Behaviors and Persistence of Nanomaterials in Biomedical Applications

  • ID: 4538376
  • Book
  • 258 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The use of nanomaterials in medicine has made great breakthroughs, but the obstacle right now is how to reduce the bad toxicological effects. This book comprehensively reviews strategies how nanomaterials can safely exit the organisms after the medicine has been administered.

In the last two decades, several promising engineered nanomaterials that combine therapeutic features and imaging functionalities have been presented, but very few have arrived on the market. The purpose of this book is to collect and comprehensively discuss the advances in this current and exciting topic in order to promote and enhance its growth. In the first part, a general introduction about the main features of both organic and inorganic nanomaterials is provided. Then, the most promising and innovative applications for cancer treatment and diagnostic are introduced.

In the second part, an analysis of the nanomaterials in the market for healthcare applications is presented. The issue of unwanted accumulation of metals in organisms after the designed action is then discussed. Finally, the most recent progress in the design of nanomaterials that are able to escape from organisms after the selected action are comprehensively described, along with the future research potential of this exciting field.

Audience

The book will be read by researchers and scientists in academia and pharmaceutical companies. Nanotechnologists, materials scientists, biotechnologists, chemists, biomedical engineers will be especially interested.

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Preface vii

1 Introduction 1

References 3

2 Nanomaterials 5

2.1 Physical Properties of Nanomaterials 5

2.1.1 Thermodynamic Properties: Melting Point Depression and Superheating 7

2.1.2 Optical Properties 10

2.1.3 Magnetism 14

2.2 Nanomaterials: An Overview 21

2.2.1 Organic Nanoparticles 21

2.2.2 Inorganic Nanoparticles 38

References 65

3 Promising Applications in Medicine 79

3.1 Diagnostics 80

3.1.1 X–Ray Computed Tomography 80

3.1.2 Photoacoustic Imaging 85

3.1.3 Positron Emission Tomography 88

3.1.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 90

3.1.5 Raman–Based Diagnostics 95

3.2 Therapy 99

3.2.1 Chemotherapy 99

3.2.2 Hyperthermia 105

3.2.3 Radiotherapy 112

References 116

4 Interactions of Nanomaterials with Biological Systems 137

4.1 Cellular Level (in vitro) 137

4.1.1 Cellular Uptake and Intracellular Fate 137

4.1.2 Physio–Chemical Dependence of Nanomaterials Uptake 145

4.1.3 Cytotoxicity 149

4.2 Body Level (in vivo) 153

4.2.1 Blood Circulation 154

4.2.2 Immune/Inflammatory Response 168

4.2.3 Metabolism (RES, Degradation, Excretion and Persistence) 173

References 183

5 Nanomaterials in the Market or in the Way of 201

5.1 Approval pipeline (FDA and EMA) 202

5.2 Nanotherapeutics 205

5.3 Nanodiagnostics 209

References 212

6 Avoiding the Persistence of Metal Nanomaterials 217

6.1 Ultrasmall–in–Nano Approach 218

6.2 Porphyrin–Based Nanomaterials 229

References 233

7 Conclusions and Perspectives 241

References 244

Index 247

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Domenico Cassano
Valerio Voliani
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