The chlorine market was valued at around 99 million ton in 2020, and the market is projected to register a CAGR of over 3.5% during the forecast period (2021-2026).
Due to a nationwide lockdown imposed to contain the spread of the Coronavirus, there has been a drop in chlorine demand. Countries across the world are focusing on flattening the curve of the infection, resulting in lockdowns in various countries, confining millions of people in their homes. It resulted in the shut down of businesses and production and manufacturing facilities, resulting in no economic activity. Furthermore, the major government resources directed toward importing or manufacturing vaccines impact investments in other industrial manufacturing sectors such as the plastics, chemical industry, and pulp and paper industry. However, with the lifting of lockdown restrictions, chlorine demand is expected to improve gradually. Furthermore, rising demand for water treatment applications combined with increased awareness of better hygiene practices will drive up the need for chlorine among industrialists.
- Over the medium term, the major factors driving the market studied are the rising demand from the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries and the increasing demand for PVC from the construction sector.
- However, stringent government regulations in Europe are expected to hinder the growth of the market studied.
- Asia-Pacific dominated the market across the world, with the largest consumption coming from countries such as China and India.
Key Market Trends
Increasing Demand for PVC
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is widely used in construction, building, and infrastructure. Construction and utility parts in buildings are often partly or completely polymeric. This can be implemented as roofing materials, wall panels, seals, piping systems, coatings, and many other products.
- There are two types of PVC, namely, rigid resins and flexible resins. Rigid resins provide most of the growth opportunities, with major end uses being fittings, pipe and fittings, windows, fencing, roof tiles, and automobile parts. Flexible PVC finds outlets in film and sheets, flooring, wire and cable coating, synthetic leather products, and shower curtains. EDC is being used as a solvent in the metal cleaning, textile, and adhesives industries.
- A large amount of chlorine is required as a raw material in the manufacturing process of EDC and PVC. According to Euro Chlor, in February 2020, the European chlorine production stood at 795,584 tonnes. With 27,434 ton, the February 2020 average daily production was 2.7% higher than in the previous month (January 2020: 26,707 ton) but 2.5% lower than in February 2019 (28,148 tonnes).
- Large investments in sectors, such as irrigation, water and sanitation management, building and construction, transport, power, retail, etc., continue to be made. PVC plays an important role in the sustainable management of these sectors through various products, like wires and cables, pipes, wood PVC composites, and waterproofing membranes.
- With increasing population and rapid urbanization, the demand for residential buildings and office spaces increases yearly. This is, in turn, increasing the demand for PVC in the construction sector, as these products offer superior function and a long life span.
- Countries like China, India, Brazil, Austria, Sweden, the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and Spain have been investing heavily in their construction sectors since the last decade.
- Also, the growing trend of ‘green construction’ across the world is encouraging the usage of PVC in the construction sector more than ever. Thus, with the increase in construction activities, the usage of PVC is expected to increase during the forecast period.
- The rising demand for polyvinyl chloride is expected to boost the demand for chlorine. This, in turn, shall benefit the market for chlorine during the forecast period.
Asia-Pacific Region to Dominate the Market
- The Asia-Pacific region dominated the global market share. With the growing urbanization and the increasing need for fresh water in countries such as China and India, the usage of chlorine is increasing in the region.
- With 2.4% land resource and 4% water resource, India supports nearly 18% of the world's population. Lately, the dwindling quality of agricultural products has raised serious questions on the sustainability of the agricultural practice. To counter the problem, efforts have been made to improve the land's productivity and increase the efficiency of the supply chain (while reducing the carbon footprint) by implementing PVC pipes in field irrigation systems.
- Moreover, chlorine is majorly used for water treatment. The process of adding chlorine or chlorine compounds to water, such as sodium hypochlorite, is known as water chlorination. In order to kill bacteria, viruses, and other microbes in water, this method is used. Chlorination is particularly useful in preventing the spread of waterborne diseases like cholera, dysentery, and typhoid. Percentage share of the rural population having access to safe drinking water in India in the financial year 2020 is 42.49%. This is expected to increase water treatment technology in the country and thereby increase demand for chlorine.
- The packaging industry in India is one of the fastest-growing industries, with direct or indirect influence on all industries. The spending on packaged foods is increasing due to urbanization, increase in per capita income, and the growing number of workforces.
- There is great growth potential since India's per capita consumption of packaging is only 4.3 kg, whereas, in neighboring Asian countries, such as China and Taiwan, it is about 6 kg and 19 kg, respectively. This clearly indicates that the market is underpenetrated and offers a great business opportunity for the Indian plastics industry.
- China is a hub for chemical processing, accounting for a major chunk of the chemicals produced globally. The growth in the country makes half of the growth of the global chemical market. The chemical market in China is growing at 4%-5% annually, compared to the ~3% growth of the Rest of the World. With the increasing demand for various chemicals globally, the demand for chlorine from this sector is projected to rise during the forecast period.
- In addition to this, China has one of the largest pulp and paper industries in the world. China is one of the top three producers of paper in the world. However, due to environmental concerns, the country announced to ban all wastepaper imports in 2020. It is estimated to have eliminated more than 45 million metric ton of backward paper capacity during the last seven years. The new investment in the pulp and paper industry in the country is also slowing due to strict regulatory controls and the low availability of raw materials. This is expected to negatively impact the demand growth of the market studied in the country during the forecast period.
- Overall, the market for chlorine is projected to witness healthy growth in the country over the forecast period, even though the market remained affected in 2020 due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
The chlorine market is partially fragmented and dominated by very few players. Some of these major players include Olin Corporation, Occidental Petroleum Corporation, Westlake Chemical Corporation, Formosa Plastic Corporation, and Nouryon.
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Table of Contents
1.2 Scope of the Study
4.1.1 Increasing Demand from the Pharmaceutical and Agrochemical Industries
4.1.2 Increasing Demand for PVC from the Construction Sector
4.2.1 Stringent Government Regulations in Europe
4.2.2 Detrimental Impact of COVID-19
4.3 Industry Value Chain Analysis
4.4 Porter's Five Forces Analysis
4.4.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
4.4.2 Bargaining Power of Consumers
4.4.3 Threat of New Entrants
4.4.4 Threat of Substitute Products and Services
4.4.5 Degree of Competition
4.5 Technological Snapshot
4.6 Import and Export Trends
4.7 Price Trends
5.1.2 Isocyanates and Oxygenates
5.1.4 Solvents and Epichlorohydrin
5.1.5 Inorganic Chemicals
5.1.6 Other Applications
5.2 End-user Industry
5.2.1 Water Treatment
5.2.4 Paper and Pulp
5.2.7 Other End-user Industries
220.127.116.11 South Korea
18.104.22.168 Rest of Asia-Pacific
5.3.2 North America
22.214.171.124 United States
126.96.36.199 United Kingdom
188.8.131.52 Rest of Europe
5.3.4 South America
184.108.40.206 Rest of South America
5.3.5 Middle-East and Africa
220.127.116.11 Saudi Arabia
18.104.22.168 South Africa
22.214.171.124 Rest of Middle-East and Africa
6.2 Market Share** /Ranking Analysis
6.3 Strategies Adopted by Leading Players
6.4 Company Profiles
6.4.1 ANWIL SA (PKN ORLEN SA)
6.4.2 BorsodChem (Wanhua Chemical Group Co. Ltd)
6.4.3 Covestro AG
6.4.4 Ercros SA
6.4.5 Formosa Plastics Corporation
6.4.6 Hanwha Solutions/Chemical Corporation
6.4.7 INOVYN (INEOS)
6.4.8 Kem One
6.4.10 Occidental Petroleum Corporation
6.4.11 Olin Corporation
6.4.13 Tata Chemicals Limited
6.4.14 Tosoh Corporation
6.4.15 Vinnolit GmbH & Co. KG (Westlake Chemical Corporation)
6.4.16 Vynova Group