Advances in IoT Communications - Technologies, Markets and Applications

  • ID: 4496583
  • Report
  • 138 pages
  • PracTel Inc
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Actility
  • Aviacomm/Newracom
  • Gemalto
  • Microchip Technology
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  • Silicon Labs
  • MORE

This report addresses novel technologies and related markets designed for IoT/M2M communications.

Due to multiplicity of factors that should be considered in the developing IoT networks (applications, battery requirements, and traffic specifics, etc.) there is only a very remote possibility that a single technology will resolve all IoT communications issues. So far, the picture is very fragmented with multiple organizations developing specific technologies.

There are two main tracks to wide-area public-network connectivity. The first is the evolution of LTE (and some other cellular technologies) to support IoT applications: longer battery life, longer range, lower cost in exchange for lower throughput. The second track includes narrow-band (NB) and ultra-narrow band (UNB) technologies promoted as a clean slate solution for IoT connectivity.

Mesh technologies (typically based on ZigBee) and Wi-Fi extensions (e.g. 802.11ah) have typically been used in private networks and have a separate evolution path (as examples, the report addresses 802.11ah, Bluetooth Mesh and Thread). Bluetooth Mesh is bringing many important to IoT communications features utilizing well established hardware platforms.

New proprietary technologies, such as LoRa, SigFox and other came into the market before standardized technologies; and they have already gained the sufficient market share. 3GPP standards are being approved gradually in Releases 12-14.

Despite of this, it is expected that modified LTE and GSM will be able relatively fast to gain power– for these techniques, vast amount of cellular infrastructure is ready, and adaption to IoT communications requirements can be done usually through software upgrade. The report compares advantages and weaknesses of each method.

For the purpose of this report analysis, we distinguished the following groups of technologies:

1. Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) communications (Sub-1 GHz):

  • LoRA
  • SigFox
  • Weightless (W, N, P)

2. 3GPP cellular LPWA (LTE, GSM):

  • NB-IoT
  • LTE Cat – M
  • EC-GSM-IoT
  • Other

3. Industry Groups/Standardizations Organizations:

  • IEEE802.11ah (Sub-1 GHz)
  • Thread
  • Bluetooth Mesh
  • ETSI LTN
  • Ingenu

.LPWA communication is split into two separate sub-categories. On the one hand, there are the current proprietary LPWA technologies, such as SigFox and LoRa, which typically operate on unlicensed sub -1 GHz spectrum. On the other hand, there are the forthcoming 3GPP standardized cellular IoT technologies, which typically operate on licensed spectrum (3GPP Rel. 12, 13 and up).

Designed specifically for low bandwidth, low-power IoT applications, LPWAs structures are poised to see huge growth over the next few years, with stakeholders across the industry now talking about LPWA technologies as a core enabler of the IoT.

LPWA profile IoT applications include metering, agriculture, vehicle telematics, tracking, healthcare, consumer products, and others. It is estimated that 3-4 billion LPWA connections will be in place by 2020, with hardware, network and service revenues reaching $9-$11 billion.

The report also analyzes the related work of such standards bodies as the IEEE, ITU, ETSI and other.

The report goals are also to identify major players in each protocol category; and estimate (5-year forecast) major marketing characteristics of still young IoT communications industry.

The survey of related patents is also presented in the report.

The report was developed for a wide audience of managerial and technical staff of organizations that are working on IoT/M2M communications projects.

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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Actility
  • Aviacomm/Newracom
  • Gemalto
  • Microchip Technology
  • Orca
  • Silicon Labs
  • MORE

1.0 Introduction    
1.1 Definition    
1.2 General    
1.3 Scope    
1.3.1 Major Goal    
1.4 Research Methodology    
1.5 Target Audience    

2.0 IoT/M2M Communications Specifics    
2.1 General    
2.1.1 Main Tracks    
2.2 Environment    
2.3 Current Situation    
2.4 Requirements    
2.5 Spectrum Requirements    
2.6 Summary    

3.0 Developing Communications Technologies for IoT    
3.1 General    
3.2 Weightless Technologies    
3.2.1 Weightless SIG    
3.2.1.1 Common Features    
3.2.1.2 Weightless-W    
3.2.1.2.1 White Spaces Communications - Principles    
3.2.1.2.2 Definition    
3.2.1.2.3 Rational    
3.2.1.2.4 Ecosystem and Use Cases    
3.2.1.2.5 Weightless-W Details    
3.2.1.3 Changes    
3.2.1.4 Weightless-N    
3.2.1.4.1 General    
3.2.1.4.2 Open Standard    
3.2.1.4.3 Nwave    
3.2.1.4.4 Initial Deployments    
3.2.1.4.5 Summary    
3.2.1.5 Weightless-P    
3.2.1.5.1 General    
3.2.1.5.2 Details    
3.2.1.5.3 M2COMM    
3.2.2 Comparison of Weightless Technologies    
3.3 RPMA    
3.3.1 Major Features    
3.3.2 Proliferation    
3.3.3 Components and Structure    
3.3.4 Use Cases    
3.4 LoRa    
3.4.1 Alliance    
3.4.1.1 Open Protocol    
3.4.2 Technology Building Blocks    
3.4.2.1 Layered Structure - Illustration    
3.4.2.2 Modulation    
3.4.2.3 Long Range    
3.4.2.4 Applications    
3.4.2.5 Network Architecture    
3.4.2.6 Classes    
3.4.2.7 LoRaWAN    
3.4.2.8 Major Characteristics    
3.4.3 Industry    
        Actility    
        Advantech    
        Amiho    
        Cisco    
        Embit    
        Kerlink    
        Link Labs    
        LORIOT.io    
        Microchip Technology    
        MultiTech    
        Murata    
        Sagemcom    
        Semtech    
        STMicroelectronics    
        Tektelic    
3.5 SigFox    
3.5.1 Company    
3.5.2 Technology - Details    
3.5.2.1 Uplink    
3.5.2.2 Downlink    
3.5.2.3 SmartLNB    
3.5.3 Coverage    
3.5.4 Use Cases    
3.5.5 Industry    
        Adeunis RF    
        Atmel (acquired by Microchip in 2016)    
        Innocomm    
        Microchip    
        On Semiconductor    
        Telit    
        TI    
3.6 Thread    
3.6.1 General: From Smart Home to Commercial Buildings    
3.6.2 Challenges    
3.6.3 Protocol    
3.6.4 Major Features    
3.6.5 Specification Summary    
3.6.6 Components    
3.6.7 Industry    
        CEL    
        Digi    
        NXP (Qualcomm)    
        Silicon Labs    
3.6.8 Comparison    

4.0 IoT Communications: Adaption Existing Technologies    
4.1 Wi-Fi    
4.1.1 IoT Communications and Wi-Fi    
4.1.2 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)    
4.1.2.1 Requirements    
4.1.2.2 Goal and Schedule    
4.1.2.3 Attributes    
4.1.2.4 Use Cases    
4.1.2.5 PHY    
4.1.2.5.1 Bandwidth    
4.1.2.5.2 Channelization    
4.1.2.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO    
4.1.2.5.4 Relay Mode    
4.1.2.6 MAC Layer    
4.1.2.7 Summary    
4.1.2.8 Industry    
           Aviacomm/Newracom    
           Morse Micro    
           Orca    
           Aegis-IP    
4.2 3GPP and IoT Communications    
4.2.1 3GPP Position    
4.2.2 IoT Communications Requirements and LTE    
4.2.3 3GPP LTE Rel. 12 Developments and IoT Communications    
4.2.4 3GPP LTE Rel. 13/14 Developments and IoT Communications    
4.2.5 Further Enhancements    
4.2.6 Summary of LTE/IoT Features    
4.2.7 NB-IoT Standardized    
4.2.7.1 Scope    
4.2.7.1.1 Scalable LTE IoT Platform    
4.2.8 Extended Coverage – GSM – Internet of Things (EC-GSM-IoT)    
4.2.9 Industry    
        Altair (Sony Group Company)    
        Aeris    
        Ericsson    
        Gemalto    
        Kore Telematics    
        Mistbase (acquired by ARM in 2017)    
        Orca    
        Sequans    
        Qualcomm    
        U-blox    
        WNC    
4.2.9 Summary - Comparison    
4.3 Bluetooth Mesh    
4.3.1 General    
4.3.2 Specifications    
4.3.2.1 Mesh Profile Specification    
4.3.2.2 Mesh Model Specification    
4.3.2.3 Mesh Device Property Specification    
4.3.3 Potentials    
4.3.3.1 Concept    
4.3.4 Major Features    
4.3.5 Benefits    
4.3.6 Industry    

5.0 Global Standardization Organizations    
5.1 ETSI    
5.1.1 Efforts    
5.1.2 Low Throughput Network    
5.1.2.1 Weightless and ETSI    
5.2 ITU    
5.2.1 SG 20    
5.3 oneM2M    
5.4 ISO/IES    
5.5 IEEE P2413    

6.0 IoT Communications – Market Development    
6.1 Statistics    
6.2 Estimate    
6.2.1 IoT/M2M Traffic Volume    
6.2.2 IoT/M2M Communications Market    
6.2.3 IoT Connections    
6.2.4 IoT Telecom Services    
6.2.5 Cellular IoT Subscribers    
6.2.6 IoT/M2M Technologies and Applications Market    
6.2.7 Smart Home – Volume of IoT/M2M Devices    
6.2.8 Global LPWAN Market    

7.0 Conclusions    
      Attachment I: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)    
      Attachment II: LPWAN – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)    
      Attachment III: LoRa – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)    
      Attachment IV: Comparison

List of Figures:
Figure 1: IoT Environment    
Figure 2: Iceni Characteristics    
Figure 3: Nwave Characteristics Comparison    
Figure 4: Weightless Technologies Comparison    
Figure 5: RPMA Use Cases    
Figure 6: LoRa Protocol Architecture    
Figure 7: LoRa Architecture    
Figure 8: LoRa Classes    
Figure 9: Battery Lifetime    
Figure 10: Regional Differences    
Figure 11: Uplink Frame Format    
Figure 12: Downlink Frame Format    
Figure 13: Thread Protocol Stack and Related Standards    
Figure 14: Thread Protocol Major Features    
Figure 15: 802.11ah Use Cases    
Figure 16: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)    
Figure 17: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.    
Figure 18: Transmission Characteristics – 802.11ah    
Figure 19: 802.11ah Features Summary    
Figure 20: CAT-0 and CAT-1 Characteristics    
Figure 21: Time Schedule – 3GPP    
Figure 22: Modem Complexity    
Figure 23: IoT Communications Technologies Characteristics Comparison    
Figure 24: Evolution of LTE IoT Communications    
Figure 25: Cellular-based IoT Technologies    
Figure 26: IoT Communications Technologies Comparison    
Figure 27: BT Mesh Architecture    
Figure 28: ETSI Activity – IoT/M2M Communications    
Figure 29: Use Cases    
Figure 30: M2M Applications    
Figure 31: Estimate - IoT/M2M Traffic Volume (PB/Month)    
Figure 32: Estimate: Global Market - IoT/M2M Communications ($B)    
Figure 33: Estimate: Number of IoT Connections (Bil.)    
Figure 34: Estimate: IoT Telecom Services – Global ($B)    
Figure 35: Estimate: Number of Cellular IoT Subscribers (Bil.)    
Figure 36: Estimate: IoT/M2M Technologies and Applications Market – Global ($T)    
Figure 37: Estimate: Number of Smart Devices in Smart Homes-Global (Bil.)    
Figure 38: Estimate – Global LPWAN Market ($B)   

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  • Actility
  • Adeunis RF
  • Advantech
  • Aegis-IP
  • Aeris
  • Altair (Sony Group Company)
  • Amiho
  • Atmel (acquired by Microchip in 2016)
  • Aviacomm/Newracom
  • CEL
  • Cisco
  • Digi
  • Embit
  • Ericsson
  • Gemalto
  • Innocomm
  • Kerlink
  • Kore Telematics
  • LORIOT.io
  • Link Labs
  • Microchip Technology
  • Mistbase (acquired by ARM in 2017)
  • Morse Micro
  • MultiTech
  • Murata
  • NXP (Qualcomm)
  • On Semiconductor
  • Orca
  • Qualcomm
  • STMicroelectronics
  • Sagemcom
  • Semtech
  • Sequans
  • SigFox
  • Silicon Labs
  • TI
  • Tektelic
  • Telit
  • U-blox
  • WNC
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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