Weathering of PV Modules

  • ID: 4471637
  • Book
  • 300 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This first book on durability studies of photovoltaic modules provides the background information on this hot topic, including operating conditions and stress factors. The experienced author team covers various accelerated life tests, including single stress–factor tests and combi–tests.

A must–have for the photovoltaic industry as well as researchers (material scientists, physicists and chemists) working in the field.
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INTRODUCTION

Market needs and developments

Design of presently used and future PV–devices

Characterisation of PV–modules

OPERATION CONDITIONS

Weathering, voltages, soiling, salt impact

OUTDOOR MONITORING

Sensors for climate–measurements

Data–acquisition systems

IV–curve measurements

EVALUATION OF STRESS CONDITIONS

Correlation macro–climate and micro–climate

Modelling micro–climate: Module temperature, surface humidity, effective humidity

Comparison of the climate at different testing sites and evaluation of stress levels

ACCELERATION FACTORS AND TIME TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS

Acceleration possibilities

Acceleration models (time transformation functions) for the different stress factors

DEFINITION OF ACCELERATED LIFE TEST (ALT) CONDITIONS FOR DIFFERENT LOCATIONS AND DIFFERENT STRESS FACTORS

ALT for tropical, arid, urban, maritime and alpine conditions for UV–load, moisture, humidity, temperature difference, potential induced degradation etc.

SINGLE STRESS–FACTOR ALT

Requirements for the test equipment

Test results

Evaluation of the material–specific parameters for the time–transformation function

DESIGN OF COMBI–TESTS

Simultaneous stress application (UV and humidity, temperature cycling and humidity)

Modelling by FEM

Requirements to the test equipment

Sequential test procedures

EVALUATION OF COMBI–TESTS WITH DIFFERENT STRESS LEVELS

Service life estimation from combi–tests

OUTDOOR EXPOSURE

IV–curve monitoring and evaluation

Comparison with ALT

ANALYSIS OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

Non–destructive optical methods (spectroscopy, luminescence)

Destructive methods (Rheology, SEM/EDX)

PROPOSAL FOR ACCELERATED SERVICE LIFE TESTING PROCEDURE

MODELLING THE INTEGRAL ENERGY YIELD DURING THE LIFE–TIME

Degradation functions from combi–tests

Low–light–behaviour

Comparison of different modules and systems operating at different locations

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Michael Köhl
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