Nanomaterials. Biomedical, Environmental, and Engineering Applications. Advanced Material Series

  • ID: 4538378
  • Book
  • 324 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The evolution in the nanotechnology world clearly signifies a need for a broader understanding of the subject and this book will contribute to the effort.

Nanostructure science and technology is a broad and interdisciplinary area of research and development that has been growing explosively in the past decades. The contents of this book include mainly the fundamentals of nanoparticles, state–of–the–art in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials, as well the influence of nanomaterials on the analytical systems (macro to micro & lab–on–a–chip) for biomedical, environmental and engineering applications.

This book seeks to broaden the understanding of modern developments in nanomaterials and comprises excellent contributions from subject matter experts working on most aspects of nanomaterials and nanotechnology.

Audience

The book will be valuable to all those working in materials science, nanotechnology, chemistry, biomedical engineering, textiles, food science, and other engineering areas.

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Contents

Preface xiii

Part I: Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Characterization 1

1 Synthesis, Characterization and General Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 3
Falah H. Hussein, Firas H. Abdulrazzak, and Ayad F. Alkaim

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 The History of Carbon Nanotubes 5

1.3 Graphene 7

1.4 Graphite 10

1.5 Fullerene 11

1.6 Rehybridization 11

1.7 Structure of CNTs 13

1.8 Classification of Carbon Nanotubes 13

1.8.1 Classification by Chirality 14

1.8.2 Classification by Conductivity 15

1.8.3 Classification by Layers 15

1.9 Crystal Structures of Carbon Nanotubes 15

1.10 Synthesis Methods 17

1.10.1 Arc–Discharge 17

1.10.2 Laser Ablation 18

1.10.3 Flame Methods 19

1.10.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 20

1.11 The Purification Process of Carbon Nanotubes 22

1.12 Mechanism of Growth CNTs 23

1.12.1 The Model for Carbon Filament Growth 23

1.12.1.1 Tip Growth Model 24

1.12.1.2 Base Growth Model 24

1.12.2 Free Radical Condensate 25

1.12.3 Yarmulke Mechanism 26

1.13  Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 27

1.13.1 Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 27

1.13.2 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 28

1.14 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 28

1.14.1 Fuel Cells 29

1.14.2 Solar Cells 30

1.14.3 Dye–sensitized Solar Cells 32

1.15 Characterization of CNTs 32

1.15.1 Raman Spectroscopy 32

1.15.1.1 G band 36

1.15.1.2 D Band 37

1.15.1.3 Radial Breathing Mode 37

1.15.2 X–Ray Diffraction 38

1.15.3 X–ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 39

1.15.4 Thermo Gravimetric Analysis 41

1.15.5 Transmission Electron Microscopy 43

1.15.6 Scanning Electronic Microscopy 45

1.15.7 Scanning Helium Ion Microscopy 46

1.16 Composite of CNTs/Semiconductors 47

1.17 Recent Updates on Synthesis of CNTs 49

References 50

2 Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphorene: A Novel 2D Material 61
Sima Umrao, Narsingh R. Nirala, Gaurav Khandelwal, and Vinod Kumar

2.1 Introduction 61

2.1.1 History of Phosphorene 62

2.1.2 Crystal Structure 63

2.1.3 Band Structure 65

2.2 Synthesis of Phosphorene 65

2.2.1 Mechanical Exfoliation 65

2.2.2 Plasma–assisted Method 66

2.2.3 Liquid–Phase Exfoliation 68

2.2.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 70

2.3 Characterization of Phosphorene 70

2.3.1 Structural Charcterizations 71

2.3.2 Spectroscopic Characterizations 73

2.3.3 Optical Band Gap Characterization 76

2.4 Environment Stability Issue of Phosphorene 80

2.5 Summary and Future Prospective 82

References 83

3 Graphene for Advanced Organic Photovoltaics
Tanvir Arfin and Shoeb Athar

3.1 Introduction 93

3.2 History of Graphene 94

3.3 Structure of Graphene 94

3.4 Graphene Family Nanomaterials 94

3.5 Properties of Graphene 95

3.5.1 Physicochemical Properties 95

3.5.2 Thermal and Electrical Properties 96

3.5.3 Optical Properties 96

3.5.4 Mechanical Properties 96

3.5.5 Biological Properties 96

3.6 Graphene for Advanced Organic Photovoltaics 96

3.6.2 Acceptor Material in OPVs 98

3.6.3 Interfacial Layer in OPVs 100

3.7 Conclusion 102

References 102

4 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Falah H. Hussein and Firas H. Abdulrazzak

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Synthesis Methods 107

4.2.1 Arc–Discharge 108

4.2.2 Laser Ablation 109

4.2.3 Flame Methods 109

4.2.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 110

4.3 The Parameters of CVD 112

4.3.1 CNT Precursors 112

4.3.2 Type of Catalyst 114

4.3.3 Effect of Temperature 115

3.4.4 Gas Flow Rates 116

4.4 Deformations and Defects in Carbon Nanotubes 118

4.4.1 Deformations in Carbon Nanotubes 118

4.4.2 Defects in Carbon Nanotubes 120

4.5 Characterization of CNTs 123

4.6 Conclusion 126

References 126

Part II: Environmental Applications 133

5 A Review of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment with Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide 135
Lavanya Madhura and Shalini Singh

5.1 Introduction 135

5.2 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis 137

5.3 Pharmaceuticals in the Environment 137

5.4 Role of TiO2 in Photocatalysis for Degradation, Mineralization, and Transformation Process of Pharmaceuticals 138

5.5 Applications 139

5.6 Conclusion 146

Acknowledgment 147

References 147

6 Nanosilica Particles in Food: A Case of Synthetic Amorphous Silica 153
Rookmoney Thakur and Shalini Singh

6.1 Introduction 153

6.1.1 The Different Forms of Silica 155

6.1.2 Synthetic Amorphous Silica 156

6.1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of SAS 157

6.1.4 Silica Applications in the Food Industry 157

6.1.5 Toxicity 158

6.1.6 Conclusion 159

References 160

7 Bio–sensing Performance of Magnetite Nanocomposite for Biomedical Applications 165
Rajasekhar Chokkareddy, Natesh Kumar Bhajanthri, Bakusele Kabane, and Gan G. Redhi

7.1 Introduction 166

7.1.1 Hematite 166

7.1.2 Maghemite 168

7.1.3 Magnetite 169

7.1.4 Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 170

7.1.5 Types of Magnetic Substances 170

7.1.5.1 Paramagnetic Substances 171

7.1.5.2 Diamagnetic Substances 171

7.1.5.3 Ferri Magnetic Substances 172

7.1.5.4 Ferro Magnetic Substances 172

7.1.5.5 Anti–ferro Magnetic Substances 173

7.1.6 Shape, Size, and Magnetic Properties 177

7.1.7 Synthesis Methods of Magnetic Nanoparticles 178

7.1.8 Advantages of Magnetic Nanomaterials 178

7.1.9 Surface Modifications of Magnetic Nanoparticles 181

7.2 Potential Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles 181

7.2.1 Magnetic Separation 182

7.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Image 184

7.2.3 Targeted Drug Delivery Systems 186

7.2.4 Magnetic Hyperthermia 188

7.2.5 Gene Delivery 190

7.3 Conclusion 191

References 192

8 The Importance of Screening Information DATA Set in Nanotechnology 197
Khan Ameera Bibi, Suruj Gitesh, and Shalini Singh

8.1 Introduction 198

8.2 Review of the Literature 201

8.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes 201

8.2.2 Nanosilver 203

8.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes vs. Asbestos 203

8.2.4 Density 205

8.2.5 Risk Assessment 205

8.2.6 Using SIDS as a Risk Assessment Tool for ENPs 206

8.3 Behavioral Patterns of Engineered Nanoparticles 206

8.3.1 Products Containing Nanosilver 207

8.3.2 Toxicity Effects of Nanosilver on Humans 208

8.3.3 Toxicity Effects on the Environment 210

8.4 Conclusions and Recommendations 213

References 213

9 Nanomaterials for Biohydrogen Production 217
Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Abudukeremu Kadier, Ackmez Mudhoo, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Kuppam Chandrasekhar, Takuro Kobayashi, and Kaiqin Xu

9.1 Introduction 218

9.2 Major Biohydrogen Production Pathways 219

9.2.1 Biophotolysis 219

9.2.2 Photo–fermentation 220

9.2.3 Dark fermentation 220

9.2.4 Microbial Electrolysis Cell 221

9.3 Nanaparticle Effects on Biohydrogen Production 222

9.3.1 Dark Fermentative Hydrogen Production 222

9.3.2 Photo Fermentative Hydrogen Production 223

9.3.3 Photocatalytic Hydrogen (H2) Production 226

9.3.4 MEC–based hydrogen production 226

9.4 Biohydrogen Producing Associated with Immobilized Enzymes (Cellulases and Hydrogenases) 227

9.5 Outlook and Concluding Notes 229

Acknowledgment 232

References 232

10 A Framework for Using Nanotechnology in Military Gear 239
Hlophe Nkosingiphile.Siphesihle, Mbatha Precious Hlengiwe, and Shalini Singh

10.1 Introduction 240

10.2 Literature Review 241

10.2.2 Ballistic Protection Properties 241

10.2.3 Biological and Chemical Protection Properties 242

10.2.4 Health Monitoring Sensing Properties 242

10.2.5 UV Protection Properties 243

10.2.6 Ethics, Safety, and the Enhancement of Soldier s Performance 243

10.2.7 Risks in Engineered Nanomaterials 244

10.2.8 Control of Risks 245

10.3 Application of Nanotechnology in the Military 246

10.3.1 Protective Properties 246

10.3.1.2 Biological and Chemical Hazard Protection 247

10.3.1.3 Injury Protection 248

10.3.2 Medical properties 248

10.3.2.2 Tissue Repair 248

10.3.3 Ethics, Safety, and the Enhancement of Soldier s Performance 248

10.3.4 Key Transmissions of ENM Exposure 249

10.4 Conclusions 251

10.4.1 Recommendations 252

References 253

Part III: Biological Applications 257

11 Plasmonic Nanopores: A New Approach Toward Single Molecule Detection 259
Gaurav Khandelwal, Sima Umrao, Narsingh R. Nirala, Sadhana S Sagar, and Vinod Kumar

11.1 Introduction 260

11.1.1 Biological Nanopores 261

11.1.2 Solid State Nanopores 261

11.1.3 Plasmoinc Nanopore 262

11.2 Sensing Principles of Plasmonic Nanopore 264

11.2.1 Fabrication of Plasmonic Nanopores 265

11.2.1.1 Materials of Choice 265

11.2.1.2 Lithography 266

11.2.1.3 Multilayers 267

11.3 Optical Properties 267

11.4 Improving Performance 268

11.4.1 Use of a New Kind of Structures 269

11.4.2 Use of New Spectroscopy Techniques 269

11.5 Surface Patterning 270

11.6 Applications Next–Generation DNA Sequencing and Beyond 271

11.7 Some Other Sensing Examples 275

11.8 Future Perspectives 277

References 278

12 Catalytically Active Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials and Their Role in Biosensing 285
Narsingh R. Nirala, Sima Umrao, Gaurav Khandelwal, and Vinod Kumar

12.1 Introduction 286

12.2 Different Types of Catalytically Active Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 286

12.2.1 Carbon Derivative–based Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 287

12.2.1.1 Carbon Nanotubes 287

12.2.1.2 Graphene Oxide 288

12.2.1.3 Graphene Quantum Dots 289

12.2.1.4 Graphene–Hemin Nanocomposites 290

12.2.2 Nobel Metal Nanoparticle–based Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 290

12.2.2.1 Gold Nanoparticles 290

12.2.3 Metal Oxide Nanoparticle–based Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 292

12.3 Applications of Catalytically Active Nanomaterials in Biosensing 292

12.3.1 Biosensors 292

12.3.1.1 H2O2 Detection 293

12.3.1.2 Glucose Detection Peroxidase–like Nanozymes Coupled 294

12.3.1.3 Immunoassays 294

References 296

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Suvardhan Kanchi
Shakeel Ahmed
Myalowenkosi I. Sabela
Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
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