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Electric Vehicle (EV) Impact Report

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  • 139 Pages
  • January 2019
  • Region: Global
  • Power Technology Research
  • ID: 4747955

Electric Vehicle (EV) shipments are poised to grow with a CAGR of 35% from 2016-2025. This increased growth will have significant impact on the ecosystem around EVs. Multiple industry stakeholders will see a significant shift in how their respective domains will evolve to cater to increased EV demand. We believe, the following industries are the major direct or indirect stakeholders in the ecosystem, where significant changes will occur:

1. Automotive Manufacturing:

With a decline in internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle sales, and market shift towards EVs, a paradigm shift will occur within automotive manufacturing supply chain.

2. Power Grid:

Power grid is one of the largest and most disregarded aspect of EV ecosystem. Grid will have to cater to increased EVs by transmission and distribution capacity additions and strict power quality measures.

3. Batteries and Storage:

Batteries are a crucial element of EVs. Material limitations and other technological barriers will need to be overcome for increased EV adoption.

4. Charging Infrastructure:

Planning and availability of public and private charging infrastructure will change dramatically in years to come.

5. Renewable Energy:

It is vital that renewable generation capacity meets its planned targets. Without renewables providing a significant share of electricity mix, use of EVs will only shift the carbon emissions from one source to another.

For decision makers (company executives, division/product managers) whose business is directly or indirectly involved with EV penetration, it is crucial to look at all these industries simultaneously to predict the future developments with clarity. It is vital to understand the drivers and barriers to adoption of EVs within all these industries, and ask the right questions to make informed strategic decisions.

The author is embarking on a new field of research dedicated to the impacts of critical components on and by Electric Vehicles. PTR will leverage in-depth insight across five key themes affected by EVs, Automotive manufacturing, batteries, power grid and charging infrastructure. In order to provide a holistic picture, drivers and barriers to developments in each of these industries will be discussed, along with market outlook. The goal of this report is to equip our customers with information, and key drivers/barriers to keep an eye on while planning for future scenarios with increased EVs.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Automotive Manufacturing
  • Shift from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles
  • Where will BEVs have the most impact?
  • Shifts in the automotive supply chain
  • Market Trends
3. EV Motors Assessment
  • EV Motors overview
  • Market Trends
4. Batteries in EV Applications
  • Production process
  • Cell technologies
  • Cell suppliers
  • Raw materials
  • Competing battery technologies
  • Technology advancements
  • Market sizing and technology forecast
5. EV Charging Infrastructure
  • Overview of EV chargers
  • Types of EV Chargers
  • Cost breakdown
  • Charging infrastructure initiatives & investments
  • Market Sizing
  • Vehicle to Grid (V2G)
6. Distribution Grids and Impact of EVs
  • Background
  • Country specific grid assessment
  • Grid stakeholders survey
  • EV grid integration joint ventures & partnerships
7. Blockchain developments in EV ecosystem
  • Overview of blockchain
  • P2P charging
  • P2P energy sharing
  • Case studies
  • Challenges & Outlook
List of Tables
Table 1. Automotive OEMs investing in Charging Infrastructure
Table 2. ICE Component Risk Indication
Table 3. OEM EV (PHEV & BEV) Announced Plans
Table 4. Advantages and Disadvantages of EV Motor Technologies
Table 5. EV Motor Technologies by Automotive OEM (non-exhaustive list, various sources)
Table 6. Electrode Preferred Properties
Table 7. Impacts of Battery Metrics
Table 8. Level of OEM battery cell integration
Table 9. EV Battery Technologies by Automotive OEM
Table 10. Lithium Polymer Comparison
Table 11. Element requirements, kg/kWh
Table 12. Capacitor comparison to batteries
Table 13. AC slow chargers parameters
Table 14. Overview of EVSE used in US, Europe, China and Japan
Table 15 Charging station cost breakdown in Germany
Table 16. Charging infrastructure investments in Asia
Table 17. Charging infrastructure investments in Europe
Table 19. List of ancillary services required for a grid
Table 20. Examples of V2G economic benefits
Table 21. V2G pilot projects and investments
Table 22. T&D equipment revenue (%) 2015
Table 23. Electric Vehicles Time-of-Use Rates - Summer, June 1 - October 31
Table 24. Ageing grid assets in England and Scotland
Table 25. German T&D grid assets
Table 26. Dutch T&D grid assets
Table 27. Norwegian grid assets
Table 28. Market Share of French Electricity Companies
Table 29. Comparison between No EVs and EVs with passive charging scenario
List of Figures
Figure 1. Machine Tools Revenue Market Split in 2017
Figure 2. Automotive Machine Tools, 2016 to 2030, Billion($)
Figure 3. Average Number of Power Transfer Components in ICE Vehicle and EV
Figure 4. Automotive Machine Tools Market & EV Shipment Forecasts, 2016 to 2030, Billion($), Units(M)
Figure 5. PHEV & BEV Shipments in 2016, Units(k)
Figure 6. Vehicle Production in 2016 by Country, Units(k)
Figure 7. Current Automotive Manufacturing Supply Chain Structure and the Shift into 2040
Figure 8. 2017 ZEV Motor Market Split, % Revenue
Figure 9. AC Induction Spider Chart Analysis
Figure 10. SRM Spider Chart Analysis
Figure 11. PMDC Spider Chart Analysis
Figure 12. PMAC Spider Chart Analysis
Figure 13. AC Wound Rotor Spider Chart Analysis
Figure 14. Spider Chart Overlay Analysis of EV Traction Motor Topologies
Figure 15. 2016 EV Motor Market, % Revenue
Figure 16. 2017 EV Motor Market, % Revenue
Figure 17. Battery cell form factors by Automotive OEM
Figure 18. EV Battery Manufacturing Process
Figure 19. Battery Integration
Figure 20. Range as a function of battery performance State of Health (SoH)
Figure 21. Battery Technologies & Form Factors, Ah
Figure 22. Cross-section of a lithium-ion cylindrical cell
Figure 23. Prismatic Cell
Figure 24 Pouch Cell (AESC)
Figure 25. Li-Ion capacity estimates, 2017, GWh
Figure 26. Market share estimates, 2017, GWh
Figure 27. Cobalt applications, 2016, market shares
Figure 28. Cobalt producers, 2016, market shares
Figure 29. Lithium applications, 2016, market shares
Figure 30. Lithium producers, 2016, market shares
Figure 31. Graphite production, market shares
Figure 32. Fuel Cell Vehicle
Figure 33. Solid State Battery
Figure 34. 2014 Capacity situation by region, 2014, MWh and Utilization
Figure 35. Battery Cell Supply/Demand Forecast for Automotive Applications, 2014-2025, GWh and Utilization
Figure 36. Cathode and Anode technology projection, 2025, market share
Figure 37. Global distribution of EV Chargers in 2017
Figure 38. EVs in a typical electricity network
Figure 39. Level 1&2 charging topology
Figure 40. DC fast charging configuration
Figure 41. Comparison of installed DC fast chargers in Europe, 2010-2017
Figure 42 DC fast charging infrastructure installed in top 10 European countries, 2017
Figure 43. DC fast chargers topology
Figure 45. Global distribution of EV chargers in 2017
Figure 44. Global distribution of EV Chargers in 2016
Figure 46. Density of EV chargers in US states, 2017
Figure 47. EV chargers in US (top 15 states), 2017
Figure 48. EV charger types and their market share in US, 2017
Figure 49. Charging infrastructure market forecast in US, 2010-2020
Figure 50 Density of EV chargers in Europe, 2017
Figure 51. EV chargers in Europe (top 15 countries), 2017
Figure 52. EV charger types and their market share in Europe, 2017
Figure 53. Charging infrastructure market forecast in Europe, 2010-2020
Figure 54. Charging infrastructure market forecast in Japan, 2010-2020
Figure 55. Charging infrastructure market forecast in China, 2010-2020
Figure 56. V2G topology in a typical electricity network
Figure 57. Active and reactive power support under V2G concept
Figure 58. Classification of the grid codes
Figure 59. Distribution lines ownership
Figure 60. Transmission line ownership
Figure 61. Very few EVs require distribution system upgrades
Figure 62. Transition of DNOs into DSO business model in UK
Figure 63. Service area managed by four German TSOs
Figure 64. Density of EV Chargers in Germany, 2015
Figure 65. Distribution transformers market in Germany, 2017-2025
Figure 66. Distribution transformers market in Netherlands, 2017-2025
Figure 67. Distribution transformers market in Norway, 2017-2025
Figure 68. Cost and benefit of passive and smart charging
Figure 69. Market share of utilities in Japan (based on generation in 2015)
Figure 70. South Korea smart grid equipment and technology market, 2010-2015, Million USD
Figure 71. Smart grids road map in Korea
Figure 72. Grid Stake-holders Survey Results
Figure 73. Share&Charge: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 74. Oxygen Initiative: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 75. P2P SmartTest: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 76. Electron Platform: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 77. Brooklyn Microgrid: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 78. Tennet and Sonnen: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 79. Tennet and Vandebron: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 80. JuiceBox: Position in Ecosystem
Figure 81. EVSE-RS (AeroVironment): Position in Ecosystem

Companies Mentioned

  • 50 Hertz
  • AeroVironment
  • Amprion
  • Automotive Energy Supply Corp. (AESC)
  • AVX
  • BAIC
  • Boston Energy and Innovation
  • BMW Group
  • BYD
  • Changang
  • Chery
  • Dongfeng Motor
  • China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. (CALB)
  • China Southern Grid
  • Contermporary Amperex Technology Ltd (CATL)
  • Continental
  • Daimler AG
  • Eaton
  • EDF
  • Elna
  • eMotorWerks
  • Enel
  • Ford Motor Company
  • Fiat
  • GAC
  • Geely
  • GKN
  • Groupe PSA
  • GS Yuasa
  • Hitachi
  • Honda
  • Hyundai
  • Ionity
  • JAC
  • JMC
  • Johnson Controls
  • Kansai Electric Power Company
  • Korea Electric Power Corporation
  • LG Chem
  • Lithium Energy Japan
  • LO3 Energy
  • Mazda
  • Mercedes
  • Magna
  • Maxwell Technologies
  • Mitsubishi Motors
  • Moixa
  • MotionWerk
  • National Grid
  • NEC
  • Nexeon
  • NewMotion
  • Nissan
  • Nuvve
  • Pacific Gas & Electric
  • Panasonic
  • Renault
  • REW
  • RTE
  • Sacramento Municipal Utility District
  • SAIC
  • Samsung SDI
  • San Diego Gag & Electric
  • Saudi Electric Company
  • Schaeffler Technologies
  • SK Innovation
  • Sodetrel
  • Sonnen
  • Southern California Edison
  • State Grid Corporation of China
  • Tennet
  • Tesla
  • Tokyo Electric Power Company
  • Toshiba
  • Toyota
  • TransnetBW
  • Utrecht Sustainability Institute
  • Vandebron
  • Vishay Intertechnology
  • Volkswagen Group
  • Wacker Chemie
  • Wanxiang
  • Webasto
  • ZF Group
  • Zotye