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Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Volume 3. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 4481382
  • Book
  • March 2018
  • 426 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

With 16 chapters from world-renowned researchers, this book offers an extraordinary commentary on the burgeoning current research activity in contact angle and wettability

The present volume constitutes Volume 3 in the ongoing series Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion which was conceived with the intent to provide periodic updates on the research activity and salient developments in the fascinating arena of contact angle, wettability and adhesion.

The book is divided into four parts: Part 1: Contact Angle Measurement and Analysis; Part 2: Wettability Behavior; Part 3: Superhydrophobic Surfaces; Part 4: Wettability, Surface Free Energy and Adhesion. The topics covered include: procedure to measure and analyse contact angle/drop shape behaviors; contact angle measurement considering spreading, evaporation and reactive substrate; measurement of contact angle of a liquid on a substrate of the same liquid; evolution of axisymmetric droplet shape parameters; interfacial modulus of a solid surface; functionalization of textiles using UV-based techniques for surface modification--patterned wetting behavior; wettability behavior of oleophilic and oleophobic nanorough surfaces; wettability behavior of nanofluids; dielectrowetting for digital microfluidics; hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity in fouling prevention; superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic hybrid surface; determination of the surface free energy of solid surfaces: statistical considerations; determination of apparent surface free energy using hysteresis approach; wettability correlations for bioadhesion to different materials; laser material processing for enhancing stem cell adhesion and growth.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xv

Part 1 Contact Angle Measurement and Analysis 1

1 A More Appropriate Procedure to Measure and Analyse Contact Angles/Drop Shape Behaviours 3
M. Schmitt and F. Heib

1.1 Introduction 4

1.1.1 Brief Summary of the History of “Modern” Wetting 4

1.1.2 Vexing Question in Wettability 5

1.1.3 Background 6

1.1.3.1 Force Balance and Roughness 6

1.1.3.2 Selected Theoretical Aspects 8

1.1.3.3 Contact Angle Analysis and Hysteresis 11

1.2 Experimental 13

1.3 Obtaining “Continuous” Drop Shapes and Independent Contact Angles 14

1.3.1 HPDSA: Image Transformation 14

1.3.2 HPDSA: Contact Angle Determination 17

1.3.3 HPDSA: Triple Point Determination 20

1.3.4 HPDSA Software 21

1.3.4.1 Baseline Determination 21

1.3.4.2 Image Transformation 21

1.3.4.3 Fitting Procedure and Convergence 24

1.4 Different Contact Angles Analyses 25

1.4.1 Possible Static Analysis 25

1.4.2 Overall Contact Angle Analysis 25

1.4.2.1 Example: Inclined Plane 27

1.4.2.2 Example: Horizontal Plane with Immersed Needle 30

1.4.3 Statistical Event Analysis: Velocity and Statistical Event Definition 33

1.4.4 Statistical Event Analysis: Independent/Global Contact Angle Analysis 35

1.4.5 Statistical Event Analysis: Dependent/Individual Contact Angle Analysis 39

1.4.6 Statistical Event Analysis: Example Demonstration of Analysis Procedures 39

1.5 Summary/Outlook 44

1.5.1 Summary – Contact Angles Determination and Analyses 44

1.5.2 Outlook – Drop Shape Behaviour 46

Acknowledgements 48

Glossary of Symbols 48

Copyrights 52

References 52

2 Optical Contact Angle Measurement Considering Spreading, Evaporation and Reactive Substrate 59
Md Farhad Ismail, Aleksey Baldygin, Thomas Willers and Prashant R. Waghmare

2.1 Introduction 60

2.2 Experimental Setup for Contact Angle Measurement 64

2.2.1 Ideal Drop Spreading 65

2.2.2 Role of Environmental Condition 66

2.2.3 Ideal Environmental (Saturated Vapor) Condition 69

2.2.4 Reactive System Condition 71

2.3 Summary 74

2.4 Supplementary Media Material 75

Acknowledgement 75

References 75

3 Method Development for Measuring Contact Angles of Perfluoropolyether Liquid on Fomblin HC/25® PFPE Film 81
D. Rossi, S. Dall’Acqua, S. Rossi, M. Zancato, P. Pittia, E. Franceschinis, N. Realdon and A. Bettero

3.1 Introduction 82

3.2 Experimental 83

3.2.1 Method Used 84

3.2.2 Determination of Surface Free Energy (SFE) 86

3.2.3 Contact Angles Measurements of PFPE Drop on PFPE “Liquid Film” (PFPEd/PFPEf) 86

3.2.4 Statistical Analyses 86

3.3 Results and Discussion 87

3.3.1 Surface Free Energy (SFE) Characterization of PermaFoam 87

3.3.2 Surface Free Energy Characterization of PFPE “Liquid Film” 87

3.4 Summary 94

Acknowledgements 95

References 96

4 Characterizing the Physicochemical Processes at the Interface through Evolution of the Axisymmetric Droplet Shape Parameters 99
Ludmila Boinovich and Alexandre Emelyanenko

4.1 Introduction 99

4.2 The Relationships between the Contact Angle and the Thermodynamic and Geometric Characteristics of the Surface 100

4.3 Experimental Methods for Determination of the Contact Angle and the Surface Tension for a Sessile Droplet on the Surface 106

4.4 Determination of the Wetting Tension and the Wetted Area Fraction on the Basis of Temporal Evolution of Contact Angle and Surface Tension in Sessile Drop Method 109

4.5 Testing the Mechanical Durability of Superhydrophobic Coatings 118

4.6 Summary 124

References 125

5 The Interfacial Modulus of a Solid Surface and the Young’s Equilibrium Contact Angle Using Line Energy 131
Sakshi B. Yadav, Ratul Das, Semih Gulec, Jie Liu and Rafael Tadmor

5.1 Introduction 132

5.2 The Young Equation Obtained with a Three-Dimensional Description 134

5.3 Incorporating the Contact Line into the Young Equation 135

5.4 Finding the Young Thermodynamic Contact Angle from Advancing/Receding Data 136

5.5 Interfacial Modulus GAssociated with the Solid Surface 138

5.6 Summary 141

References 141

Part 2 Wettability Behavior 145

6 Patterned Functionalization of Textiles Using UV-Based Techniques for Surface Modification – Patterned Wetting Behavior 147
Thomas Bahners, Thomas Mayer-Gall, Wolfgang Molter-Siemens and Jochen S. Gutmann

6.1 Introduction 148

6.2 UV-Based Processes for Surface Modification 152

6.2.1 Modifying the Surface Chemistry by Photo-Grafting 152

6.2.2 Laser-Induced Roughening of Fiber Surfaces 153

6.3 Experimental 154

6.4 Results 155

6.4.1 Lateral Wetting Patterns 155

6.4.2 Selective Wetting on Inner and Outer Surfaces 158

6.5 Summary and Outlook 160

References 161

7 Wettability Behavior of Oleophilic and Oleophobic Nanorough Surfaces in Air or Immersed in Water 167
Luisa Coriand, Nadja Felde and Angela Duparre

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Sample Preparation 168

7.3 Characterization Methods 169

7.3.1 Roughness 169

7.3.2 Wetting 169

7.4 Surface Roughness of Al2O3 Coatings 170

7.5 Wetting Behavior of Al2O3 Coatings 173

7.5.1 Air as Fluid Phase 173

7.5.2 Water as Fluid Phase 173

7.6 Wetting Behavior of Al2O3 Coatings Overcoated with a Thin Top Layer 174

7.6.1 Air as Fluid Phase 174

7.6.2 Water as Fluid Phase 175

7.7 Summary 177

Acknowledgements 177

References 177

8 Effect of Particle Loading and Stability on the Wetting Behavior of Nanofluids 179
A. Karthikeyan, S. Coulombe and A.M. Kietzig

8.1 Introduction 180

8.2 Review on Wetting Behavior and Stability of Nanofluids 181

8.3 Summary 186

References 188

9 Dielectrowetting for Digital Microfluidics 193
Hongyao Geng and Sung Kwon Cho

9.1 Introduction 194

9.2 Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) 196

9.3 Liquid-Dielectrophoresis (L-DEP) 198

9.4 L-DEP in Microfluidics 200

9.5 Dielectrowetting 203

9.6 Droplet Manipulations by Dielectrowetting 208

9.6.1 Experimental Setup 208

9.6.2 Droplet Splitting and Transporting 209

9.6.3 Multi-Splitting and Merging of Droplets 210

9.6.4 Droplet Creating 211

9.6.5 Manipulations of Aqueous Droplets 212

9.7 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 214

References 215

Part 3 Superhydrophobic Surfaces 219

10 Development of a Superhydrophobic/Superhydrophilic Hybrid Surface by Selective Micropatterning and Electron Beam Irradiation 221
Keun Park and Hyun-Joong Lee

10.1 Introduction 222

10.2 Selective Micropatterning Using Ultrasonic Imprinting 224

10.2.1 Ultrasonic Imprinting for Micropattern Replication 224

10.2.2 Selective Ultrasonic Imprinting Using a Profiled Mask Film 225

10.2.3 Fabrication of a Micropatterned Mold 225

10.2.4 Selective Ultrasonic Imprinting for Development of Hydrophobic Micropatterns 227

10.3 Selective Wettability Control 229

10.3.1 Selective Surface Treatments 229

10.3.2 Surface Hydrophobization Using Selective Hydrophobic Silane Coating 230

10.3.3 Surface Hydrophilization Using Electron Beam Irradiation 232

10.4 Development of Hybrid Surfaces with Versatile Wettability 233

10.4.1 Investigation of Selectively Wettable Characteristics 233

10.4.2 Water Collection by the Developed Hybrid Surface 234

10.4.3 Hybrid Surface with a Combination of Three Surface Treatments 235

10.5 Summary 236

Acknowledgements 237

References 237

11 Hydrophobicity and Superhydrophobicity in Fouling Prevention in Sea Environment 241
Michele Ferrari and Francesca Cirisano

11.1 Introduction 241

11.1.1 Marine Biofouling 243

11.1.1.1 Biofouling and Inorganic Fouling 244

11.1.1.2 Colonization 245

11.1.1.3 Inorganic Fouling 246

11.1.2 Surface Features and Bioadhesion 247

11.2 Antifouling Options 248

11.3 Problem Statement 251

11.4 Coatings with Special Wettability and Performance Against Biofouling 252

11.4.1 Silane-Based Coatings 253

11.4.1.1 Hydrophobic Behaviour 253

11.4.1.2 Superhydrophobic Behaviour 255

11.4.2 Other Materials 256

11.4.2.1 Hydrophobic Behaviour 256

11.4.2.2 Superhydrophobic Behaviour 257

11.5 General Discussion 258

11.6 Summary 260

References 260

12 Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Anti-Corrosion of Aluminum 267
Junghoon Lee and Chang-Hwan Choi

12.1 Introduction 268

12.1.1 Corrosion of Metallic Materials 268

12.1.2 Surface Treatment for Anti-Corrosion of Metals 269

12.1.3 Anti-Corrosion of a Superhydrophobic Surface on Aluminum and Its Alloys 271

12.2 Fundamentals of Superhydrophobic Surface for Anti-Corrosion 273

12.2.1 Electrochemical Reactions 273

12.2.2 Wetting on Solid Surfaces 275

12.2.3 Superhydrophobic Surface for Anti-Corrosion 276

12.3 Applications of Superhydrophobized Aluminum Surfaces for Anti-corrosion 278

12.4 Summary 287

References 288

Part 4 Wettability, Surface Free Energy and Adhesion 299

13 Determination of the Surface Free Energy of Solid Surfaces: Statistical Considerations 301
Frank M. Etzler

13.1 Introduction 302

13.1.1 Neumann’s Method 302

13.1.2 van Oss, Chaudhury and Good Approach 305

13.1.3 Chen and Chang Model 308

13.1.4 The Present Work 309

13.2 Data Analysis 310

13.2.1 Data by Kwok et al. 310

13.2.1.1 Lessons from Analysis of Data by Kwok et al. 315

13.2.2 Analysis of Data by Dalal 317

13.2.3 An Alternate Experimental Approach 325

13.3 Summary and Conclusions 326

References 328

14 Equilibrium Contact Angle and Determination of Apparent Surface Free Energy Using Hysteresis Approach on Rough Surfaces 331
Konrad Terpiłowski, Diana Rymuszka, Olena Goncharuk and Lyudmyla Yakovenko

14.1 Introduction 332

14.2 Experimental 334

14.2.1 Sample Preparation 334

14.2.2 Contact Angle Measurements 335

14.2.3 Surface Free Energy Calculation 335

14.2.4 Surface Structure Characterisation 336

14.3 Results and Discussion 336

14.3.1 Contact Angles and Surface Free Energy of Sol-Gel Films 336

14.3.2 Surface Roughness and Structure of Sol-Gel Films 339

14.4 Conclusions 344

Acknowledgment 345

References 345

15 Contact Angle and Wettability Correlations for Bioadhesion to Reference Polymers, Metals, Ceramics and Tissues 349
Digvijay Singh and Robert Baier

15.1 Introduction 350

15.2 Materials and Methods 351

15.2.1 Critical Surface Tension 355

15.2.2 Calculations of Bond Strength 356

15.3 Results 357

15.3.1 Tissue Testing 357

15.4 Discussion 358

15.4.1 Regression Analysis 358

15.4.1.1 Regression Analysis for Reference Materials (Without Pyrolytic Carbon and 316 LSS) 362

15.4.2 Remaining Concerns 364

15.4.2.1 The Peculiar Case of Pyrolytic Carbon 364

15.4.2.2 The Case of Ti Alloy and 316 LSS 367

15.5 Summary and Conclusions 367

15.5.1 Limitations 369

15.6 Future Scope 369

References 370

16 The Efficacy of Laser Material Processing for Enhancing Stem Cell Adhesion and Growth on Different Materials 373
D.G. Waugh and J. Lawrence

16.1 Introduction 374

16.2 Surface Engineering Techniques in Stem Cell Technologies 376

16.2.1 Laser Surface Engineering 376

16.2.2 Plasma Surface Engineering 377

16.2.3 Lithography Techniques 377

16.2.4 Micro- and Nano-Printing 377

16.3 Laser Surface Engineering of Polymeric Materials 378

16.3.1 Experimental Technique 378

16.3.1.1 Materials 378

16.3.1.2 Laser Surface Engineering Techniques 378

16.3.1.3 Analytical Techniques 378

16.3.1.4 Biological Analysis Techniques 379

16.3.2 Effects of Laser Surface Engineering on Surface Topography 380

16.3.3 Effects of Laser Surface Engineering of Polymeric Materials on Stem Cell Adhesion and Growth 382

16.4 Laser Welding of NiTi Alloys 385

16.4.1 Experimental Technique 385

16.4.1.1 Material 385

16.4.1.2 Laser Micro-Welding Technique 385

16.4.1.3 Analytical and Biological Analysis Techniques 385

16.4.2 Surface Chemistry of Laser Micro-Welded NiTi Alloys 387

16.4.3 Effects of Laser Welding of NiTi Alloy on Stem Cell Adhesion and Growth 387

16.5 Summary and Future Considerations 390

References 392

Index 399

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K. L. Mittal
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