Power System Control Under Cascading Failures. Understanding, Mitigation, and System Restoration. Wiley - IEEE

  • ID: 4520288
  • Book
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Offers a comprehensive introduction to the issues of control of power systems during cascading outages and restoration process

Power System Control Under Cascading Failures offers comprehensive coverage of three major topics related to prevention of cascading power outages in a power transmission grid: modelling and analysis, system separation and power system restoration. The book examines modelling and analysis of cascading failures for reliable and efficient simulation and better understanding of important mechanisms, root causes and propagation patterns of failures and power outages. Second, it covers controlled system separation to mitigate cascading failures addressing key questions such as where, when and how to separate. Third, the text explores optimal system restoration from cascading power outages and blackouts by well–designed milestones, optimised procedures and emerging techniques. 

The authors noted experts in the field include state–of–the–art methods that are illustrated in detail as well as practical examples that show how to use them to address realistic problems and improve current practices. This important resource:

  • Contains comprehensive coverage of a focused area of cascading power system outages, addressing modelling and analysis, system separation and power system restoration
  • Offers a description of theoretical models to analyse outages, methods to identify control actions to prevent propagation of outages and restore the system
  • Suggests state–of–the–art methods that are illustrated in detail with hands–on examples that address realistic problems to help improve current practices
  • Includes companion website with samples, codes and examples to support the text

Written for postgraduate students, researchers, specialists, planners and operation engineers from industry, Power System Control Under Cascading Failures contains a review of a focused area of cascading power system outages, addresses modelling and analysis, system separation, and power system restoration.

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1 Introduction 1
1.1 Importance of Modeling and Understanding Cascading Failures 1
1.1.1 Cascading Failures 1
1.1.2 Challenges in modeling and understanding of cascading failures 4
1.2 Importance of Controlled System Separation 7
1.2.1 Mitigation of Cascading Failures 7
1.2.2 Uncontrolled and Controlled System Separations 8
1.3 Constructing Restoration Strategies 11
1.3.1 Importance of system restoration 11
1.3.2 Classification of system restoration strategies 13
1.3.3 Challenges of system restoration 17
1.4 Overview of the book 20
References 23

2 Modeling of Cascading Failures
2.1 General Cascading Failure Models
2.1.1 Bak–Tang–Wiesenfeld Sandpile Model
2.1.2 Failure–Tolerance Sandpile Model
2.1.3 Motter–Lai Model
2.1.4 Influence Model
2.1.5 Binary–Decision Model
2.1.6 Coupled Map Lattice Model
2.1.7 CASCADE Model
2.1.8 Interdependent Failure Model
2.2 Power System Cascading Failure Models
2.2.1 Hidden Failure Model
2.2.2 Manchester Model
2.2.3 OPA Model
2.2.4 Improved OPA Model
2.2.5 OPA model with Slow Process
2.2.6 AC OPA Model
2.2.7 Dynamic Cascading Failure Model

3 Understanding Cascading Failures
3.1 Self–Organized Criticality
3.1.1 SOC Theory
3.1.2 Evidence of SOC in Blackout Data
3.2 Branching Processes
3.2.1 Definition of Galton–Watson Process
3.2.2 Estimation of Mean of the Offspring Distribution
3.2.3 Estimation of Variance of the Offspring Distribution
3.2.4 Processing and Discretization of Continuous Data
3.2.5 Estimation of Distribution of Total Outages
3.2.6 Statistical Insight of Branching Process Parameters
3.2.7 Branching Processes Applied to Line Outage Data
3.2.8 Branching Processes Applied to Load Shed Data
3.2.9 Cross Validation for Branching Processes
3.2.10 Efficiency Improvement by Branching Processes
3.3 Multi–Type Branching Processes
3.3.1 Estimation of Multi–Type Branching Process Parameters
3.3.2 Estimation of Joint Probability Distribution of Total Outages
3.3.3 An Example for a Two–Type Branching Process
3.3.4 Validation of Estimated Joint Distribution
3.3.5 Number of Cascades Needed for Multi–Type Branching Processes
3.3.6 Estimated Parameters of Branching Processes
3.3.7 Estimated Joint Distribution of Total Outages
3.3.8 Cross Validation for Multi–Type Branching Processes
3.3.9 Predicting Joint Distribution from One Type of Outage
3.3.10 Estimating Failure Propagation of Three Types of Outages
3.4 Failure Interaction Analysis
3.4.1 Estimation of Interactions between Component Failures
3.4.2 Identification of Key Links and Key Components
3.4.3 Interaction Model
3.4.4 Validation of Interaction Model
3.4.5 Number of Cascades Needed for Failure Interaction Analysis
3.4.6 Estimated Interaction Matrix and Interaction Network
3.4.7 Identified Key Links and Key Components
3.4.8 Interaction Model Validation
3.4.9 Cascading Failure Mitigation
3.4.10 Efficiency Improvement by Interaction Model

4 Strategies for Controlled System Separation 1
4.1 Questions to Answer 1
4.2 Literature Review 3
4.3 Constraints on Separation Points 4
4.4 Graph Models of a Power Network 9
4.4.1 Undirected node–weighted graph 10
4.4.2 Directed edge–weighted graph 13
4.5 Generator Grouping 15
4.5.1 Slow Coherency Analysis 16
4.5.2 Elementary Coherent Groups 21
4.6 Finding Separation Points 24
4.6.1 Formulations of the Problem 24
4.6.2 Computational Complexity 30
4.6.3 Network Reduction 33
4.6.4 Network Decomposition for Parallel Processing 41
4.6.5 Application of the Ordered Binary Decision Diagram 45
4.6.6 Checking the Transmission Capacity and Small Disruption Constraints 56
4.6.7 Checking all Constraints in Three Steps 63
References 66

5 Online Decision Support for Controlled System Separation 70
5.1 Online Decision on the Separation Strategy 70
5.1.1 Spectral Analysis Based Method 71
5.1.2 Frequency–Amplitude Characteristics of Electromechanical Oscillation 73
5.1.3 Phase–Locked Loop Based Method 79
5.1.4 Timing of Controlled Separation 87
5.2 WAMS Based Unified Framework for Controlled System Separation 90
5.2.1 WAMS Based Three–stage CSS Scheme 90
5.2.2 Offline Analysis Stage 92
5.2.3 Online Monitoring Stage 96
5.2.4 Real–time Control Stage 99
References 101

6 Constraints of System Restoration
6.1 Physical constraints during restoration
6.1.1 Generating units startup
6.1.2 System sectionalizing and reconfiguration
6.1.3 Load restoration
6.2 Electromagnetic transients during system restoration
6.2.1 Generator Self–excitation
6.2.2 Switching Over–voltage
6.2.3 Resonant Over–voltage in the Case of Energizing No–load Transformer
6.2.4 Magnetizing inrush current on transformer
6.2.5 Voltage and Frequency Analysis in Picking up Load
References

7. Restoration Methodology and Implementation Algorithms 1
7.1 Algorithms for Generating Units Startup 2
7.1.1 A General Bi–Level Framework[10] 2
7.1.2 Algorithms for the Primary Problem 8
7.1.3 Algorithms for the Second Problem 16
7.2 Algorithms For Load Restoration 19
7.2.1 Estimate Operational Region Bound 22
7.2.2 Formulate MINLR Model to Maximize Load Pickup 23
7.2.3 Branch–and–Cut Solver: Design and Justification 26
7.2.4 Selection of Branching Methods 29
7.3 Case Studies 30
7.3.1 Illustrative Example for Restoring Generating Units 30
7.3.2 Optimal Load Restoration Strategies for RTS 24–Bus System 34
7.4.2 Optimal Load Restoration Strategies for IEEE 118–Bus System 39
Reference 43

8. Emerging Technologies in System Restoration 2
8.1 Applications of Facts and HVDC 2
8.1.1 LCC–HVDC technology for system restoration 2
8.1.2 VSC–HVDC technology for system restoration 8
8.1.3 FACTs technology for system restoration 16
8.2 Applications of PMUS 23
8.2.1 Review of PMU 23
8.2.2 System restoration with PMU measurements 26
8.3 Renewable Energy Resources in System Restoration 36
8.3.1 Renewables for system restoration 36
8.3.2 The off–line restoration tool using renewable energy resources 37
8.3.3 System restoration with renewables participation 39
8.4 Energy Storage in System Restoration 47
8.4.1 Pumped–storage hydro units in restoration 47
8.4.2 Batteries for system restoration 57
8.4.3 Electric vehicles in system restoration 67
8.5 Microgrid in System Restoration 86
8.5.1 Microgrid based restoration 87
8.5.2 Demonstration and practice 91
8.6 Application of Renewable Generators for System Restoration 96
8.6.1 Prerequisites of Type 3 WTs for System Restoration 98
8.6.2 Problem Setup of Type 3 WTs for System Restoration 100
8.6.3 Black–Starting Control and Sequence of Type 3 WTs 105
8.6.4 Autonomous Frequency Mechanism of Type 3 WT–based Stand–Alone System 108
8.6.5 Simulation Study 112
8.6.6 Conclusion 114
Reference 116

9 Blackstart Capability Assessment and Optimization 1
9.1 Background of Blackstart 1
9.2 Blackstart Capability Assessment 6
9.3 Optimal Blackstart Capability 14
References 35

10 Blackstart Capability Assessment and Optimization 2
10.1 Background of Blackstart 2
10.1.1 Definition of blackstart 2
10.1.2 Constraints during blackstart 3
10.1.3 Blackstart service procurement 4
10.1.4 Blackstart capability assessment 6
10.2 Blackstart Capability Assessment 7
10.2.1 Installation criteria of new blackstart generators 7
10.2.2 Optimal installation strategy of blackstart capability 10
10.2.3 Examples 11
10.3 Optimal Blackstart Capability 15
10.3.1 Problem formulation 15
10.3.2 Solution algorithm 21
10.3.3 Examples 25
References 36

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Kai Sun
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Wei Sun
Junjian Qi
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