The fuel cell industry in various forms has been developing for decades. There are notable examples of fuel cell successes. The PEMFC is emerging as a winner in many of the primary categories that fuel cells can satisfy. Existing membranes and assemblies still have room for improvement. PEMFC development and commercialization is an ever-changing process. This analysis examines the market and technology for the materials and technology of proton exchange membranes and electrode assemblies and for bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink/electrode, the membrane itself and the bipolar plate. Ancillary stack assembly materials such as bolts, gaskets, tie-outs, and final assembly and packaging costs are excluded.
This report details the actuals for 2016 and 2017, forecasts for 2022, and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) projections for 2017 through 2022. A patent analysis and discussion for power sources and vehicle components describes where research is performed and emphasizes intellectual property issues. An extensive set of company profiles is provided.
- 58 tables
- An overview of the global market for components for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2016 and 2017, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2022
- Examination of bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs); this includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink/electrode, the membrane itself, and the bipolar plate
- Discussion covering the history and technological advancement of these components, the companies involved in these developments, the current and projected incentives, and the projected markets for such technologies
- Patent analyses as well as discussion covering power sources and vehicle components, emphasizing intellectual property issues
- Profiles of major companies in the industry, including 3M, Ballard Power Systems, Hydrogenics Corp., Showa Denko K.K (SDK) and Plug Power
Chapter 1 Introduction
Study Goals and Objectives
Reasons for Doing This Study
Scope of Report
Chapter 2 Summary and Highlights
Chapter 3 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Overview
Fuel Cell Technology
Alkaline Fuel Cells
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Aluminum-air Fuel Cells
PEMFC Component Overview
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Fundamentals
Fuel and Fuel Reforming Fundamentals
The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Variation
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Companies
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Market Drivers
Market Segmentation and Industry Concentration
Global PEMFC Market Forecasts
Chapter 4 Membrane Electrode Assemblies
Membrane Electrode Assembly Fundamentals
MEA Fabrication and Assembly
Membrane Electrode Assembly Functional Stack Designs
Membrane Electrode Assembly Development Approaches
Carbon Corrosion and Graphite
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell MEA Approaches
Global MEA Component for PEMFCs
Market Structure and Forecast
Putting It All Together: MEA Market Forecast
Chapter 5 Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells
Types of Membranes
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membranes
What Makes a Good PEMFC Membrane?
Proton Exchange Membrane Functional Factors
Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyte Compatibility Factors
Membrane Temperature Tolerance Factors
Membrane Water Tolerance Factors
Fuel Tolerance Factors
Membrane Fabrication and Synthesis
Impact of Membrane Thickness
Membrane Material Compositions
Novel and Experimental PEM Materials
PEMFC Membrane Companies
ASAHI GLASS CO. LTD.
ASAHI KASEI CHEMICALS CORP.
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS
BTR NEW ENERGY MATERIALS INC
CAMBRIDGE DISPLAY (MAXDEM INC.)
DAIS ANALYTIC CORP.
GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES
HOKU SCIENTIFIC INC.
ION POWER INC. (NAFIONSTORE)
TORAY INDUSTRIES AMERICA INC. (TAM)
Global PEMFC Membrane Market Structure and Forecast
PEMFC Membrane Materials Market Share
PEMFC Membrane Materials Value
Chapter 6 MEA, Gaseous Diffusion Layers and Bipolar Plates
Gaseous Diffusion Layers
Gaseous Diffusion Layer Background
Gas Diffusion Layer Manufacturing
Bipolar Plate Background
Bipolar Plate Designs
DMFC Anode Approaches
MEA, GDL and Bipolar Plate Companies
ALLEGHENY TECHNOLOGIES INC
AO YU GRAPHITE GROUP CO. LTD.
AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL COOPERATION CORP.
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS
ELECTROCHEM INC. (FUELCELL.COM)
ENGINEERED FIBERS TECHNOLOGY LLC
FRONTIER CARBON CORP. (FCC)
GENERAL MOTORS, CORP.
GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES
GRAFTECH INTERNATIONAL LTD.
HORIZON FUEL CELLS
IMERYS GRAPHITE & CARBON
METRO MOLD & DESIGN
JOHNSON MATTHEY FUEL CELLS RESEARCH
MATERIALS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH CORP.
MITSUBISHI RAYON CO. LTD.
NEDSTACK FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
NIPPON CARBON CO. LTD
NISSHINBO CHEMICAL INC.
NUVERA FUEL CELLS (NACCO MATERIALS HANDLING GROUP)
OORJA PROTONICS INC.
PACIFIC CENTURY ENTERPRISE INC.
PORVAIR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
POWERCELL SWEDEN AB (VOLVO)
PROTON POWER SYSTEMS
PROTONEX TECHNOLOGY CORP.
QINGDAO HAIDA GRAPHITE CO., LTD
QINGDAO HENSEN GRAPHITE CO., LTD
SGL GROUP – THE CARBON COMPANY
SHOWA DENKO K.K. (SDK)
SHANGHAI SHENLI HIGH TECH CO. LTD.
SPECTRACORP (ENGINEERED FIBERS TECHNOLOGY)
SUMITOMO METAL MINING
SUPERIOR GRAPHITE CO.
TICONA (CELANESE CORP.)
TORAY INDUSTRIES INC. (ZOLTEK MATERIALS GROUP)
TOYOTA (TOYOTA, LEXUS AND SCION)
Global Bipolar Plates and GDLS for PEMFCs Structure Forecast
Chapter 7 Catalysts and Inks
Catalyst Particle Size and Carrier Compositions
Low Catalyst Loading Approaches
Combinatorial Catalyst Techniques
Innovative Catalyst Materials and Nanomaterials
Catalyst Ink Compositions
Carbon Composite Electrocatalyst Powders
Catalyst and Ink Companies
Global PEMFCs Catalyst and Ink Structure and Forecast
Platinum Markets and Consumption
Catalyst and Ink Value
Chapter 8 Industry Structure and Competitive Aspects
Industry Environment and Trade Practices
Government Regulations and Subsidies
U.S. Federal Fuel Cell Subsidies and Incentives
Other U.S. Fuel Cell Subsidies and Incentives
Global Subsidies and Incentives
Academic Institutions' Involvement in Fuel Cell Development
MEA Distribution Channels
Industry Purchasing Influences and Prices
PEMFC and MEA Patents
Chapter 9 Appendix: Abbreviations
List of Tables
Summary Table : Global PEMFC MEA Market, by Application, Through 2022
Table 1 : Fuel Cell Comparison
Table 2 : PEMFC and DMFC Makers
Table 3 : Types of Portable Products
Table 4 : Important Portable Product Market Factors
Table 5 : Portable PEMFC Market Drivers
Table 6 : Portable PEMFC Market Factors
Table 7 : Stationary PEMFC Market Drivers
Table 8 : Stationary PEMFC Market Factors
Table 9 : Leading PEMFC Vehicle Makers
Table 10 : Transportation PEMFC Market Drivers
Table 11 : Consensus, Optimistic, and Pessimistic PEMFC Vehicle Scenarios
Table 12 : Selected Portable Battery-Powered Military Product Roles
Table 13 : “Other” PEMFC Market Drivers
Table 14 : “Other” PEMFC Market Factors
Table 15 : Global PEMFC Market, by Application, Through 2022
Table 16 : Imerys Graphite Properties
Table 17 : Panasonic DMFC Specifications
Table 18 : Estimated MEA Company Market Shares, by Year, 2010-2017
Table 19 : Carbon, Fullerene and Graphite Companies
Table 20 : Global Proton Exchange Membranes for PEMFC Market, by Component, Through 2022
Table 21 : Membrane Parameter Variables
Table 22 : PEM Electrolyte Issues
Table 23 : Advantages of a Higher Temperature Membrane for a PEMFC
Table 24 : Approaches to Fuel Cell Ionomer Synthesis
Table 25 : Membrane Fabrication Technique
Table 26 : Fundamental Properties of Nafion PFSA Membranes
Table 27 : Conductance Comparisons
Table 28 : Virginia Tech BPS Membrane Properties Compared with Nafion 117
Table 29 : Companies Producing Ion Selective Membranes for PEMFCs
Table 30 : Estimated PEMFC Fluoropolymer Membrane Company Market Shares
Table 31 : Global Market Share of PEMFC Membrane Materials, by Type, 2010-2017
Table 32 : Global Proton Exchange Membranes for PEMFC Market, by Type, Through 2022
Table 33 : Global Proton Exchange Membranes for PEMFC Market, by Region, Through 2022
Table 34 : Attributes Needed for Gas Diffusion Layer Materials
Table 35 : Pros and Cons of GDL Manufacturing Techniques
Table 36 : Typical Solupor Properties
Table 37 : Typical Properties of Sigracet Gas Diffusion Layer
Table 38 : Design Considerations for Bipolar Plates
Table 39 : Material Types for Bipolar Plates
Table 40 : SGL Bipolar Plate Typical Properties
Table 41 : Fuel Cell Grade Graphite Typical Values
Table 42 : Imerys Graphite Properties
Table 43 : Global PEMFC Bipolar Plate and Carbon Market, by Component Type, Through 2022
Table 44 : Global PEMFC Bipolar Plate and Carbon Market, by Region, Through 2022
Table 45 : Cost at High-Volume Manufacturing
Table 46 : Performance and Cost Summary
Table 47 : Platinum Group Companies
Table 48 : World Mine Production of Platinum and Palladium and World Reserves, 2013-2016
Table 49 : Platinum Group Prices, 2009-2016
Table 50 : U.S.PGM Salient Statistics, 2008-2016
Table 51 : Global PEMFC Catalyst and Ink Market, Through 2022
Table 52 : Global PEMFC Catalyst and Ink Market, by Region, Through 2022
Table 53 : Research Association of Hydrogen Supply/Utilization Technology
Table 54 : Major Institutional Research into PEMFCS
Table 55 : PEMFC and MEA Patents
Table 56 : PEMFC And MEA Patent by Assignee
Table 57 : PEMFC Abbreviations
List of Figures
Summary Figure : Global PEMFC MEA Market, by Application, 2016-2022
Figure 1 : Generic PEMFC Diagram with Components
Figure 2 : DMFC Chemistry
Figure 3 : Simple MEA Schematic
Figure 4 : MEA Creation Flow Chart
Figure 5 : Global Proton Exchange Membranes for PEMFC Market Share, by Component, 2017
Figure 6 : Water Transport in a PEMFC
Figure 7 : SiMPore Membranes
Figure 8 : Global Proton Exchange Membranes for PEMFCS Market, By Type, 2016-2022
Figure 9 : Global Market Share of Proton Exchange Membranes for PEMFCs, by Type, 2017
Figure 10 : Global PEMFC Bipolar Plate and Carbon Market, by Component Type, 2016-2022
Figure 11 : Global Market Shares of PEMFC Bipolar Plate and Carbon, by Component Type, 2017
Figure 12 : Preparation of Carbon Aerogel Supported Platinum
Figure 13 : Global PEMFC Catalyst and Ink Market, 2016-2022
Figure 14 : Quality Control Flow Sheet for Selecting a Proper MEA
This analysis emphasizes the following types of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components:
- Gaseous diffusion layers and bipolar plates.
- Catalysts and inks.
The huge potential profits being sought by corporations in the fuel cell industry remain a driving force in a seemingly chaotic expansion of technological innovations. There remain barriers to PEMFC’s wider scale use, especially in automotive transportation. Consumer desire for premium portable power is pulling PEMFCs into the commercial arena without much help from the U.S. government. Stationary and distributed power using fuel cells are somewhere in between the status of premium portable power and automotive use of fuel cells.
Limits in the power and durability of lithium ion/polymer battery technology are being reached at the same time material availability and improvements in manufacturability are reducing prices. The consumer’s desire for portable electronics of longer runtimes, fast recharging and greater durability is increasing. Environmental issues with battery disposals are being heard along with concerns over fluorine containing proton exchange membranes. The direct methanol fuel cell is an important subset of the PEMFC that is gaining in importance, especially for portable power.
The MEA in its simplest form consists of a polymer ion selective membrane coated with a catalyst and then covered or enclosed with a conductive diffusion material. The MEA is between two conductive plates forming a fuel cell. When hydrogen is fed to the anode of the fuel cell and comes into contact with the catalyst, hydrogen is split into hydrogen ions (protons) and electrons. The ion selective membrane lets the protons pass through it and the electrons are retained and forced to follow an external circuit, creating a flow of electricity. This report examines the membranes, the bipolar plates, the gaseous diffusion layer and carbons, and the catalyst/inks.
The reign of the fluoropolymers PEM continues, but the absolute dominance of the fluoropolymers electrolyte has decreased somewhat. New materials such as the functionalized hydrocarbon PEM can decrease costs and increase performance and durability in certain applications. These functionalized hydrocarbons decrease metal plate corrosion problems and offer improved conductivity at lower relative humidity. This is proving especially important in transportation PEMFCs.
The following table summarizes the value of components for PEMFC MEA as defined by the membrane, the bipolar plates, the gaseous diffusion layers, and the catalysts used.
- 10X Microstructures
- Altergy Systems
- Akzo Nobel
- Allegheny Technologies Inc
- Ao Yu Graphite Group Co. Ltd.
- Asbury Carbons
- Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp.
- Ballard Power Systems
- Electrochem Inc. (Fuelcell.Com)
- Engineered Fibers Technology Llc
- Entegris Inc.
- Frontier Carbon Corp. (Fcc)
- General Motors, Corp.
- Gore Fuel Cell Technologies
- Graftech International Ltd.
- Henkel (Acheson)
- Hydrogenics Corp.
- Horizon Fuel Cells
- Hyundai Motor
- Imerys Graphite & Carbon
- Intelligent Energy
- Metro Mold & Design
- Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Research
- Materials And Electrochemical Research Corp.
- Mitsubishi Rayon Co. Ltd.
- Nedstack Fuel Cell Technology
- Nippon Carbon Co. Ltd
- Nisshinbo Chemical Inc.
- Nuvera Fuel Cells (Nacco Materials Handling Group)
- Oorja Protonics Inc.
- Pacific Century Enterprise Inc.
- Plastic Omnium
- Plug Power
- Porvair Fuel Cell Technology
- Powercell Sweden Ab (Volvo)
- Proton Power Systems
- Protonex Technology Corp.
- Qingdao Haida Graphite Co., Ltd
- Qingdao Hensen Graphite Co., Ltd
- Sgl Group – The Carbon Company
- Shanshan Technology
- Showa Denko K.K. (Sdk)
- Shanghai Shenli High Tech Co. Ltd.
- Sfc Energy
- Spectracorp (Engineered Fibers Technology)
- Sumitomo Metal Mining
- Superior Graphite Co.
- Ticona (Celanese Corp.)
- Toray Industries Inc. (Zoltek Materials Group)
- Toyota (Toyota, Lexus And Scion)