with Diamond Particles 221

4.3.10 Compositions with Improved Rheology 224

4.3.11 Toothpaste Composition with Improved Shelf Life 225

4.3.12 Bleach–Stable Toothpaste 229

4.3.13 Antibiotic Toothpaste 232

4.3.14 Compositions with Zinc Ions and  Polyphos– phate Ions 234

4.3.15 Abradable Films 239

4.3.16 Silica Abrasive–Free Composition 239

4.3.17 Toothpaste with Bioadhesive Submicron Emulsion 239

4.3.18 Antiplaque Toothpaste Composition 242

4.3.19 Saponin 245

4.3.20 Foamable Fluoride Oral Care Composition . . 248

References 251

5 Mouth Rinses 257

5.1 Mouth Rinses with Hydrogen Peroxide 257

5.1.1 Enhanced Activity of Peroxides 258

5.1.2 Antiplaque Mouth Rinse 260

5.1.3 Method of Treating Mucositis 262

5.1.4 Formulations for Use with Toothbrush Delivery Device 263

5.1.5 Antibacterial Mouthwash 265

5.1.6 Prevention of Periodontal Diseases 266

5.1.7 Alcohol–Free Compositions 267

5.1.8 Dual Phase Mouthwash 269

5.1.9 Non–alcohol Bioactive Essential  Oil  Mouth Rinses 270

5.2 Properties 272

5.2.1 Periodontal Disease 272

5.2.2 Biological Activity of Antimicrobials 273

5.2.3 E ect on the Microhardness 274

5.2.4 E cacy of Chlorhexidine 275

5.2.5 Reduction of Breath Malodor 276

5.2.6 Oral Care Composition Containing Ionic Liquids 277

5.2.7 Composition with Propolis Extract 277

References 279

6 Toothbrushes and Dental Floss 281

6.1 Toothbrushes 281

6.1.1 History 281

6.1.2 Types of Toothbrushes 282

6.1.3 Portable Interdental Toothbrush 284

6.1.4 Tapered Bristle Filaments 285

6.1.5 Free–Moving Flexible Bristles 286

6.1.6 Full–Text Contour–Adjustable Toothbrush . . . 286

6.1.7 Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) Bristles . .
287 6.2 Dental Floss 288

6.2.1 History 288

6.2.2 Poly(amide) Poly(ethylene oxide) Composites 289

6.2.3 Elastomeric Dental Floss 289

6.2.4 Bristled Dental Floss 291

6.2.5 Star–Shaped Microfiber Dental Floss 291

6.2.6 Dental Floss Inside a Dental Tubule 293

6.2.7 Surface Treated Dental Floss 293

6.2.8 Relationship Between the Use of Dental Floss and the Development of Peri–implantitis . . . 294

6.2.9 E cacy of an Unwaxed Dental Floss Impreg– nated with 2% Chlorhexidine 295

6.2.10 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Various Types of Dental Floss 295

References 296

Index 299

Acronyms 299

Chemicals 301

General Index 310

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Johannes Karl Fink is Professor of Macromolecular Chemistry at Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria. His industry and academic career spans more than 30 years in the fields of polymers, and his research interests include characterization, flame retardancy, thermodynamics and the degradation of polymers, pyrolysis, and adhesives. Professor Fink has published several books on physical chemistry and polymer science including A Concise Introduction to Additives for Thermoplastic Polymers (Wiley–Scrivener 2009), Polymeric Sensors and Actuators (Wiley–Scrivener 2012), The Chemistry of Biobased Polymers (Wiley–Scrivener 2014), and Fuel Cells, Solar Panels, and Storage Devices (Wiley–Scrivener 2018).

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