Spectroscopy. Principles and Instrumentation

  • ID: 4515839
  • Book
  • 336 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Provides students and practitioners with a comprehensive understanding of the theory of spectroscopy and the design and use of spectrophotometers

In this book, you will learn the fundamental principles underpinning molecular spectroscopy and the connections between those principles and the design of spectrophotometers.

Spectroscopy, along with chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrochemistry, is an important and widely–used analytical technique. Applications of spectroscopy include air quality monitoring, compound identification, and the analysis of paintings and culturally important artifacts. This book introduces students to the fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy including UV–visible, infrared, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy in an approachable and comprehensive way. It goes beyond the basics of the subject and provides a detailed look at the interplay between theory and practice, making it ideal for courses in quantitative analysis, instrumental analysis, and biochemistry, as well as courses focused solely on spectroscopy. It is also a valuable resource for practitioners working in laboratories who regularly perform spectroscopic analyses.

Spectroscopy: Principles and Instrumentation:

  • Provides extensive coverage of principles, instrumentation, and applications of molecular spectroscopy
  • Facilitates a modular approach to teaching and learning about chemical instrumentation
  • Helps students visualize the effects that electromagnetic radiation in different regions of the spectrum has on matter
  • Connects the fundamental theory of the effects of electromagnetic radiation on matter to the design and use of spectrophotometers
  • Features numerous figures and diagrams to facilitate learning
  • Includes several worked examples and companion exercises throughout each chapter so that readers can check their understanding
  • Offers numerous problems at the end of each chapter to allow readers to apply what they have learned
  • Includes case studies that illustrate how spectroscopy is used in practice, including analyzing works of art, studying the kinetics of enzymatic reactions, detecting explosives, and determining the DNA sequence of the human genome
  • Complements Chromatography: Principles and Instrumentation

The book is divided into five chapters that cover the Fundamentals of Spectroscopy, UV–visible Spectroscopy, Fluorescence/Luminescence Spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, and Raman Spectroscopy. Each chapter details the theory upon which the specific techniques are based, provides ways for readers to visualize the molecular–level effects of electromagnetic radiation on matter, describes the design and components of spectrophotometers, discusses applications of each type of spectroscopy, and includes case studies that illustrate specific applications of spectroscopy.

Each chapter is divided into multiple sections using headings and subheadings, making it easy for readers to work through the book and to find specific information relevant to their interests. Numerous figures, exercises, worked examples, and end–of–chapter problems reinforce important concepts and facilitate learning.

Spectroscopy: Principles and Instrumentation is an excellent text that prepares undergraduate students and practitioners to operate in modern laboratories.

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PREFACE

Table of Contents

1. Fundamentals of Spectroscopy

1.1 Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation

1.1.1 Speed, c

1.1.2 Amplitude, A

1.1.3 Frequency, u

1.1.4 Wavelength, l

1.1.5 Energy, E

1.1.6 One More Relationship Wavenumber, 

1.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.2.1 Radio Frequency Radiation (10–27 to 10–21 J/photon)

1.2.2 Microwave Radiation (10–23 to 10–21 J/photon)

1.2.3 Infrared radiation (10–22 to 10–19 J/photon)

1.2.4 Ultraviolet and visible radiation (10–19 to 10–18 J/photon)

1.2.5 X–ray Radiation (10–15 to 10–13 J/photon)

1.2.6 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation (10–13 to 10–11 J/photon and higher)

1.3 The Perrin–Jablonski Diagram

1.3.1 Time Scales of Events

1.3.2 Summary of Radiative and Non–radiative Processes

1.4 Temperature effects on Ground and Excited State Populations

1.5 More Wave Characteristics

1.5.1 Adding waves together

1.5.2 Diffraction

1.5.3 Reflection

1.5.4 Refraction

1.5.5 Scattering

1.5.6 Polarized radiation

1.6. Spectroscopy Applications

1.7. Summary

Problems

References

Further Reading

2. UV–visible Spectrophotometry

2.1 Theory

2.1.1 The Absorption Process

2.1.2 The Beer–Lambert Law

2.1.3 Solvent Effects on Molar Absorptivity and Spectra

2.2 UV–Visible Instrumentation

2.2.1 Sources of visible and ultraviolet light

2.2.2 Wavelength Selection: Filters

2.2.3 Wavelength Selection: Monochromators

2.2.4 Monochromator Designs Putting It All Together

2.2.5 Detectors

2.3 Spectrophotometer Designs

2.3.1 Single–beam Spectrophotometers

2.3.2 Scanning Double–beam Instruments

2.3.3 Photodiode Array Instruments

2.4 The Practice of Spectrophotometry

2.4.1 Types of Samples That Can Be Analyzed

2.4.2 Preparation of Calibration Curves

2.4.3 Deviations from Beer s Law

2.4.4 Precision Relative Concentration Error

2.4.5 The Desirable Absorbance Range

2.5 Applications and Techniques

2.5.1 Simultaneous Determinations of Multicomponent Systems

2.5.2 Difference Spectroscopy

2.5.3 Derivative spectroscopy

2.5.4 Titration Curves

2.5.5 Turbidimetry and Nephelometry

2.6 A Specific Application of UV–Visible Spectrophotometry Enzyme Kinetics

2.6.1 Myeloperoxidase, Immune Responses, Heart Attacks, and Enzyme Kinetics

2.6.2 Possible Mechanism for Myeloperoxidase Oxidation of LDL via Tyrosyl Radical Intermediates

2.7 Summary

Problems

References

Further Reading

3. Molecular Luminescence Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence

3.1 Theory

3.1.1 Absorbance Compared to Fluorescence

3.1.2 Factors that Affect Fluorescence Intensity

3.1.3 Quenching

3.1.4 Quantum Yield and Fluorescence Intensity

3.1.5 Linearity and Non–linearity of Fluorescence:  Quenching and Self–absorption

3.2 Instrumentation

3.2.1 Instrument Design

3.2.2 Sources

3.2.3 Filters and Monochromators

3.2.4 Component Arrangement

3.2.5 Fluorometers

3.2.6 Spectrofluorometers

3.2.7 Cells and Slit Widths

3.2.8 Detectors

3.3 Practice of Luminescence Spectroscopy

3.3.1 Considerations and Options

3.3.2 Fluorescence Polarization

3.3.3 Time–resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

3.4 Fluorescence Microscopy

3.4.1 Fluorescence Microscopy Resolution

3.4.2 Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

3.5 Phosphorescence and Chemiluminescence

3.5.1 Phosphorescence

3.5.2 Chemiluminescence

3.6 Applications of Fluorescence Biological Systems and DNA Sequencing

3.7 Summary

Problems

References

Further Reading

4. Infrared Spectroscopy

4.1 Theory

4.1.1 Bond Vibrations

4.1.2 Other Types of Vibrations

4.1.3 Modeling Vibrations Harmonic and Nonharmonic Oscillators

4.1.4 The 3N–6 Rule

4.2 FTIR Instruments

4.2.1 The Michelson Interferometer and Fourier Transform

4.2.2 Components of FTIR Instruments Sources

4.2.3 Components of FTIR Instruments DTGS and MCT detectors

4.2.4 Sample handling

4.2.5 Reflectance Techniques

4.3 Applications of IR Spectroscopy, Including Near–IR and Far–IR

4.3.1 Structure Determination with Mid–IR Spectroscopy

4.3.2 Gas analysis

4.3.3 Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)

4.3.4 Far Infrared Spectroscopy (FIR)

4.4 Summary

Problems

References

Further Reading

5. Raman Spectroscopy

5.1 Energy Level Description

5.2 Visualization of Raman Data

5.3 Molecular Polarizability

5.4 Brief Review of Molecular Vibrations

5.5 Classical Theory of Raman Scattering

5.6 Polarization of Raman Scattering

5.6.1 Depolarization Ratio

5.7 Instrumentation and Analysis Methods

5.7.1 Filter Instruments

5.7.2 Dispersive Spectrometers

5.7.3 Fourier Transform Raman Spectrometers

5.7.4 Confocal Raman Instruments

5.7.5 Light Sources

5.8 Quantitative Analysis Methods

5.8.1 Calibration Curves

5.8.2 Curve Fitting

5.8.3 Ordinary Least Squares

5.8.4 Classical Least Squares

5.8.5 Implicit Analytical Methods

5.9 Applications

5.9.1 Art and Archeology

5.9.2 Pharmaceuticals

5.9.3 Forensics

5.9.4 Medicine and Biology

5.10 Signal Enhancement Techniques

5.10.1 Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

5.10.2 Surface–enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

5.10.3 Non–linear Raman Spectroscopy

5.11 Summary

Problems

References

Further Reading

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Mark F. Vitha
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