Aircraft Systems. Instruments, Communications, Navigation, and Control

  • ID: 4577499
  • Book
  • 512 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An authoritative guide to the various systems related to navigation, control, and other instrumentation used in a typical aircraft

Aircraft Systems offers an examination of the most recent developments in aviation as it relates to instruments, radio navigation, and communication. Written by a noted authority in the field, the text includes in–depth descriptions of traditional systems, reviews the latest developments, as well as gives information on the technologies that are likely to emerge in the future. The author presents material on essential topics including instruments, radio propagation, communication, radio navigation, inertial navigation, and puts special emphasis on systems based on MEMS.

This vital resource also provides chapters on solid state gyroscopes, magnetic compass, propagation modes of radio waves, and format of GPS signals. Aircraft Systems is an accessible text that includes an investigation of primary and secondary radar, the structure of global navigation satellite systems, and more. This important text:

  • Contains a description of the historical development of the latest technological developments in aircraft instruments, communications and navigation
  • Gives several interesting diversion topics throughout the chapters that link the topics discussed to other developments in aerospace
  • Provides examples of instruments and navigation systems in actual use in cockpit photographs obtained during the authors work as a flight instructor
  • Includes numerous worked examples of relevant calculations throughout the text and a set of problems at the end of each chapter

Written for upper undergraduates in aerospace engineering and pilots in training, Aircraft Systems offers an essential guide to both the traditional and most current developments in aviation as it relates to instruments, radio navigation, and communication.

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Chapter 1. Historical Developments

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Advent of Instrument Flight

1.3 Development of Flight Instruments Based on Air Pressure

1.3.1 The Altimeter

1.3.2 The Vertical Speed Indicator (Variometer)

1.3.3 The Airspeed Indicator

1.4 Development of Flight Instruments Based on Gyroscopes

1.5 Development of Aircraft Voice Communications

1.6 Development of Aircraft Digital Communications

1.6.1 Communication via Satellite (SATCOM)

1.6.2 Secondary Surveillance Radar and Traffic Alert & Collision Avoidance System

1.6.3 Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)

1.7 Development of Radio Navigation

1.7.1 Radio Direction Finding

1.7.2 Guided Radio Beam Navigation

1.7.3 VHF/UHF Radio Navigation Systems

1.8 Area and Global Navigation Systems

1.8.1 Hyperbolic Navigation

1.8.2 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

1.8.3 Inertial Navigation (INS)

1.8.4 Combining Systems: Performance Based Navigation (PBN) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

1.9 Development of Auto Flight Control Systems

Chapter 2. Pressure Instruments

2.1 Layers of the Atmosphere

2.2 The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)

2.3 Non–Standard Atmospheres

2.4 Dynamic pressure and the Bernoulli Equation Interesting Diversion

2.1 Aviation on Mars

2.5 Definition of Sea Level and Elevation

2.6 Definition of Height, Altitude and Flight Level

2.7 Pitot and Static Sources

2.8 Pressure Altimeter

2.8.1 Basic Principles of the Pressure Altimeter

2.8.2 Altimeter Display

2.8.3 Servo Altimeter

2.8.4 Altimeter with Digital Encoder

2.9 Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

2.9.1 Instantaneous Vertical Speed Indicator (IVSI)

2.10 Airspeed Indicator (ASI)

2.11 Machmeter

2.11.1 Critical Mach Number Interesting Diversion

2.2 World War 2 Aircraft at Transonic Speeds

2.11.2 Direct Reading Mach Meter

2.12 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe

2.12.1 Ram Rise and Total Air Temperature

2.12.2 Direct Reading Thermometer for Low Airspeed

2.12.3 Resistance Thermometer Probes

2.13 Pitot–Static Systems

2.14 Air Data Computer ADC)

2.14.1 Altitude and Vertical Speed

2.14.2 TAS and Mach Number in Compressible Flow

2.14.3 ADC Inputs and Outputs



Chapter 3. Gyroscopic and Magnetic Instruments

3.1 Mechanical Gyroscopes and Instruments

3.1.1 Basic Properties of Mechanical Gyroscopes

3.1.2 Gyroscope Wander

3.1.3 Labeling of Aircraft Axes and Rotations

3.1.4 Types of Gyroscope

3.1.5 Power for Gyro Instruments

3.1.6 Direction Indicator (DI)

3.1.7 Earth Rate

3.1.8 Transport Wander

3.1.9 Attitude Indicator (AI)

3.1.10 Turn and Slip Indicator and Turn Co–ordinator

3.2 Solid State Gyroscopes

3.2.1 The Advantages of Solid State Gyroscopes

3.2.2 Sagnac Effect

3.2.3 Fibre Optic Gyroscope

3.2.4 Ring Laser Gyro scope

3.2.5 Micro–Electrical–Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Gyroscopes

3.2.6 MEMS Accelerometers

3.3 Magnetic Compass

3.3.1 Terrestrial Magnetism

3.3.2 Direct Indicating Magnetic Compass

3.3.3 Flux Gate Sensor

3.3.4 Miniature Magnetometers

3.4 Attitude Heading and Reference Systems (AHRS)

3.5 Sensor Fusion



Chapter 4. Radio Propagation and Communication

4.1 Basic Properties of Radio Waves

4.2 Propagation Modes of Radio Waves

4.2.1 Attenuation

4.2.2 Non–Ionospheric Propagation Surface (or Ground) Wave: 20 kHz 50 MHz (LF HF) Space (or Direct) Wave: >50 MHz (VHF)

4.2.3 Ionospheric Propagation (Skywaves) Origin of the Ionosphere Reflection and Absorption of Radio Waves by the Ionosphere Ducting Propagation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) Waves

4.3 Transmitters, Receivers and Signal Modulation

4.3.1 Basic Continuous Wave Morse Code Transmitter/Receiver

4.3.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation of Carrier

4.3.3 Superheterodyne Receivers and Demodulation of QAM Signals

4.3.4 Amplitude Modulated (AM) Transmission

4.3.5 Channel Spacing in the VHF Band for AM Voice Transmission

4.3.6 Frequency Modulation (FM)

4.3.7 Modulation for Digital Data Transmission Pulsed Modulation Binary Phase–Shift Keying (BPSK) Binary Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (BCPFSK)

4.3.8 ITU Codes for Radio Emissions

4.4 Antennas

4.4.1 Basic Antenna theory

4.4.2 Resonant Half–Wave Dipole & Quarter–Wave Monopole Antennas for VHF and UHF

4.4.3 Effect of Ground and Airframe on Radiation Pattern

4.4.4 Feeders, Transmission Lines, Impedance Matching and Standing Wave Ratio

4.4.5 HF Antennas for Skywave Communications

4.4.6 Low Frequency Small Loop Antenna

4.4.7 Directional Antennas in the VHF and UHF Bands Yagi–Uda Antenna Log periodic Antenna

4.4.8 Directional Antennas in the SHF band Waveguides as Feeders Horn Antenna Interesting Diversion

4.1 Horn Antennas and Microwaves from Space Parabolic Dish Antenna Slotted array Patch or Microstrip Antenna

4.5 VHF Communications System

4.6 Long range HF Communication System

4.6.1 Coverage and Frequency Bands

4.6.2 Selective Calling (SELCAL)

4.6.3 HF Ground Station Network

4.6.4 HF Data Link (HFDL)

4.7 Satellite Communications

4.8 Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)



Chapter 5. Primary and Secondary Radar

5.1 Primary Radar

5.2 Ground Radar

5.3 Airborne Weather Radar (AWR) Interesting Diversion

5.1 Mapping the Surface of Venus Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

5.4 Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)

5.4.1 Mode A and Mode C Interrogation Pulses

5.4.2 Mode A Reply From the Aircraft

5.4.3 Mode C Reply From the Aircraft

5.4.4 Conflicts Between Mode A and Mode C Replies from Different Aircraft

5.4.5 Mode S

5.4.6 Mode S All Call Interrogation

5.4.7 Mode S Selective Call Interrogation

5.4.8 Mode S Reply from Aircraft

5.4.9 Traffic Surveillance by Mode S

5.4.10 Squitters and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS–B)

5.4.11 Universal Access Tranceivers (UAT) and ADS–B

5.4.12 Surveillance by ADS–B

5.5 Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS)

5.6 Radio Altimeter



Chapter 6. General Principles of Navigation

6.1 Co–ordinate Reference System for the Earth

6.1.1 Latitude and Longitude

6.1.2 Great Circle Routes, Rhumb Lines and Departure

6.2 Compass Heading, Variation and Deviation

6.3 Aviation Charts

6.3.1 General Chart Properties: Chart Scale, Orthomorphism and Conformality

6.3.2 Chart Projections Mercator Projection Conical Projection Gnomic and Polar Stereographic Projection

6.4 Non–Sphericity of the Earth and the WGS84 Model

6.5 Navigation by Dead Reckoning

6.5.1 Calculating the True Airspeed

6.5.2 Calculating the Heading and Ground Speed in a Known Wind

6.5.3 Pilot Log for a Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Navigation

6.5.4 Correcting Track Errors



Chapter 7. Short Range Radio Navigation

7.1 Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)

7.1.1 Principle of Operation

7.1.2 ADF Cockpit Instrumentation

7.2 VHF Omni–Directional Range (VOR)

7.2.1 Principle of Operation

7.2.2 Conventional VOR (CVOR)

7.2.3 Doppler VOR (DVOR)

7.2.4 VOR Cockpit Instrumentation

7.2.5 VOR Track Errors

7.2.6 Airways System Defined by VORs

7.2.7 Area Navigation (RNAV) Interesting Diversion 7.1 Visual–Aural Radio Range (VAR)

7.3 Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

7.4 Instrument Landing System (ILS)

7.4.1 ILS Localiser

7.4.2 ILS Glide Slope

7.4.3 ILS Cockpit Instrumentation

7.4.4 Categories of ILS

7.5 Microwave Landing System (MLS)



Chapter 8. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

8.1 Basic Principle of Satellite Navigation

8.2 The Constellation of Space Vehicles

8.2.1 Orbital Radius of the GPS Constellation

8.2.2 Orbital Arrangement for Optimal Coverage by the GPS Constellation

8.3 Transmissions by the GPS SVs

8.3.1 GPS time and UTC

8.3.2 Transmission Channels

8.3.3 Construction of the C/A Code

8.3.4 Multiplexed Decoding of the navigation message

8.3.5 Format of the Navigation Message

8.3.6 Precision P(Y) Code

8.3.7 Additional GPS Signals L2C Signal L5 Safety of Life Signal L1C Signal L3 and L4 Signals Interesting Diversion 8.1 X–Ray Pulsar Navigation

8.4 Control Segment

8.5 Sources of GPS Errors

8.5.1 Geometric Dilution of Position

8.5.2 Ionospheric Propagation Error

8.5.3 Other Sources of Error

8.6 Relativity Corrections Required for GPS

8.7 Augmentation Systems

8.7.1 Wide Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS)

8.7.2 Local Area Augmentation Systems (LAAS)

8.7.3 Aircraft Based Augmentation Systems (ABAS) and Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)

8.8 GPS Cockpit Instrumentation

8.9 Spoofing, Meaconing and Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Resilience



Chapter 9. Inertial Navigation and Kalman Filtering

9.1 Basic Principles of Inertial Navigation

9.2 Gimballed Systems

9.2.1 Stabilised Platforms

9.2.2 Obtaining Latitude and Longitude

9.2.3 Correcting the Platform Orientation for Earth Rate and Transport Wander

9.2.4 Initialising the Platform

9.3 Strapdown Systems

9.4 Accelerations not due to Changes in Aircraft Motion

9.5 Schüler Oscillations

9.6 Earth–Loop Oscillations

9.7 Summary of Inertial Guidance Errors

9.7.1 Sensor Bias

9.7.2 Random Walk Position Error Produced by Sensor Noise

9.7.3 Environmental Factors

9.7.4 True Wander

9.8 Cockpit Instrumentation

9.9 Kalman Filter

9.9.1 Basic Principle of the Kalman Filter

9.9.2 Kalman Filter for One–Dimensional (Single Value) Data

9.9.3 Kalman Filtering of Multiple values



Appendix 1 Radiation from Wire Antennas

Appendix 2 Theory of Transmission Lines and Waveguides

Appendix 3 Effective Aperture of a Receiving Antenna

Appendix 4 Acronyms


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Prof. Chris Binns is an Emeritus professor at the Department of Physics and Astronomy with the University of Leicester, UK. Currently he is a flight instructor and continues to teach engineers at universities in Greece and in the UK.

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