Blast Furnace Ironmaking: Analysis, Control and Optimization replaces the 'rules of thumb' currently used by the industry. It shows the beneficial effects of injecting oxygen into the furnace while avoiding the hazards of overheating, the beneficial effects of electrically super-heated blast furnace air blast, and how to obtain the exact hearth and top temperatures that the furnace needs for optimum performance. Users will find an outline on the production of molten iron from ore using the blast furnace process, along with instructions for optimizing the process, including energy and carbon footprint minimization that emphasizes the environment, safety and future developments.
This book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate science and engineering students and those working in chemical and metallurgical engineering. Additionally, steel company management will find this book useful with its look towards the future.
- Delivers an a priori technique for calculating blast furnace fuel and oxygen requirements
- Provides sample problems and problem assignments at the end of each chapter with answers included
- Includes information on how to optimize blast furnace operations while maintaining required temperatures and gas flowrates
- Features blast furnace operating data from five continents
1. Blast Furnace Ironmaking 2. Inside the Furnace 3. From Molten Iron to Steel 4. Introduction to the Blast Furnace Mass Balance 5. Introduction to the Blast Furnace Enthalpy Balance 6. Combining Mass and Enthalpy Balance Equations 7. Conceptual Division of the Furnace
Bottom Segment 8. Bottom Segment with Pulverized Carbon Injection 9. Bottom Segment with Oxygen Enrichment of Blast Air 10. Bottom Segment with Low Purity Oxygen Enrichment 11. Bottom Segment with CH4 Injection 12. Bottom Segment with H2O Injection 13. Raceway Flame Temperature 14. Automating Matrix Calculations 15. Raceway Flame Temperature with Pulverized Carbon Injection 16. Raceway Flame Temperature with Oxygen Enrichment 17. Raceway Flame Temperature with CH4 Injection 18. Raceway Flame Temperature with H2O Injection 19. Top Segment Mass Balance 20. Top Segment Enthalpy Balance 21. Top Gas Temperature Calculation 22. Top Segment Calculations with Pulverized Carbon Injection 23. Top Segment Calculations with Oxygen Enrichment 24. Top Segment Mass Balance with CH4 Injection 25. Top Segment Enthalpy Balance with CH4 Injection 26. Top Gas Temperature with CH4 Injection 27. Top Segment Calculations with H2O Injection 28. Bottom Segment Calculations with Natural Gas Injection 29. Raceway Flame Temperature with Natural Gas Injection 30. Top Segment Calculations with Natural Gas Injection 31. Bottom Segment Slag Calculations
Ore and Fluxes 32. Bottom Segment Slag Calculations
Coke Ash 33. Bottom Segment Calculations
Reduction of SiO2 34. Bottom Segment Calculations
Reduction of MnO 35. Bottom Segment Calculations with Pulverized Coal Injection 36. Bottom Segment Calculations with Multiple Injectants 37. Raceway Flame Temperature with Multiple Injectants 38. Top Segment Calculations with Multiple Injectants 39. Top Segment Calculations with Raw Material Moisture 40. Top Segment Calculations with Carbonate Fluxes 41. Introduction to Top Charged Non-Oxide Fe Materials 42. Top Charged Direct Reduced Iron 43. Bottom Segment Calculations with H2 Injection 44. Top Segment Calculations with H2 Injection 45. Bottom Segment Calculations with CO Injection 46. Bottom Segment Calculations with CO2 Injection 47. Optimization
Intro 48. Optimization
Cost, Production, CO2 49. Blast Furnace Rules of Thumb 50. Blast Furnace Plant Equipment 51. Furnace Proper 52. Blast Furnace Refractory Inspection Technologies 53. Blast Furnace Ferrous Burden 54. Metallurgical Coke 55. Blast Furnace Fuel Injection 56. Casting the Blast Furnace 57. Blast Furnace Slag 58. Burden distribution
Mr. Ian Cameron leads Hatch's global ironmaking technology team which develops client-focused solutions for the production of iron and steel starting from the principal raw materials. Ian has 35+ years of experience and has work internationally for the last 20 years as a consulting engineer for Hatch and previously Corus Consulting/Hoogovens Technical Services. Ian has extensive experience in process technology, plant operations, technology transfer, commissioning and training in both the iron & steel and nickel industries. His experience includes coke plant, pellet plant and blast furnace design and operations, assessing steel works energy balances, and the implementation/impact of future iron and cokemaking technologies. In addition to his blast furnace experience, Ian has operated submerged arc electric furnaces for nickel and calcium carbide production.
Ian has evaluated future raw material usage patterns for the major global mining companies, developed blast furnace operational strategies, solved acute operational problems such as recovering from plant emergencies, contributed to major insurance claims and implemented leading technical and business practices. Ian holds Bachelor and Master Degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from Montreal's McGill University and is a Professional Engineer in Ontario.
Mitren Sukhram is a process engineer in the iron and steel business unit at Hatch where his area of work is the blast furnace. Mitren has worked on blast furnace reline projects, techno-economic assessments of blast furnace facilities, blast furnace campaign life estimation projects, and operational support for blast furnaces located around the world. More recently Mitren has begun work on technologies to improve the blast furnace productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitren graduated from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto completing a Bachelor of Applied Science, Master of Applied Science, and PhD degrees. His PhD thesis focused on developing a velocity sensor for high temperature liquid metals. His areas of expertise include those of thermodynamics, heat, mass, and momentum transfer in high temperature metallurgical processes. Mitren enjoys developing and tuning process models for high temperature metallurgical processing operations.
Kyle Lefebvre is a process engineer at Hatch with a focus on process modelling and simulation, specifically in the iron and steel industry. He has experience in the design and simulation of a wide range of processes in the iron and steelmaking flowsheet. Kyle has visited several blast furnaces in North America to perform inspections and assist in improving operations and production. Kyle has a Master's of Applied Science from McMaster University where his work focused on the design, simulation, and optimization of a system to improve the energy efficiency, and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, of an office building
Professor William Davenport, PhD Metallurgy (U. of London) has taught and consulted for 50+ years. He has authored 6 metallurgical books, most of which have gone into multiple English and foreign language editions. He has been interested in iron and steel since he worked in the industry in the 1960's. He did his PhD work on reactions in molten metals and co-authored a previous book The Iron Blast Furnace, Theory and Practice, Elsevier 1979. He has visited iron and steel plants around the world and will be visiting Japanese iron works in November this year