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Textbook of Small Animal Emergency Medicine

  • ID: 4564551
  • Book
  • 1520 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Textbook of Small Animal Emergency Medicine offers an in–depth understanding of emergency disease processes and the underlying rationale for the diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and prognosis for these conditions in small animals. Featuring contributions from top experts around the world, the book provides practical clinical information in the context of a solid understanding of anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Completely detailed and thorough throughout, this text will allow veterinary emergency clinicians to truly advance the practice of emergency medicine. 

Filled with all the vital information that every veterinary practitioner should know, Textbook of Small Animal Emergency Medicine covers such topics as common conditions in emergency (respiratory disorders, vomiting, epistaxis, etc.); emergency conditions by system (neurological disorders, respiratory disease, urogenital disorders, etc.); trauma and resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, circulatory shock, trauma); fluid and blood product therapy; emergency room procedures; anesthesia and analgesion for the emergency room patient; and unique emergency medicine topics. 

  • Comprehensive definitive reference on a major topic in veterinary medicine
  • The only book in this area to cover the pathophysiology of disease in–depth
  • Edited by four of the most respected experts in veterinary emergency medicine
  • Provides a core text for those studying for specialty exams

Textbook of Small Animal Emergency Medicine is an important book for emergency specialists, emergency residents and interns, emergency veterinarians, and veterinary students alike.

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Contributors xiii

Preface xxix

About the Companion Website xxx


Section 1 Emergency Medicine Overview 1

1 Goals in Veterinary Emergency Medicine 3Dustin Schmid and Bob Murtaugh

2 Triage 6Nadja Sigrist

Section 2 Common Conditions in Emergency Medicine 11

3 Neurological Disorders 13Daniel J. Fletcher

4 Respiratory Distress 18Elizabeth Rozanski

5 Ventricular Ectopy 22Lisa A. Murphy and Reid K. Nakamura

6 Acute Abdomen 26Amy Koenigshof

7 The Collapsed Patient 31Anna Gelzer and Marc S. Kraus

8 Global Approach to the Trauma Patient 39Katie D. Mauro and Kenneth J. Drobatz

9 Reproductive Emergencies 44Maureen McMichael

10 Anemia 48Jillian DiFazio and Susan G. Hackner

11 Jaundice 55Leo Londoño and Michael Schaer

12 Ophthalmic Emergencies 60Steven R. Hollingsworth

13 Vomiting, Regurgitation, and Diarrhea 66Rebecca Flores and Deborah C. Mandell

14 Dysuria 72Joseph Bartges

15 Dermatological and Ear Disease 76Brian K. Roberts

16 Toxin Exposure 92Tina A. Wismer

17 Epistaxis 97Meghan E. Vaught and Elizabeth Rozanski

18 Fever 101Melissa A. Claus

Section 3 Emergency Conditions by System 107
A. Neurological Disorders 109

19 Traumatic Brain Injury 111Jillian DiFazio and Daniel J. Fletcher

20 Altered Mentation 118Cassie Ostroski and Kenneth J. Drobatz

21 Seizures 124Leontine Benedicenti and Evelyn M. Galban

22 Intracranial Disease 131Kendra Mikoloski

23 Vestibular Disease 137Laura Harvey

24 Spinal Trauma 146Patrick J. Kenny

25 Intervertebral Disk Disease 154Evelyn M. Galban and Jonathan H. Wood

26 Diskospondylitis 161Sheila Carrera–Justiz

27 Lower Motor Neuron Disease 166
Dominic Barfield,Patrick J. Kenny, and Richard Malik

B. Respiratory Disease 177

28 Brachycephalic Syndrome 179Guillaume L. Hoareau

29 Feline Upper Respiratory Complex 186Alexandra Pfaff

30 Laryngeal Paralysis 193Margo Mehl

31 Tracheobronchial Injury and Collapse 196Dana Clarke

32 Acute Airway Obstruction 206Dana Clarke

33 Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis 215Lynelle R. Johnson

34 Feline Lower Airway Disease 220Tekla Lee–Fowler

35 Puppy Pneumonia 225Elizabeth Rozanski and Alex Lynch

36 Coughing and Hemoptysis 229Geoff Heffner

37 Bronchopneumonia 234Anthony L. Gonzalez and Lesley G. King

38 Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema 242Mark A. Oyama

39 Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema 247Kenneth J. Drobatz

40 Submersion Injury 253Nuno Félix and Isabelle Goy–Thollot

41 Pulmonary Hemorrhage 260Søren Boysen

42 Pulmonary Thromboembolism 266Ronald Li and Joshua A. Stern

43 Primary and Metastatic Pulmonary Neoplasia 273Erika L. Krick

44 Pneumothorax 278Erin Mooney

45 Pleural Effusions 285Lori Waddell

46 Pyothorax 291Kate Farrell and Steven Epstein

47 Diaphragmatic Hernia 298
Cara A. Blake

48 Penetrating Thoracic Trauma 304Ingrid M. Balsa, Guillaume L. Hoareau, and William T.N. Culp

49 Blunt Thoracic Trauma 309Guillaume L. Hoareau, Ingrid M. Balsa, and William T. N. Culp

50 Look–Alike Causes of Respiratory Distress 316Angela Borchers and Laura Cagle

C. Cardiovascular Disease 319

51 Mechanisms of Heart Failure 321Mark A. Oyama

52 Congenital Cardiovascular Disease 325Joshua A. Stern

53 Arrhythmias 329Meg M. Sleeper

54 Pericardial Effusion 336Sean B. Majoy

55 Dilated Cardiomyopathy 341Suzanne M. Cunningham and Kursten V. Pierce

56 Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 349Lance C. Visser

57 Valvular Heart Disease 355John MacGregor

58 Heartworm Disease 362Marisa K. Ames

59 Pulmonary Hypertension 372Rebecca Quinn

60 Bradyarrhythmias and Pacemakers 380Lance C. Visser

61 Myocarditis 385Lisa A. Murphy and Reid K. Nakamura

62 Thromboembolic Disease 388Julien Guillaumin

63 Systemic Arterial Hypertension 397Amanda E. Coleman
D. Hematological and Oncological Disorders 405

64 Leukocytosis and Leukopenia 407Andrew G. Burton and Karl E. Jandrey

65 Non–Regenerative Anemia 413Alex Lynch

66 Hemolytic Anemia 419Megan Morgan and Susan G. Hackner

67 Thrombocytopenia 427Maureen McMichael

68 Fibrinolysis and Antifibrinolytics 430Jo–Annie Letendre and Robert Goggs

69 Congenital Coagulopathy 440Elizabeth Rozanski and Armelle deLaforcade

70 Acquired Coagulopathy 444Ronald Li

71 Antithrombotics in the Emergency Room 455Armelle deLaforcade

72 Sick Oncology Patients in the Emergency Room 459Kim Slensky and Craig A. Clifford

73 Paraneoplastic Syndromes 467Alycen P. Lundberg and Laura D. Garrett

E. Esophageal and Abdominal Disease 473

74 Vomiting and Regurgitation 475Jayme E. Hoffberg

75 Esophageal Foreign Bodies 481Mark P. Rondeau

76 Diarrhea 485Marko Pipan

77 Hematemesis and Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage 490Kayla Hanson and Elke Rudloff

78 Parvovirus Enteritis 496Raegan J. Wells and Sullivan Lauren

79 Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis 501
Erica L. Reineke

80 Protein–Losing Enteropathy 506Rachel E. Smith and Robert J. Washabau

81 Gastrointestinal Obstruction 511Chap Pratt

82 Gastric Dilation–Volvulus 520Elke Rudloff

83 Mesenteric Torsion 524Fabio Vigano

84 Hemoperitoneum 528S. Anna Pesillo–Crosby

85 Splenic Disease 535Alex Lynch and Therese O Toole

86 Pancreatitis 541Erica Tinson and Elise Boller

87 Peritonitis 550Medora Pashmakova and James Barr

88 Postoperative Complications Presenting to the Emergency Service 556
Therese O Toole

89 Biliary Disease 561Amanda K. Boag and Steve J. Mehler

90 Acute Liver Failure 566Deborah C. Mandell

91 Feeding Tube Complications 578Daniel L. Chan

92 Anorectal Disease 582David E. Holt

93 Constipation 587Mark P. Rondeau


F. Urogenital Disorders 593

94 Acute Azotemia 595Carrie Palmr

95.Oliguria 601J.D. Foster

96 Urinary Tract Infections 606Reid Groman

97 Urolithiasis 620Joseph Bartges

98 Feline Ureteral Obstruction: Diagnosis and Management 627Allyson Berent

99 Feline Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction 634Edward Cooper

100 Urethral Trauma 641Elena S. Addison and Donald A. Yool

101 Lyme Nephritis 646Meryl P. Littman

102 Chronic Kidney Disease 653Melisa Gunsel Rosenthal and Mary A. LabatoI

103 Uroabdomen 659Saya Press and Anusha Balakrishnan

104 Urethral Prolapse 665Jennifer Carr

105 Discolored Urine 667Julie M. Walker

106 Urinary Diversion in the Emergency Room 673Cassie Ostroski and Dana Clarke

107 Acid Base Disorders 680Kate Hopper

108 Sodium and Water Balance 687Yu Ueda and Kate Hopper

109 Potassium Disorders 697Sabrina Hoehne and Matthew Mellema

110 Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus Disorders 706Matthew Mellema

111 Hypoglycemia 716Anthony L. Gonzalez and Deborah C. Silverstein

112 Hyperglycemia 723Gideon Daniel and Alex Lynch

113 Complicated Diabetes Mellitus 726Amie Koenig

114 Adrenal Gland Disorders 733Jonathan D. Dear and Guillaume L. Hoareau

115 Hypoadrenocorticism 739Soren Boysen

116 Thyroid Disorders 749Jonathan D. Dear

117 Diabetes Insipidus 754Jamie M. Burkitt Creedon

G. Reproductive Disorders 759

118 Dystocia 761Liam Donaldson and Philip Thomas

119 Eclampsia 767Michelle A. Kutzler

120 Neonatal Resuscitation 771Carol A. Margolis and Margret L. Casal

121 Diseases of the Neonate 775Andrea Hesser and Autumn P. Davidson

122 Metritis and Mastitis 787Sophie A. Grundy

123 Pyometra 791Grayson B. Wallace and Margret L. Casal

124 Prostatic Disease 798Autumn P. Davidson

125 Uterine and Vaginal Prolapse 803Michelle A. Kutzler

126 Penile, Preputial, and Testicular Disease 808James Lavely and Autumn P. Davidson

H. Common Toxins 815

127 Decontamination and Toxicological Analyses of the Poisoned Patient 817Justine A. Lee

128 Lipid Rescue Therapy 827Kathryn Benavides and Jonathan Babyak

129 Blood Purification Techniques for Intoxications 831Carrie Palm

130 Rodenticide Toxicity 837Jesse Bullock and Alex Lynch

131 Ethylene Glycol Intoxication 842Rachel B. Davy and Leo Londoño

132 Acetaminophen Intoxication 847Amanda Thomer and Lesley G. King

133 Non–Steroidal Anti–Inflammatory Drug Intoxications 852Angela Borchers

134 Grape, Raisin, and Lily Ingestion 858J.D. Foster

135 Recreational Drug Intoxications 862Melissa Bucknoff

136 Household Toxins 867Lindsey Nielsen

I. Skin and Soft Tissue Disease 871

137 Life–Threatening Dermatological Emergencies 873Brian K. Roberts

138 Severe Soft Tissue Infections 888Melissa Clark and Yekaterina Buriko

J. Environmental Emergencies 893

139 Smoke Inhalation Toxicity 895Erin McGowan and Kenneth J. Drobatz

140 Porcupine Quilling 901Elizabeth Rozanski

141 Crotalinae Snake Envenomation 904Raegan J. Wells

142 Elapid Snake Envenomation: American Coral Snakes and Australian Elapids (Tiger Snakes, Brown Snakes, Taipans, Death Adders and Black Snakes) 910Katrin Swindells and Michael Schaer

143 Spider and Scorpion Envenomation 917Kate Hopper

144 Bufo Toad Toxicosis 922Leo Londoño and Gareth Buckley

145 Hymenoptera Envenomation 926Rebecca Flores and Vincent Thawley

146 Hypersensitivity and Anaphylaxis 932Sabrina Hoehne and Kate Hopper

147 Canine Heat Stroke 938Yaron Bruchim and Efrat Kelmer

148 Cold Exposure 946Karol A. Mathews

149 Electrical and Lightning Injuries 952F.A. (Tony) Mann

Section 4 Trauma and Resuscitation 959

A. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 961

150 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Emergency Room 963Daniel J. Fletcher and Manuel Boller

151 Small Animal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Initiatives 970Manuel Boller and Daniel J. Fletcher

B. Circulatory Shock 975

152 Pathophysiology of Shock 977Edward Cooper

153 Hypovolemic Shock 982Corrin Boyd and Lisa Smart

154 Cardiogenic Shock 989Luiz Bolfer and Meg M. Sleeper

155 Additional Mechanisms of Shock 996Sean Smarick and Iain Keir

156 Lactate Monitoring 1001Casey Kohen and Kate Hopper

157 Emerging Monitoring Techniques 1007Rodrigo C. Rabelo

158 Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury 1015Josh Smith and Robert Goggs

159 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Sepsis, and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome 1026Claire R. Sharp

C. Trauma 1035

160 Trauma Overview 1037Erica L. Reineke

161 Trauma Center Registry 1048Kelly Hall

162 High–Rise Syndrome 1050Yekaterina Buriko

163 Trauma–Associated Coagulopathy 1056Alex Lynch and Robert Goggs

164 Metabolic Consequences of Trauma 1064Leo Roa and Elizabeth M. Streeter

165 Traumatic Orthopedic Emergencies 1068Spencer A. Johnston and Marian E. Benitez

166 Wound Management Principles 1075F.A. (Tony) Mann

Section 5 Fluid and Blood Product Therapy 1085

167 Crystalloid Fluid Therapy 1087Deborah C. Silverstein and Samantha Hart

168 Colloid Fluid Therapy 1093Marie K. Holowaychuk

169 Crystalloids versus Colloids 1099Jennifer Prittie and Dava Cazzolli

170 Management of Hemorrhagic Shock 1111Andrew Linklater

171 Management of Dehydration 1122Ashley E. Allen–Durrance and Samantha Campos

172 Maintenance Fluid Therapy 1128Travis Lanaux

173 Potassium Supplementation 1132Jillian DiFazio

174 Administration of Sodium Bicarbonate 1136Jennifer E. Waldrop

175 Continuous–Rate Infusion 1143Andrea M. Steele and Karol A. Mathews

176 Transfusion of Red Blood Cells and Plasma 1147Raegan J. Wells and Brandi L. Mattison

177 Massive Transfusion 1152Kari Santoro Beer and Amanda Thomer

Section 6 Emergency Room Procedures 1157

178 Vascular Access 1159Matthew W. Beal

179 Intraosseous Catheters 1165Alison Allukian and Amanda Abelson

180 Airway Management 1169Elizabeth Rozanski

181 Oxygen Therapy 1173

Christine L. Guenther

182 Sonography in the Emergency Room 1179

Gregory R. Lisciandro

183 Thoracocentesis 1191

Melissa Bucknoff and Meghan Respess

184 Thoracostomy Tube Placement 1195

Samantha Campos and Alex Lynch

185 Pericardiocentesis 1198

Kursten Roderick and John E. Rush

186 Abdominocentesis 1202Karl E. Jandrey

187 Urethral Catheterization (Including Urohydropulsion) 1206Sean Smarick

188 Mechanical Ventilation in the Emergency Room 1212Lisa L. Powell

189 Damage Control Surgery 1215Steve J. Mehler

Section 7 Anesthesia and Analgesia for the Emergency Room Patient 1219

190 Anesthesia and Analgesia in the Emergency Room: An Overview 1221Lisa J. Bazzle and Benjamin M. Brainard

191 Anesthetic Concerns and Protocols for Common Conditions 1227Becca Reader and Amanda Abelson

192 Sedation for the Emergency Room Patient 1235Stephanie R. Krein

193 Pain Management in Critical Patients 1241Alicia Z. Karas

194 Opioids 1246Lois A. Wetmore

195 Alpha–2 Adrenergic Agonists 1251Katherine A. Cummings

196 Non–Steroidal Anti–Inflammatory Drugs 1254Christopher L. Norkus

197 Regional Anesthesia Techniques 1259Marlis L. de Rezende

198 Go Home Analgesics 1265Ashley Wiese

199 Approach to the Aggressive or Fearful Emergency Room Patient 1272Selena L. Lane and Benjamin M. Brainard

Section 8 Unique Emergency Medicine Topics 1279

200 Antimicrobial Therapy in the Emergency Patient 1281Steven Epstein

201 Disaster Medicine 1288Lee Palmer

202 Working Dogs in the Emergency Room 1294Cynthia M. Otto

203 Approach to Unowned and Shelter/Rescue Animals in the Emergency Room 1299April Paul

204 Euthanasia Considerations 1302Katherine J. Goldberg

205 Emergency Room Design and Staffing Models 1309Jan P. Kovacic

206 Conflict in the Emergency Room 1318
Jim Wohl

207 Maximizing Communication 1323
Laura D. Garrett

208 Basics of Clinical Study Design 1327
Kenneth J. Drobatz

209 Designing and Participating in Clinical Trials 1331
Dorothy Cimino Brown

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Kenneth J. Drobatz
Kate Hopper
Elizabeth A. Rozanski
Deborah C. Silverstein
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