Fluorescent Nanodiamonds

  • ID: 4491137
  • Book
  • 312 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The most comprehensive reference on fluorescent nanodiamond physical and chemical properties and contemporary applications

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have drawn a great deal of attention over the past several years, and their applications and development potential are proving to be manifold and vast. The first and only book of its kind, Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is a comprehensive guide to the basic science and technical information needed to fully understand the fundamentals of FNDs and their potential applications across an array of domains. In demonstrating the importance of FNDs in biological applications, the authors bring together all relevant chemistry, physics, materials science and biology.

Nanodiamonds are produced by powerful cataclysmic events such as explosions, volcanic eruptions and meteorite impacts. They also can be created in the lab by high–pressure high–temperature treatment of graphite or detonating an explosive in a reactor vessel. A single imperfection can give a nanodiamond a specific, isolated color center which allows it to function as a single, trapped atom. Much smaller than the thickness of a human hair, a nanodiamond can have a huge surface area that allows it to bond with a variety of other materials. Because of their non–toxicity, nanodiamonds may be useful in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. 

  • The most comprehensive reference on a topic of rapidly increasing interest among academic and industrial researchers across an array of fields
  • Includes numerous case studies and practical examples from many areas of research and industrial applications, as well as fascinating and instructive historical perspectives
  • Each chapter addresses, in–depth, a single integral topic including the fundamental properties, synthesis, mechanisms and functionalisation of FNDs
  • First book published by the key patent holder with his research group in the field of FNDs

Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is an important working resource for a broad range of scientists and engineers in industry and academia. It will also be a welcome reference for instructors in chemistry, physics, materials science, biology and related fields.

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Part I: Basics

Chapter 1: Introduction to Nanotechnology

1.1.  Nanotechnology: From Large to Small

1.1.1. Feynman: Plenty of room at the bottom

1.1.2. Nanotechnology today  

1.1.3. The bottom–up approach

1.2.  Nanocarbons: Now and Then

1.2.1. Classification

1.2.2. Fullerenes

1.2.3. Carbon nanotubes

1.2.4. Graphenes

Cited References

Chapter 2: Nanodiamonds

2.1. Ah, Diamonds, Eternal Beautiful

2.2. Diamonds: From Structure to Classification

2.3. Diamond Synthesis

2.3.1. HPHT

2.3.2. CVD

2.3.3. Detonation

2.4. Nanodiamonds A Scientist s Best Friend

Cited References

Chapter 3: Color Centers in Diamond

3.1. Nitrogen Impurities 

3.2. Crystal Defects

3.3. Vacancy–Related Color Centers

3.3.1. GR and ND1

3.3.2. NV0 and NV

3.3.3. H3 and N3

3.3.4. SiV

3.4. The NV Center

Cited References

Chapter 4: Surface Chemistry of Nanodiamonds

4.1. Functionalization

4.2. Bioconjugation

4.2.1. Noncovalent conjugation

4.2.2. Covalent conjugation

4.3. Encapsulation

4.3.1. Lipid layers

4.3.2. Silica shells

Cited References

Chapter 5: Biocompatibility of Nanodiamonds

5.1. Biocompatibility Testing  

5.2. In Vitro Studies

5.2.1. HPHT–ND

5.2.2. DND

5.3. Ex Vivo Studies

5.4. In Vivo Studies

Cited References

Part II: Specific Topics 

Chapter 6: Producing Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 

6.1. Production

6.1.1. Theoretical simulations

6.1.2. Electron/ion irradiation

6.1.3. Size reduction

6.2. Characterization

6.2.1. Fluorescence intensity

6.2.2. Electron spin resonance

6.2.3. Fluorescence lifetime

6.2.4. Magnetically modulated fluorescence

Cited References

Chapter 7: Single Particle Detection and Tracking

7.1. Single Particle Detection

7.1.1. Photostability

7.1.2. Spectroscopic properties

7.1.3. Color center numbers

7.2. Single Particle Tracking

7.2.1. Tracking in solution

7.2.2. Tracking in cells

7.2.3. Tracking in organisms

Cited References

Chapter 8: Cell Labeling and Fluorescence Imaging

8.1. Cell Labeling

8.1.1. Nonspecific labeling

8.1.2. Specific labeling

8.2. Fluorescence Imaging

8.2.1. Epifluorescence and confocal fluorescence

8.2.2. Total internal reflection fluorescence

8.2.3. Two–photon excitation fluorescence

8.2.4. Time–gated fluorescence

Cited References

Chapter 9: Cell Tracking and Deep Tissue Imaging

9.1. Cellular Uptake

9.1.1. Uptake mechanism

9.1.2. Entrapment

9.1.3. Quantification

9.2. Cell Tracking 

9.2.1. Tracking in vitro

9.2.2. Tracking in vivo

9.3. Tissue Imaging

9.3.1. Wide–field fluorescence

9.3.2. Time–gated fluorescence

9.3.3. Optically detected magnetic resonance 

9.3.4. Magnetically modulated fluorescence

Cited References

Chapter 10: Nanoscopic Imaging

10.1. Diffraction Barrier

10.2. Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging

10.2.1. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy

10.2.2. Saturated excitation fluorescence microscopy

10.2.3. Deterministic emitter switch microscopy

10.2.4. Tip–enhanced fluorescence microscopy

10.3. Cathodoluminescence Imaging

10.4. Correlative Light–Electron Microscopy

Cited References

Chapter 11: Nanoscale Quantum Sensing

11.1. The Spin Hamiltonian

11.2. Temperature Sensing

11.2.1. Ultrahigh precision temperature measurement

11.2.2. Time–resolved nanothermometry

11.2.3. All–optical luminescence nanothermometry

11.2.4. Scanning thermal imaging

11.3. Magnetic Sensing

11.3.1. Continuous–wave detection


Cited References

Chapter 12: Hybrid Fluorescent Nanodiamonds

12.1. Silica/Diamond Nanohybrids

12.2. Gold/Diamond Nanohybrids

12.2.1. Photoluminescence enhancement

12.2.2.Dual–modality imaging

12.2.3. Hyperlocalized hyperthermia

12.2.4. NV–based nanothermometry

12.3. Silver/Diamond Nanohybrids

12.4. Iron Oxide/Diamond Nanohybrids

12.4.1. Single–domain magnetization

12.4.2. Magnetic resonance imaging 

Cited References

Chapter 13: Nanodiamond–Enabled Medicine

13.1. NDs as Therapeutic Carriers 

13.2. Drug Delivery

13.2.1. Small molecules

13.2.2. Proteins

13.3. Gene Therapy

13.3.1. RNA 

13.3.2. DNA 

13.4. Animal Experiments

Cited References

Chapter 14: Diamonds in the Sky

14.1. Unidentified Infrared Emission

14.2. Extended Red Emission

14.3. Cosmic Events at Home on Earth

Cited References

Further Readings


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Huan–Cheng Chang, PhD, Distinguished Research Fellow, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (IAMS), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Academia Sinica is the national academy of the Republic of China.  

Wesley Wei–Wen Hsiao, PhD, LLM is CEO of FND Biotech, Inc., Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Meng–Chih Su, PhD, Professor in Chemistry, Sonoma State University (SSU), Rohnert Park, California, USA.  Dr. Su has served as Department Chair for the Chemistry Department and later the Engineering Science Department at SSU.

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