Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices. The Role of the PN Junction. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 4486779
  • Book
  • 416 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated 

The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p–n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author a noted expert in the field presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells.  

This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text:

  • Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes
  • Provides a solid theoretical basis for p–n junction devices
  • Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out–coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency
  • Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text

Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p–n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.

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1 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Classical Electron

1.3 Two Slit Electron Experiment

1.4 The Photoelectric Effect

1.5 Wave Packets and Uncertainty

1.6 The Wavefunction

1.7 The Schrödinger Equation

1.8 The Electron in a One–Dimensional Well

1.9 Electron Transmission and Reflection at Potential Energy Step

1.10 Expectation Values

1.11 Spin

1.12 The Pauli Exclusion Principle

1.13 Summary

Suggestions for Further Reading

Problems

2 Semiconductor Physics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Band Theory of Solids

2.3 Bloch Functions

2.4 The Kronig Penney Model

2.5 The Bragg Model

2.6 Effective Mass

2.7 Number of States in a Band

2.8 Band Filling

2.9 Fermi Energy and Holes

2.10 Carrier Concentration

2.11 Semiconductor Materials

2.12 Semiconductor Band Diagrams

2.13 Direct Gap and Indirect Gap Semiconductors

2.14 Extrinsic Semiconductors

2.15 Carrier Transport in Semiconductors

2.16 Equilibrium and Non–Equilibrium Dynamics

2.17 Carrier Diffusion and the Einstein Relation

2.18 Quasi–Fermi Energies

2.19 The Diffusion Equation

2.20 Traps and Carrier Lifetimes

2.21 Alloy Semiconductors

2.22 Summary

Suggestions for Further Reading

Problems

3 The PN Junction Diode

3.1 Introduction 70

3.2 Diode Current 72

3.3 Contact Potential 75

3.4 The Depletion Approximation 78

3.5 The Diode Equation 85

3.6 Reverse Breakdown and the Zener Diode 97

3.7 Tunnel Diodes 100

3.8 Generation/Recombination Currents 101

3.9 Metal–Semiconductor Junctions 104

3.10 Heterojunctions 113

3.11 Alternating Current (AC) and Transient Behaviour 115

3.12 Summary 117

Suggestions for Further Reading 118

Problems

4 Photon Emission and Absorption

4.1 Introduction to Luminescence and Absorption 124

4.2 Physics of Light Emission 125

4.3 Simple Harmonic Radiator 128

4.4 Quantum Description 129

4.5 The Exciton 132

4.6 Two–Electron Atoms 135

4.7 Molecular Excitons 141

4.8 Band–to–Band Transitions 144

4.9 Photometric Units 148

4.10 Summary 152

Suggestions for Further Reading 153

Problems

5 P–N Junction Solar Cells

5.1 Introduction 160

5.2 Light Absorption 162

5.3 Solar Radiation 164

5.4 Solar Cell Design and Analysis 164

5.5 Thin Solar Cells, G=0.

5.6 Thin Solar Cells, G>0.

5.7 Solar Cell Generation as a Function of Depth

5.8 Surface Recombination Reduction

5.9 Solar Cell Efficiency 179

5.10 Silicon Solar Cell Technology: Wafer Preparation 184

5.11 Silicon Solar Cell Technology: Solar Cell Finishing 187

5.12 Silicon Solar Cell Technology: Advanced Production Methods 191

5.13 Thin Film Solar Cells: Amorphous Silicon 192

5.14 Telluride/Selenide/Sulphide Thin–Film Solar Cells 199

5.15 High–Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cells 200

5.16 Concentrating Solar Systems 203

5.17 Summary 204

Suggestions for Further Reading 205

Problems

6 Light Emitting Diodes

6.1 Introduction 216

6.2 LED Operation and Device Structures 217

6.3 Emission Spectrum 220

6.4 Non–Radiative Recombination 221

6.5 Optical Outcoupling 223

6.6 GaAs LEDs 225

6.7 GaAs1 x Px LEDs 226

6.8 Double Heterojunction AlxGa1 xAs LEDs 228

6.9 AlGaInP LEDs 234

6.10 Ga1 x InxN LEDs 236

6.11 LED Structures for Enhanced Outcoupling and High Lumen Output 244

6.12 Summary 247

Suggestions for Further Reading 248

Problems

7 Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells

7.1 Introduction to Organic Electronics 254

7.2 Conjugated Systems 255

7.3 Polymer OLEDs 260

7.4 Small–Molecule OLEDs 266

7.5 Anode Materials 270

7.6 Cathode Materials 270

7.7 Hole Injection Layer 271

7.8 Electron Injection Layer 272

7.9 Hole Transport Layer 272

7.10 Electron Transport Layer 275

7.11 Light Emitting Material Processes 276

7.12 Host Materials 278

7.13 Fluorescent Dopants 279

7.14 Phosphorescent and Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Dopants 283

7.15 Organic Solar Cells 283

7.16 Organic Solar Cell Materials 289

7.17 Perovskite Solar Cells

7.17 Summary 292

Suggestions for Further Reading 294

Problems

8 Junction Transistors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

8.3 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)

8.4 BJT and JFET Symbols and Applications

8.5 Summary

Suggestions for Further Reading

Problems

Appendices

Appendix 1: Physical Constants

Appendix 2: Derivation of the Uncertainty Principle

Appendix 3: Derivation of Group Velocity

Appendix 4: The Boltzmann Distribution Function

Appendix 5: Properties of Semiconductor Materials

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Adrian Kitai
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