Global CAR-T Cell Therapy Market - Market Size, Forecasts, Trials & Trends

  • ID: 4617316
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 195 Pages
  • BioInformant
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After $20 Billion of Market Capitalization from the CAR-T Companies in 2018, the CAR-T Market has Continued to Gain Momentum

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • AbbVie Inc.
  • Carina Biotech
  • Creative Biolabs
  • Humanigen, Inc.
  • MaxCyte, Inc.
  • Pfizer, Inc.
  • MORE

CAR-T cell therapy is a remarkably promising treatment for cancer patients. This emerging treatment represents one of the biggest breakthroughs since the introduction of chemotherapy.

In 2017, the world witnessed a historic CAR-T cell therapy approval when on August 30, 2017, Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) was approved by U.S. FDA for the treatment of children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). On May 1, 2018, FDA approved Kymriah for a second indication (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). By October 18, 2017, the FDA granted approval for Yescarta for treating patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/rDLBCL) and other rare large B-cell lymphomas. Other notable approvals for CAR-T cell therapy products have also been achieved.

In August 2018, Kymriah and Yescarta secured approval in Europe, indicating the willingness of European regulators to usher in a new age of regenerative medicine. Novartis’ Kymriah was given marketing authorization in the EU for the treatment of blood cancers, including B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Gilead/Kite Pharma’s Yescarta was authorized as a treatment for adult patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). Health Canada approved Kymriah as the first CAR-T therapy in Canada and the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) approved it as the first CAR-T therapy in Australia.

What is CAR-T Cell Therapy?

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically engineered cells that are developed in the laboratory and infused into a patient to help in detecting and fighting cancer. The protein constructs stimulate anti-cancer T-cells, which in turn boost a patient’s immune system. CAR-T cell therapy is defined as a type of immunotherapy that teaches T cells to recognize and destroy cancer.

CAR-T is a type of immunotherapy where doctors collect immune cells, modify them in a laboratory, and provide them the power to easily recognize and kill cancer cells. When infused into a patient, the cells get multiplied and stay in the body as “living drugs.”

How Does CAR-T Cell Therapy Work?

T-cells form the backbone of CAR-T cell therapy. T-cells are the workhorses of our immune system and they play a key role in directing the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. In CAR-T cell therapy, blood is drawn from the patient and the T-cells are separated out. In the laboratory, a disarmed virus is used to genetically engineer the T-cells to produce chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on their surface. These receptors are synthetic and do not exist naturally. Once infused into the patient, these CARs enable the T-cells recognize and get attached to an antigen (specific protein) on the tumor cell leading to the destruction of the tumor.

Like all cancer therapies, CAR-T cell therapy can also cause a number of side effects. However, all these side effects can be managed with standard supportive therapies including steroids. The widespread research activities, worldwide clinical trials and treatments in a limited number of U.S. hospitals have created a robust CAR T-cell market. This billion dollar market and projected growth would have been not possible without the remarkable efficacy of Kymriah and Yescarta in treating several types of blood cancers.

The market for CAR-T Cell Therapy

CAR-T cell therapy has swept the biotech industry by storm in recent years, creating hope that it could welcome in a new age of cancer treatment. However, the remarkable success stories have come from targeting CD19, which is now considered an antigen that holds the key to a limited range of blood cancers. Presently, this hematological arena is a highly competitive therapy space that is being shared between leading CAR-T companies.

Scientists, investors and developers invariably agree that the key to longer-term success in this space depends on solving two major problems: identifying antigens other than CD19 that can be targeted with CAR-T therapy with strong efficacy and going beyond liquid cancers into solid tumor indications. CAR-T cell products to deal with solid tumors will undoubtedly offer a larger market potential.

However, it is not an easy task to identify the antigens found on the cells of solid tumors. There are reasons why CD19 is the most common target. It is seen solely on B cells, whose destruction via CAR-T therapy offers a straightforward route for treating B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. At the same time, loss of the body’s B cells is not particularly problematical, because their antibody-producing function can be reinstated by injecting intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to patients.

Currently, the only two non-CD19-directed CAR-T therapies are those that target CD22 in B-cell malignancies and B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) in multiple myeloma. CD22 is structurally analogous to CD19, while BCMA is an antigen expressed on plasma cells, whose functional loss can also be replaced with IVIG.

The problem with solid tumors is that there is little evidence of CAR-T being able to overcome the numerous difficulties that exist for these to be targeted efficiently. However, both academic and commercial groups are racing against time to identify the antigens on solid tumor cells and develop suitable CAR-T cells, because it represents large market potential.

There are several reasons which make solid tumors difficult to treat using CAR-T cell therapies. Globally, solid tumors outnumber hematological tumors by 10 to one. In 2015, Novartis and PENN reported that their CART-meso failed to show any effect in patients with mesothelioma, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, there was very poor persistence of CAR-T cells in the patients.

The difficulty with solid tumors is that they are usually surrounded by a hostile, immuno-suppressive microenvironment. This environment presents many inhibitory factors that prevent CAR-T cells from reaching them. A typical CAR-T approach will not have success under these conditions. For this reason, Juno and Novartis are engaging in constructing CAR-T cells with novel designs that incorporate additional elements to boost activity within this setting. Currently, these products are in preclinical development.

Driving Forces for the CAR-T Therapy Market

With the growing demand for CAR-T therapies, CAR-T companies are proliferating. Growing numbers of these companies are supported by:

  • Increasing investment flowing into CAR-T cell research
  • Landmark approvals of CAR-T cell therapies by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA)
  • Major acquisitions within the CAR-T industry
  • Large IPOs within the CAR-T industry

As mentioned, 2017 was the first year that the U.S. FDA approved a CAR-T cell therapy, approving Kymriah in August 2017 and Yescarta in October 2017. Novartis produced Kymriah, a CAR-T therapy used to treat leukemia, while Gilead/Kite Pharma developed Yescarta, a CAR-T therapy for patients with lymphomas. Approvals for these products are now spreading globally, with authorizations permitted by the EU, Canada, and Australia, among others. The approval of these early CAR-T cell therapies has opened the gates for many other types of cell and gene therapies to claim respect, both from regulators, as well as from the broader scientific and medical communities.

CAR-T funding is also on the rise. At first, the trend was subtle, but the tide swelled as CAR-T therapies like Kymriah and Yescarta reached the marketplace and created a CAR-T funding craze. CAR-T start-ups have been richly funded by investors eager to get into this trending area of regenerative medicine. Following IPOs by CAR-T players Kite Pharma, Bellicum, Juno Therapeutics and Cellectis totaling over $750 million, CAR-T developer Autolus announced a $150 million IPO.

This has bought the total value of recent CAR-T initial public offerings (IPO’s) to nearly $1 billion.

CAR-T Industry Deal-Making

The CAR-T industry has also witnessed aggressive deal-making in recent years. Celgene snagged Juno Therapeutics for a shocking $9 billion in January 2018 and Gilead acquired Kite Pharma for an astounding $11.9 billion in August 2017. After $20 billion of market capitalization from the CAR-T companies in 2018, the CAR-T market has continued to gain momentum.

There have also been more than a dozen CAR-T deals between pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions, with the best known being the partnership between Novartis and the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn). When Kymriah™ because the first CAR-T cell therapy to be approved in the U.S. in August 2017, it resulted from a 5-year collaboration between UPenn and Novartis.

CAR-T financing rounds have also proliferated. In one major example, Cellularity raised $250 million in February 2018 to support the development of placental-derived products, including T-cells that will be immune advantaged because of their derivation from the placenta. Cellularity is looking to burst a major bottleneck in the industry by deriving T-cells from a single (allogeneic) cell line, potentially positioning itself to slash the price point for CAR-T treatments. In another significant example, London-based CAR-T start-up Allogene Therapeutics entered into an asset contribution deal with Pfizer in April 2018, as well as announced a $300 million Series A round.

To better understand and compete within the rapidly expanding CAR-T marketplace, claim this global strategic report to learn the identities and strategies of leading market competitors, access market size data accompanied by market segmentation and forecasts, review clinical trial activity within the sector, assess CAR-T market approvals by region, and importantly, evaluate industry deal-making, emerging technologies, and future directions for the industry at large.

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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • AbbVie Inc.
  • Carina Biotech
  • Creative Biolabs
  • Humanigen, Inc.
  • MaxCyte, Inc.
  • Pfizer, Inc.
  • MORE

1. Report Overview
1.1 Statement of the Report
1.2 Executive Summary
1.3 Introduction

2. History of CAR-T Cell Therapy
2.1 Timeline of CAR-T Cell Therapy Development

3. CAR-T Manufacturing Processes
3.1 Manufacturing Autologous CAR-T Cells
3.2 T-CellSource
3.3 T-Cell Activation
3.3.1 Beads-Based T-Cell Activation
3.3.2 Antibody-Coated Magnetic Beads
3.3.3 Antibody-Coated Nanobeads
3.3.4 Expamer Technology
3.3.5 Activation with Anti-CD3 Antibodies
3.4 Genetic Modification of T-Cells
3.5 Expansion of CAR-T Cells
3.5.1 Expansion of CAR-T Cells using GE Bioreactors
3.5.2 Expansion of CAR-T Cells using G-Rex Bioreactors
3.5.3 Expansion of CAR-T Cells using Prodigy
3.5.4 Expansion of CAR-T Cells through Recursive AAPC Stimulation
3.6 Clinical CAR-T Cell Manufacturing Quality Checkpoints
3.6.1 Qualification of Manufacturing Facilities
3.6.2 Qualification of Ancillary Components
3.6.3 Qualification of Manufacturing Process
3.7 In-Process Testing and Release Testing of Cellular Products
3.8 Allogeneic CAR-T Cells

4. Structure of a CAR-T Cell
4.1 First Generation CAR-T Cells
4.2 Second Generation CAR-T Cells
4.3 Third Generation CAR-T Cells
4.4 Fourth Generation CAR-T Cells
4.5 Mechanism of Action
4.6 New CAR Models and Concepts
4.6.1 Truck CAR
4.6.2 Universal CAR
4.6.3 Self-driving CAR
4.6.4 Armored CAR
4.6.5 Self-destruct CAR
4.6.6 Conditional CAR
4.6.7 TanCAR
4.6.8 Dual CAR
4.6.9 Safety CAR (sCAR)
4.7 Basic Components of CAR
4.7.1 Common Deigns of CAR-T Constructs
4.7.1.1 Single Chain Fv Fragments (scFv)
4.7.1.2 4-1BB, CD28, OX40, FceRI? and CD3?
4.7.1.3 Vectors for Transfection

5. Number of CAR-T Companies, their Recent Activities
5.1 Geographical Distribution of CAR-T Cell Therapeutic Companies
5.2 Immunocellular Therapy Companies by Cell Type
5.3 Market Leaders in CAR-T Cell Therapy and their Recent Activities
5.3.1 AbbVie
5.3.2 Allogene Therapeutics
5.3.3 Amgen
5.3.4 Agios Pharmaceutical
5.3.5 Atara Biotherapeutics
5.3.6 Autolus Limited
5.3.7 Bellicum Pharmaceuticals
5.3.8 bluebird bio
5.3.9 Calibr
5.3.10 Carina Biotech
5.3.11 CARsgen Therapeutics
5.3.12 Celgene Corporation
5.3.13 Cellectis
5.3.14 Cell Medica
5.3.15 Cell Design Labs
5.3.16 Celularity
5.3.17 Celyad
5.3.18 Fate Therapeutics
5.3.19 Fortress Bio
5.3.20 Gilead Sciences
5.3.21 Janssen Biotech
5.3.22 Juno Therapeutics
5.3.23 JW Therapeutics
5.3.24 Kite Pharma
5.3.25 Medisix Therapeutics
5.3.26 Mustang Bio
5.3.27 Nanjing Legend Biotech
5.3.28 Novartis
5.3.29 Pfizer
5.3.30 Precision Biosciences
5.3.31 Posedia Therapeutics
5.3.32 Shire
5.3.33 Sorrento Therapeutics
5.3.34 Ziopharm

6. Tumor-Associated Target Antigens
6.1 Antigens on Solid Tumors
6.1.1 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)
6.1.2 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant III (EGFRvIII)
6.1.3 Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 (HER2)
6.1.4 Mesothelin (MSLN)
6.1.5 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)
6.1.6 Disialoganglioside 2 (GD2)
6.1.7 Interleukin-13Ra2 (IL13Ra2)
6.1.8 Glypican-3 (GPC3)
6.1.9 Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CAIX)
6.1.10 L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule (L1-CAM)
6.1.11 Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) (MUC16)
6.1.12 Prominin-1 (CD133)
6.1.13 Fibroblast Protein-a (FAP-a)
6.1.14 Cancer/Testis Antigen 1B (CTAG1B)
6.1.15 Mucin 1 (MUC1)
6.1.16 Folate Receptor-a (FR-a)
6.2 CAR-T Targets in Hematologic Malignancies
6.2.1 CD19
6.2.2 CD20
6.2.3 CD22
6.2.4 ROR1
6.2.5 CD30
6.2.6 CD138
6.2.7 CD123
6.2.8 NKG2D-L
6.2.9 BCMA
6.2.10 CD174
6.3 CAR-T Cell Trials Targeting CD19
6.3.1 Positive CR Rates in CD19 Targeted Studies in Hematological Malignancies
6.3.2 Outcome of CAR-T Cell Therapy Trials Targeting Antigens other than CD19
6.3.3 Targets other than CD19 in Hematological Cancers
6.3.4 CD30 vs. BCMA Targets for Multiple Myeloma
6.4 CAR-T Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors
6.4.1 CAR-T Cell Targets in Solid Malignancies

7. Target Diseases for CAR-T Cell Therapy
7.1 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
7.2 Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
7.3 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
7.4 Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
7.5 Neuroblastoma
7.6 Multiple myeloma (MM)

8. Pricing and Payment Models for CAR-T Therapies
8.1 Controversies over CAR-T Pricing
8.2 Hospital Mark-up Costs for Kymriah and Yescarta
8.3 Cost Effectiveness of Tisagenlecleucel and Axicabtagene
8.4 Value-Based Price Benchmarks
8.5 Unit Prices Needed to Reach Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds
8.6 Alternate Payment Strategies

9. Medical Facilities Offering CAR-T Therapies
9.1 CAR-T Recommended in Europe
9.2 CAR-T Cell Therapy in Chinese Hospital
9.3 Canada Joins the CAR-T Club

10. CAR-T Therapy Patent Landscape
10.1 Number of CAR-T Cell Patents, 2013-2018
10.2 CAR-T Patent Types
10.3 A Brief Snapshot of CAR-T Patent Landscape
10.3.1 Patents for Anti-CD19 CAR-T
10.3.2 Patents for Anti-BCMA CAR-T
10.3.3 Patents for Regulatable CAR-T
10.3.4 Patents for CAR-T for Solid Tumors
10.4 Major CAR-T Patent Applicants

11. Deals, Fundings, Partnerships and Collaborations
11.1 Funding for CAR-T
11.2 CAR-T Deals
11.3 Initial Public Offering (IPO)
11.4 Key CAR-T Technology Deals
11.4.1 Deal between Juno Therapeutics and Eureka for a Fully Human ScFv Binding Domain
11.4.2 Acquisition of Stage Cell Therapeutics by Juno Therapeutics
11.4.3 Collaboration between Juno Therapeutics and Editas Medicine
11.4.5 Kite and Alpine in Research and License Agreement
11.4.6 Johnson & Johnson Gets PiggyBac Technology from Transposagen
11.4.7 Johnson & Johnson and Posedia in a Technology Deal
11.4.8 Partnership between Baxalta and Precision Biosciences
11.4.9 Novartis, Intellia and Caribou
11.4.10 Trends in Oncology Licensing, Joint Venture and Research Deals

12. The Landscape of CAR-T Cell Therapy Clinical Trials
12.1 The Surge in Number of CAR-T Clinical Trials
12.2 Percentage (%) of Total CAR-T Clinical Trials by Target
12.3 Research Focus on CAR-T Trials by Indication
12.4 Clinical Trials using CAR-T Cells by Country as of 2018
12.5 CAR-T Clinical Trials to Watch
12.6 CAR-T Projects with Commercial Licensees
12.7 Clinical CAR-T Constructs with Sole Involvement from Academicia
12.8 Anti-CD19 CAR-T Studies
12.9 CAR-T Studies in Multiple Myeloma and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
11.10 CAR-T Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors
12.11 Studies of CAR-T Projects Transfected using mRNA Electroporation
12.12 CAR-T Projects Incorporating Suicide Genes
12.13 Early Stage CAR-T Assets
12.14 Anti-CD22 CAR-T Projects
12.15 Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) with CART19 Therapy
12.16 CAR-T Therapy Pipeline Distribution by Indication
12.17 CAR-T Therapy Pipeline Distribution by Target Antigen
12.18 Distribution of CAR-T Clinical Trials in China
12.18.1 CD19-Directed CAR-T Clinical Trials in China
12.18.2 Chinese Trials Targeting Non-CD19 Antigens
12.18.3 Chinese Trials on Solid Tumors
12.18.4 Chinese Trials Using Fourth Generation CAR Constructs
12.18.5 Clinical Stage CAR-T Projects in China

13. CAR-T Cell Products in the Market
13.1 Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
13.1.1 Evidences Supporting Effectiveness of Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
13.1.2 Medical Necessities for Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
13.1.3 Overall Remission Rates in Patients Treated with Kymriah
13.1.4 Overall Event-Free Survival Rate with Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
13.1.5 Key Adverse Events in ELIANA Trial
13.1.6 Key Adverse Events in JULIET Trial
13.1.7 Budget Impact for Tisagenlecleucel
13.1.8 Overall Adverse Events with Tisagenlecleucel
13.1.9 Per-Patient Potential Budget Impact of Tisagenlecleucel
13.2 Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (Yescarta)
13.2.1 Evidences to Support the Effectiveness of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel
13.2.2 Medical Necessities for Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (Yescarta)
13.2.3 Clinical Benefits of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (Yescarta)
13.2.4 Objective Response Rates (ORR) for Axicabtagene Ciloleucel
13.2.5 CRR for Axicabtagene Ciloleucel
13.2.6 Adverse Events in ZUMA-Trial
13.2.7 Base-Case Results
13.2.8 Value-Based Benchmark Prices
13.2.9 Per-Patient Budget Impact of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel
13.2.10 Unit Cost for Healthcare Utilization in CAR-T Therapy
13.2.10.1 Costs Associated with Adverse Events

14. Insurance Coverage for CAR-T Therapy
14.2 Coverage Policies for Tisagenlecleucel - B-ALL Patients
14.2 Coverage for Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT) - B-Cell ALL Patients
14.3 Coverage for Axicabtagene Ciloleucel - B-Cell NHL Patients
14.4 Coverage for Stem Cell Plantation (SCT) in B-Cell NHL Patients
14.5 Insurance Coverage by Medicare and Medicaid

15. Commercial Threats For CAR-T Industry
15.1 Competition in a Narrow Field
15.2 Competition from other Technologies
15.3 Threat from TCRs
15.4 Threat of Litigation

16. Challenges to Overcome
16.1 Lack of Persistence
16.2 Inadequate Activation
16.3 Transfection Method
16.4 Humanized Binding Domains
16.5 Antigen Escape
16.6 Lineage Switching
16.7 Lack of Safety
16.8 Benefits of CAR-T Cell Therapy
16.9 CAR-T Cell Therapy: Only the Beginning of the Story
16.10 A New Standard

17. Market Analysis
17.1 Global Market for CAR-T Therapy by Geography
17.2 Global Market for CAR-T Therapy by Country
17.3 Global Market for CAR-T Cell Therapy by Targeted Antigens
17.4 Competitive Landscape

18. Company Profiles
18.1 AbbVie Inc.
18.1.1 Collaboration with Calibr
18.2 Adaptimmune Therapeutics PLC
18.2.1 Pipeline
18.3 Amgen, Inc.
18.3.1 Amgen’s Collaboration with Kite Pharma
18.3.2 Amgen’s Collaboration with MD Anderson Cancer Center
18.4 Atara Biotherapeutics, Inc.
18.4.1 Technology
18.4.2 Atara tab-cel™
18.4.3 Atara ATA188
18.4.4 Atara ATA230
18.5 Aurora Biopharma, Inc.
18.5.1 CAR-T for Glioblastoma
18.6 Autolus Therapeutics PLC
18.6.1 Technology
18.7 Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
18.7.1 GoCAR Technology
18.7.2 BPX-501
18.7.3 BPX-601
18.7.4 BPX-701
18.8 BioAtla LLC
18.8.1 Conditionally Active Biologics (CABs)
18.8.2 Agreement with Pfizer
18.8.3 Agreement with Sinobioway
18.9 bluebird bio
18.9.1 Technology
18.10 Carina Biotech
18.10.1 Technology
18.11 CARsgen Therapeutics, Ltd.
18.12 CARTherics
18.13 Cellectis
18.13.1 Products
18.14 Celularity
18.15 Celyad SA
18.16 Creative Biolabs
18.17 DiaCarta, Inc.
18.17.1 Personalized CAR-T Immunotherapy Platform
18.18 Endocyte, Inc.
18.18.1 LU-PSMA-617
18.18.2 Adaptor-Controlled CAR-T Therapy
18.19 F1 Oncology, Inc.
18.19.1 Conditionally Active Biologics (CAB) Technology
18.20 Fate Therapeutics Inc.
18.21 Humanigen, Inc.
18.21.1 Ifabotuzumab
18.22 Immune Therapeutics, Inc.
18.22.1 CAR-T from Immune Therapeutics
18.23 Intrexon, Corp.
18.24 Juno Therapeutics, Inc.
18.25 Kite Pharma, Inc.
18.25.1 Product
18.25.1.1 Yescarta (Axicabtagene ciloleucel)
18.26 Lion TCR Pte Ltd.
18.26.1 Technology
18.26.1.2 Virus-Related Cancers
18.27 MaxCyte, Inc.
18.27.1 CARMA Platform
18.28 Mesoblast, Ltd.
18.28.1 Partnership with Cartherics
18.29 Minerva Biotechnologies Corp.
18.29.1 Solid Tumor Cancer Portfolio
18.29.2 Antibody Therapeutic for MUC1* Positive Cancers
18.29.3 Anti-Metastasis Antibody
18.29.4 MUC1*
18.30 Mustang Bio, Inc.
18.31 Novartis AG
18.31.1 Kymriah (Tisagenlecleucel)
18.32 Oxford BioMedica PLC.
18.32.1 LentiVector Platform
18.33 PeproMene Bio Inc.
18.33.1 BAFFR R CAR-Cell
18.34 Pfizer, Inc.
18.34.1 Asset Contribution Agreement with Allogene Therapeutics
18.35 Posedia Therapeutics Inc.
18.36 Precision Biosciences, Inc.
18.36.1 Precision Biosciences’ Cancer Immunotherapy
18.37 ProMab Biotechnologies Inc.
18.38 Servier Oncology
18.39 Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc.
18.40 TC Biopharm Ltd.
18.40.1 ImmuniCAR
18.40.2 OmniCAR
18.40.3 OmnImmune
18.41 Tessa Therapeutics Pte Ltd.
18.41.1 TT10 EBVSTs
18.41.2 TT12 Armored HPVSTs
18.41.3 TT14 GPC3-CAR VSTs
18.41.4 TT16 HER2-CAR VSTs
18.42 TILT Biotherapeutics Ltd.
18.42.1 Technology
18.43 Tmunity Therapeutics Inc.
18.43.1 Technology
18.44 TrakCel Ltd.
18.45 Xyphos
18.45.1 ConvertibleCAR Technology
18.46 ZIOPHARM Oncology, Inc.
18.46.1 IL-12 Platform
18.46.2 Sleeping Beauty

Index of Figures
Figure 1.1: Diagram of the Binding of CAR-T with Antigen of Malignant Cell
Figure 3.1: Stages from Apheresis to Patient Administration of CAR-T Cells
Figure 3.2: The Process of CAR-T Cell Manufacturing
Figure 4.1: Building a CAR-T Cell and its Binding to Tumor Antigen
Figure 4.2: First Generation CAR-T Cells
Figure 4.3: Second Generation CAR-T Cells
Figure 4.4: Third Generation CAR-T Cells
Figure 4.5: Fourth Generation CAR-T Cells
Figure 4.6: Recognition and Killing of Tumor Cell by CAR-T Cell
Figure 4.7: New CAR Models and Concepts
Figure 4.8: Components of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor
Figure 4.9: Schematic Representation of scFv Fragment
Figure 5.1: Global Distribution of CAR-T Cell Therapeutic Companies
Figure 5.2: Number of Immunocellular Therapy Companies by Cell Type
Figure 6.1: Percent (%) Share of CAR-T Cell Trials Targeting CD19
Figure 6.2: Outcome of CAR-T Cell Therapy Trials in Liquid Malignancies, Targeting CD19
Figure 6.3: Outcome of CAR-T Cell Therapy Trials in Liquid Malignancies, Except CD19
Figure 6.4: Most Frequent CAR-T Cell Targets in Liquid Malignancies (Except CD19)
Figure 6.5: Trend in Number of CAR-T Cell Therapy Clinical Trials: CD30 vs. BCMA
Figure 6.6: Clinical Outcome of CAR-T Cell Therapy Trials in Solid Malignancies
Figure 6.7: Most Frequent CAR-T Cell Targets in Solid Malignancies
Figure 10.1: Number of CAR-T Cell Patents, 2013-2018
Figure 10.2: Major CAR-T Patent Applicants
Figure 11.1: Licensing, Joint Venture and Research Only Oncology Deals from 2013-2017
Figure 12.1: Number of Initiated CAR-T Cell Therapy Clinical Trials, 2007-2017
Figure 12.2: Percentage (%) of Total CAR-T Clinical Trials by Target
Figure 12.3: Research Focus on CAR-T Trials by Indication
Figure 12.4: A Model Showing Engineered CD19-CAR-T Cell Targeting CD19 Antigen on the Malignant Cell
Figure 12.5: CAR-T Cells Targeting Solid Tumor Antigen
Figure 12.6: CAR-T Therapy Pipeline Distribution by Indication
Figure 12.7: CAR-T Therapy Pipeline Distribution by Target Antigen
Figure 17.1: Global Market for CAR-T Cell Therapies, 2018-2024
Figure 17.2: Global Market for CAR-T Therapy by Geography, 2024
Figure 17.3: Global Market for CAR-T Therapy by Country, 2024
Figure 17.4: Global Market for CAR-T Cell Therapies by Targeted Antigen, 2018

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  • AbbVie Inc.
  • Adaptimmune Therapeutics PLC
  • Amgen, Inc.
  • Atara Biotherapeutics, Inc.
  • Aurora Biopharma, Inc.
  • Autolus Therapeutics PLC
  • Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  • BioAtla LLC
  • bluebird bio
  • Carina Biotech
  • CARsgen Therapeutics, Ltd.
  • CARTherics
  • Celgene
  • Cellectis
  • Celularity
  • Celyad SA
  • Creative Biolabs
  • DiaCarta, Inc.
  • Endocyte, Inc.
  • F1 Oncology, Inc.
  • Fate Therapeutics Inc.
  • Gilead
  • Humanigen, Inc.
  • Immune Therapeutics, Inc.
  • Intrexon, Corp.
  • Juno Therapeutics, Inc.
  • Kite Pharma, Inc.
  • Lion TCR Pte Ltd.
  • MaxCyte, Inc.
  • Mesoblast, Ltd.
  • Minerva Biotechnologies Corp.
  • Mustang Bio, Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • Oxford BioMedica PLC.
  • PeproMene Bio Inc.
  • Pfizer, Inc.
  • Posedia Therapeutics Inc.
  • Precision Biosciences, Inc.
  • ProMab Biotechnologies Inc.
  • Servier Oncology
  • Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc.
  • TC Biopharm Ltd.
  • Tessa Therapeutics Pte Ltd.
  • TILT Biotherapeutics Ltd.
  • Tmunity Therapeutics Inc.
  • TrakCel Ltd.
  • Xyphos
  • ZIOPHARM Oncology, Inc.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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