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Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies

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  • 365 Pages
  • November 2021
  • Region: Global
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
  • ID: 4748155

This report describes and evaluates animal biotechnology and its application in veterinary medicine and pharmaceuticals as well as improvement in food production. Knowledge of animal genetics is important in the application of biotechnology to manage genetic disorders and improve animal breeding. Genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics are also being applied to animal biotechnology.

Transgenic technologies are used for improving milk production and the meat in farm animals as well as for creating models of human diseases. Transgenic animals are used for the production of proteins for human medical use. Biotechnology is applied to facilitate xenotransplantation from animals to humans. Genetic engineering is done in farm animals and nuclear transfer technology has become an important and preferred method for cloning animals.There is discussion of in vitro meat production by culture

Biotechnology has potential applications in the management of several animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, avian flu and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The most important biotechnology-based products consist of vaccines, particularly genetically engineered or DNA vaccines. Gene therapy for diseases of pet animals is a fast developing area because many of the technologies used in clinical trials humans were developed in animals and many of the diseases of cats and dogs are similar to those in humans.RNA interference technology is now being applied for research in veterinary medicine

Molecular diagnosis is assuming an important place in veterinary practice. Polymerase chain reaction and its modifications are considered to be important. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are also widely used. Newer biochip-based technologies and biosensors are also finding their way in veterinary diagnostics.

Biotechnology products are approved by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the FDA. Regulatory issues relevant to animal biotechnology are described.

Approximately 81 companies have been identified to be involved in animal biotechnology and are profiled in the report. These are a mix of animal healthcare companies and biotechnology companies. Top companies in this area are identified and ranked. Information is given about the research activities of 11 veterinary and livestock research institutes. Important 70 collaborations in this area are shown.

Share of biotechnology-based products and services in 2020 is analyzed and the market is projected to 2030.

The text is supplemented with 36 tables and 6 figures. Selected 260 references from the literature are appended.

The report contains information on the following:

  • Application of Biotechnology in Animals
  • A Biotechnology Perspective of Animals Diseases
  • Molecular Diagnostics in Animals
  • Biotechnology-based Veterinary Medicine
  • Research in Animal Biotechnology
  • Animal Biotechnology Markets
  • Regulatory issues
  • Companies Involved in Animal Biotechnology

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1. Introduction to Animal Biotechnology

  • Introduction
  • Historical evolution of animal biotechnology
  • Basics of biotechnology
  • DNA 
  • RNA 
  • Genes
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms 
  • Copy number variations in the genome 
  • DNA sequences  
  • Gene expression
  • Gene regulation 
  • Proteins
  • Functions of proteins 
  • Recombinant proteins
  • Animal genetics
  • Molecular genetics 
  • Twinning in cattle
  • Pig genetics
  • Genetic studies in dogs
  • Animal genomics 
  • Avian genomes  
  • Chicken genome
  • Turkey genome
  • The mouse genome
  • The cat genome 
  • The dog genome
  • Sequencing of the dog genome
  • Comparison of genomes of healthy and diseased dogs
  • Analysis of DNA copy number variation
  • Marsupial genomes
  • Genome of the Tibetan antelope  
  • Livestock genomics
  • Bovine genome 
  • Bovine SNP map
  • 1,000 Bull Genomes Project
  • Bovine stomach microbiome genes  
  • Camel genome 
  • Goat genome 
  • Horse genome  
  • Pig genome  
  • Sheep genome 
  • Fish genomes
  • The Salmon genome 
  • Genome of the Northern snakehead
  • Whale genome  
  • Genomes of non-human primates
  • Chimpanzee genome 
  • Genome of the rhesus macaque  
  • Genome of gorilla 
  • Priority genome list of the National Human Genome Research Institute
  • Animal proteomics
  • Applications of proteomics in animals
  • Caseins in goat milk  
  • Lactic acid bacteria 
  • Applications of proteomics in animal healthcare
  • Bioinformatics 
  • Biomarkers and animal health 
  • Personalized medicine for pet animals 
  • Monoclonal antibodies and animal health
  • Antigenomics
  • Nanobiotechnology and animal health 
  • Stem cells and animal biotechnology
  • Rescuing extinct animals with stem cells
  • Animal biotechnology in relation to other technologies

2. Application of Biotechnology in Animals 

  • Introduction
  • Applications of animal genomics  
  • Bovine ankyrin 1 gene and beef tenderness  
  • Chicken breeding based on genomics
  • Genomics of disease resistance 
  • Genomic selection to exploit gene-environment interactions
  • Genome wide associations and milk production in cows  
  • Low cost genotyping for genetic improvement in dairy cattle
  • SNPs and longevity in dairy cattle
  • Share genomic data to improve cattle breeding programs
  • Statistical genomics to improve breeding  
  • Genetic engineering and gene editing  
  • CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in animals
  • Disease control by genetic engineering 
  • Improvement of livestock by genetic engineering
  • Limitations and precautions for genetic engineering
  • Transgenic animal technology 
  • Cloning animals 
  • Nuclear transfer technology
  • Nuclear bisection for cloning
  • Zona-free cloning method  
  • Abnormalities in cloned animals  
  • Cloning from embryonic cells
  • Cloning of rabbits  
  • Cloning the rat 
  • Cloning the horse  
  • Cloning the cow
  • Cloning the dog
  • Cloning in primates
  • Episomal vector-mediated gene delivery
  • Lentiviral transduction of male germ-line stem cells
  • Lentiviral transgenesis
  • Retrovector-mediated production of transgenic animals  
  • Sperm-mediated gene transfer
  • Animal models of human diseases
  • Gene editing in large animals  
  • Cloning of gene-edited dogs as models of human genetic diseases
  • Production of recombinant proteins 
  • Transgenic pharmaceuticals
  • Proteins from the milk of transgenic animals 
  • Advantages of milk as a source of transgenic proteins
  • Therapeutic proteins from rabbit milk  
  • Recombinant human antibodies from cows
  • Therapeutic proteins from goat milk
  • Chicken transgenesis for production of biopharmaceuticals 
  • Concluding remarks about the production of transgenic proteins in animals
  • Companies involved in the production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 
  • Transgenic food products
  • Milking genetically modified cows 
  • Genetically modified fish 
  • Genetically engineered salmon
  • Gene transfer approaches to enhance the growth of other fish species  
  • Cloned animals as sources of milk and meat  
  • Animal feeds from transgenic plants
  • Transgenic modification of plants to increase the nutritional value of animal feeds
  • Transgenic disease models  
  • Technologies to create transgenic disease models  
  • Gene manipulation techniques
  • Embryonic stem cells for gene targeting  
  • Homologous recombination
  • Transgenic animal models of human diseases
  • Transgenic models for studying human drug metabolism and toxicity
  • The Human Genome Project and the role of transgenics 
  • Genomic and proteomic analyses of transgenic animal models 
  • Concern about health and welfare of transgenic animals 
  • Safety of transgenic technology
  • Concluding remarks about the use of transgenic animals  
  • RNA interference technology
  • RNAi versus antisense
  • Applications of RNAi in animal biotechnology 
  • Xenotransplantation
  • Pigs for xenotransplantation
  • Genetically engineered pigs for transplants  
  • Risks of xenotransplantation
  • World Health Organization and xenotransplantation
  • Ethical aspects of animal biotechnology  

3. A Biotechnology Perspective of Animals Diseases  

  • Introduction
  • Infections in animals
  • Viral infections
  • Avian viral infections 
  • Avian influenza 
  • Animal biotechnology implications of H1N1 influenza 
  • Animal corona viruses and human SARS  
  • Avian coronavirus 
  • Acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle
  • Bluetongue virus
  • Canine virus infections
  • Classical swine fever 
  • Developing new treatments against FMD  
  • Equine viruses  
  • Feline virus infections
  • Foot-and-mouth disease
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 
  • Rabies 
  • Rinderpest
  • Schmallenberg virus  
  • Virus infections in fishes  
  • Bacterial infections
  • Bovine tuberculosis 
  • Brucellosis 
  • Mycoplasmal pneumonia  
  • Fungal infections  
  • Protozoal infections  
  • Coccidiosis 
  • Neosporosis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Trypanosomiasis 
  • Nematodes 
  • Infections that cross the species barrier  
  • Complications of bacterial infections and antibiotic use in animals  
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)  
  • Inter-species transfer of prions  
  • Scrapie
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Epidemiology of BSE
  • Biomarkers in the urine of BSE infected cattle
  • Human health implications of BSE 
  • Breeding animals protected against BSE
  • TSE research
  • Prion gene haplotyping
  • Pharmacological approaches to TSE research
  • Molecular diagnostic approach to TSE research
  • RNAi for knockdown of the bovine prion gene 
  • Chronic wasting disease
  • Chronic wasting disease in wildlife
  • Chronic wasting disease of the cattle 
  • Genetic disorders in farm animals 
  • Genetic predisposition to acquired diseases in animals 
  • Overcoming limits of cancer chemotherapy in veterinary medicine
  • Diseases of pet animals 
  • Canine anemia
  • Canine autoimmune diseases
  • Canine neuropsychiatric disorders  
  • Canine obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Canine dementia 
  • Canine epilepsy  
  • Canine glaucoma 
  • Canine cardiovascular disease
  • Heart failure1
  • Cardiac complications of canine babesiosis 
  • Diabetes 
  • Role of biotechnology in management of diabetes
  • Arthritis  
  • Cancer in dogs
  • Biotechnology-based anticancer therapeutics  
  • Cancer clinical trials in dogs 
  • Canine Comparative Oncology & Genomics Consortium
  • Preventive veterinary medicine 
  • Prevention of introduction of foreign animal diseases
  • Producing transgenic cattle resistant to BSE
  • Zoonotic diseases  
  • Global impact of zoonotic diseases 
  • Viruses that emerge in animals and spread to humans 
  • Borna virus
  • Nipah virus
  • Collaborative management of animal and human health
  • Vaccines for zoonotic viral diseases

4. Molecular Diagnostics in Animals 

  • Introduction  
  • Nucleic acid technologies
  • The polymerase chain reaction  
  • Basic Principles of PCR 
  • Target selection  
  • Detection of amplified DNA
  • Real-time PCR systems
  • LightCycler PCR system
  • Molecular beacons
  • Applications of PCR in veterinary medicine 
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization 
  • Immunodiagnostics
  • Enzyme-linked immunoassays
  • Bovine Gamma Interferon Test  
  • Antigen diagnosis of trichinosis  
  • Parachek™ for the diagnosis of Johne's disease
  • Antibodies for differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals
  • Biochip/microarray technology 
  • Applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 
  • eSensor™ electrochemical biochip 
  • FR 48 microfluidic biochip
  • SNPchiMp v.3 for standardizing livestock SNP data  
  • Biosensors 
  • Immunosensors
  • Biosensor for ovulation prediction in dairy cows  
  • Flow cytometry for animal diagnostics  
  • Molecular imaging in animals
  • Veterinary cytogenetics 
  • Applications of sequencing for veterinary diagnostics
  • Role of sequencing in detection of cancer biomarkers
  • DNA sequencing for study of bacterial epidemics 
  • Role of sequencing in epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli 
  • Role of sequencing in the study of genetic disorders in animals 
  • Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals
  • Canine DNA testing  
  • Use and abuse of genetic testing of dogs
  • Cat pedigree determined by gene tests
  • Diagnostic aids to selective breeding  
  • Selection of desirable traits  
  • Gene variations and fat content of beef 
  • Using genetic markers for improved milk production in dairy cattle
  • Application of bovine genomics for improving milk yield
  • Recognition of hereditary syndromes 
  • Genetic markers in animals
  • SNP genotyping in animals
  • SNP genotyping for selective breeding of chicken
  • Animal identity and parentage analysis
  • Animal species identification in food
  • Diagnosis of infections  
  • Bacterial infections  
  • Diagnosis of fungal infections in animals
  • Diagnosis of viral infections  
  • Molecular diagnosis of avian influenza
  • Molecular diagnosis of swine influenza
  • Diagnosis of parasitic infections
  • Detection of natural or bioterror threats to livestock
  • Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus DNA in cattle 
  • Molecular diagnosis of prion diseases 
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Testing for BSE in living animals
  • Prions in urine
  • Diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in wildlife
  • Developing new tests for prion diseases  
  • Differentiation among various types of TSEs
  • Protein cyclic amplification
  • Antibody tests for prion diseases
  • Scrapie genotyping 
  • A real-time ultrasonic method for prion protein detection 
  • Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs  
  • Diagnosis of genetic disorders
  • Genetic screening of companion animals
  • Genes associated with exercise-induced collapse
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 
  • Diagnosis of cancer in animals
  • Diagnosis of skin cancer
  • Diagnosis of canine mammary carcinoma
  • Diagnosis of food-borne pathogens
  • Introduction
  • Molecular diagnostic methods used in food-borne infections  
  • Detection of Listeria-contaminated foods
  • Optical biosensor for detection of Listeria
  • Real-time PCR for detection of Listeria
  • Detection of Salmonella
  • MicroSEQ® Salmonella Detection Kit 
  • Detection of toxoplasmosis
  • E. Coli detection  
  • DuPont Bax system 
  • MLG method for detection of multiple STEC strains 
  • MicroSEQ® E. Coli Detection Kit
  • RapidFinder™ STEC 
  • A genomic approach to study of animal food-borne illness in humans 
  • Limitations of use of molecular probes in food analysis 
  • Companies with technologies for food pathogen detection 
  • Biotechnology-based novel diagnostics for aquatic animals 
  • Detection of chemicals in foods of animal origin
  • Companies developing molecular diagnostics for animals 

5. Biotechnology-based Veterinary Medicine

  • Introduction  
  • Biotechnology versus pharmaceutical products 
  • Role of biotechnology in drug discovery and development
  • Biological therapies in veterinary medicine  
  • Cost of veterinary vs. human drug discovery and development  
  • Advantages and disadvantages of testing biotech products in animal models
  • Biotechnolgy-based antiparasitic drugs
  • Non-antibiotic strategies for control of infections in animals
  • Probiotics
  • Potential role for probiotics in the human gut 
  • Potential role for probiotics in animals
  • Probiotic bacteria for control of pathogens in cattle 
  • Nonantibiotic drugs for infections in animals
  • Immunomodulation as an alternative to antibiotics in infections
  • Cathelicidins: effector molecules of mammalian innate immunity  
  • Bacteriophage therapy for antibiotic resistance
  • Biotechnology for treating tendon injuries
  • Use of growth factors to facilitate tendon injuries 
  • Productivity enhancers  
  • Bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows  
  • Increasing milk production in cows by feeding propionibacteria  
  • Use of growth factors
  • Transgenic plant products for use in animals 
  • Biotechnology-based vaccines
  • Modern vaccines without viral non-structural proteins
  • Plant-derived vaccines for use in animals
  • Nano-bead vaccine adjuvant 
  • Genetically engineered vaccines 
  • Application of nucleic acid vaccines in veterinary medicine
  • DNA vaccines 
  • DNA vaccine for tuberculosis
  • DNA vaccines for West Nile encephalitis 
  • DNA vaccines for cancer  
  • Gene-based vaccine for Marek’s disease
  • Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines 
  • Genetically engineered vaccines for equine encephalitis
  • Genetically engineered vaccines for Johne's disease
  • Rational engineering of virus capsids to produce FMD vaccine
  • Vaccines against avian influenza
  • Vaccines against parasitic infections  
  • Recombinant marker vaccines
  • Marker vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease
  • Marker vaccine for Newcastle disease
  • Vaccines for classical swine fever  
  • Vaccines for tick control
  • Vaccination to protect swine from H1N1 influenza virus infection
  • Vaccination of cattle to prevent E. coli transmission to consumers in meat  
  • Vaccines for bacterial equine respiratory infections
  • Use of RNAi to develop vaccines for viral infections in prawns
  • Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines
  • Biotechnology in treatment of parasitic infections 
  • Biotechnology in the treatment of CNS disorders in pet animals
  • Paraplegia due to acute spinal cord injury in dogs
  • Personalized approach to Niemann-Pick type C1 in cats
  • Role of biotechnology in veterinary oncology
  • Personalized management of dogs with high-grade B-cell lymhoma
  • VDC-1101 for treatment of lymphoma in dogs 
  • Cell Therapy
  • Umbilical cord blood stem cells  
  • Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine
  • Stem cells for repair of tendon injuries in horses 
  • Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs 
  • Stem cells for arthritis in horses
  • Gene therapy 
  • Gene therapy vectors
  • Gene therapy by mitochondrial transfer  
  • In utero gene therapy  
  • Gene editing 
  • Genome engineering by using TALENs
  • Genome editing by using CRISPR system
  • CRISPER system for creating animal models of human diseases
  • CRISPR-Cas9 system for producing tuberculosis-resistant cows
  • CRISPR-Cas9 for inactivation of pig retrovirus for xenotransplantation
  • Applications of gene therapy in veterinary medicine 
  • Gene therapy for arthritis 
  • Gene therapy for blindness in dogs due to Leber congenital amaurosis  
  • Gene therapy for cardiomyopathy in dogs  
  • Gene therapy for diabetes in dogs 
  • Gene therapy for endocrine disorders
  • Gene therapy for hematological disorders  
  • Gene therapy for inherited disorders of metabolism in dogs 
  • Gene therapy to increase disease resistance
  • Gene therapy for infections  
  • Gene therapy for renal failure
  • Cancer gene therapy
  • Antiangiogeneic cancer gene therapy in dogs 
  • Brain tumors in cats and dogs  
  • Breast cancer in dogs  
  • Canine hemangiosarcoma
  • Canine malignant melanoma
  • Canine soft tissue sarcoma
  • Melanoma in horses
  • Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer in dogs

6. Research in Animal Biotechnology

  • Introduction  
  • Research institutes
  • Animal and Natural Resources Institute (USDA)
  • Center for Animal Biotechnology at University of Melbourne (Australia)  
  • CSIRO Livestock Industries
  • Easter Bush Research Consortium  
  • Danish Veterinary Institute
  • Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute
  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute  
  • Institute for Animal Health of UK
  • Kimron Veterinary Institute
  • Korean National Livestock Research Institute  
  • National Agricultural & Veterinary Biotechnology Center of Ireland 
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 
  • Veterinary Laboratories Agency of UK 
  • Veterinary Medical University of Vienna  
  • Ethical issues of research in animal biotechnology
  • Future prospects
  • Genome wide association studies for investigation of declining fertility in cattle
  • Strategies for control of twining in cattle 
  • Future developments of molecular diagnostics 
  • Future of vaccine application in veterinary medicine 
  • Promotion of innate immunity in animals
  • Identification of key parasite antigens for eliciting an immune response 
  • Virus-like particle vaccines for lasting immune response  
  • Control of respiratory virus infections 
  • Control and prevention of bioterrorism diseases in animals
  • Genetic control of disease resistance  
  • Production of cattle lacking prion protein
  • Application of genetics and biotechnology to wildlife management 
  • Future of animal genomics
  • Future of in vitro meat production  

7. Animal Biotechnology Markets  

  • Introduction  
  • Markets for biotechnology-based products for animal healthcare  
  • Markets for biopharmaceuticals for animals 
  • Markets for recombinant proteins for animal healthcare
  • Markets for vaccines for animals
  • Markets for animal diagnostics
  • Test for bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Markets for transgenic laboratory animals
  • Animal biotechnology markets according to therapeutic areas  
  • Markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans  
  • Transgenic proteins  
  • Market for xenotransplantation  
  • Strategies for promoting use of animal biotechnology
  • Financial losses from death and disease in animals  
  • Losses in farm animals
  • Losses in poultry 
  • Losses in equine industry 
  • The emerging role of pet owners
  • Improvement in cattle through the application of biotechnology  
  • Economic aspects of the genomic evaluation of dairy cattle
  • Pig market 
  • Cattle Market 
  • Poultry market
  • Milk from genetically modified cows
  • Impact of biotechnology on fish markets 
  • Role of biotechnology in livestock performance enhancer market 
  • Gene transfer technologies
  • In vitro meat production and animal biotechnology markets  
  • Cost-benefit aspects of transgenic proteins 
  • Lower costs of transgenic production 
  • Lower costs of treatment 
  • Unmet needs in animal biotechnology
  • Future of animal biotechnology 
  • Farm animals  
  • Global trends in the epidemiology of livestock diseases 
  • Genetic engineering of animals 
  • Companion animals  
  • Animal molecular diagnostic markets  
  • Future marketing status of animal-derived biotechnology products

8. Regulatory issues 

  • Introduction  
  • Regulatory agencies for veterinary biotechnology in the US  
  • FDA regulatory issues in agricultural biotechnology  
  • FDA guidelines on the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals
  • FDA and veterinary stem cell therapy 
  • Food safety evaluation of transgenic animals
  • Food from cloned animals 
  • FDA investigation of drug transfer into eggs 
  • Animal feed safety 
  • Medicated feeds
  • Regulatory issues for the production of transgenic proteins
  • Risks of animal biotechnology
  • FDA regulation of bovine products 
  • Worldwide biotechnology regulatory and trade issues  

9. Companies Involved in Animal Biotechnology  

  • Introduction  
  • Biotechnology at top veterinary pharmaceutical companies  
  • Profiles of selected companies
  • Collaborations

10. References
Table 1-1: Landmarks in the evolution of animal biotechnology in the 20th century 
Table 1-2: Applications of proteomics in the livestock industry and veterinary medicine 
Table 1-3: Selected animal genomics and proteomics databases (DB)
Table 1-4: Examples of the use of biomarkers in animal health
Table 2-1: Applications of genomics in the livestock industry and veterinary medicine
Table 2-2:  Expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins  
Table 2-3: Recombinant proteins obtained from the milk of transgenic animals 
Table 2-4: Companies involved in the production of transgenic pharmaceuticals  
Table 2-5: A comparison of gene knockout and transgenic techniques
Table 2-6: Examples of transgenic mouse models of non-neoplastic human diseases
Table 3-1: Diseases of dairy cattle 
Table 3-2: Causes of chronic wasting disease in animals 
Table 4-1: Applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology
Table 4-2: Biosensor technologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics
Table 4-3: Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 
Table 4-4: Viruses that can be detected by molecular diagnostics
Table 4-5: Testing for harmful prions in brain tissue from dead cattle
Table 4-6: Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs
Table 4-7: Pathogenic bacteria in food and targets for molecular diagnostic probes
Table 4-8: Companies involved in molecular diagnostics for food-borne infections 
Table 4-9: Companies developing molecular diagnostics for veterinary medicine
Table 5-1: Veterinary biotechnology products
Table 5-2: Pharmaceutical versus biotechnology products
Table 5-3: Nonantibiotic strategies for control of infections 
Table 5-4: Experimental DNA vaccines tested in animals
Table 5-5: Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines for animals 
Table 6-1: Areas for future research applications of animal biotechnologies  
Table 7-1: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for farm animals: 2020-2030
Table 7-2: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for pet animals: 2020-2030 
Table 7-3: Biotechnology-based markets for animal healthcare according to regions: 2020-2030
Table 7-4: Biotechnology markets for farm animals according to therapeutic areas: 2020-2030  
Table 7-5: Biotechnology markets for pet animals in therapeutic areas: 2020-2030
Table 7-6: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans: 2020-2030
Table 7-7: Future marketing status of animal-derived biotechnology products
Table 9-1: Ranking of top veterinary companies with biotechnology products
Table 9-2: Selected collaborations of companies in animal biotechnology  

Figure 1-1: Relation of animal biotechnology to other technologies and human health  
Figure 2-1: Nuclear transfer technology  
Figure 2-2: Generation of transgenic animals by sperm-mediated gene transfer  
Figure 2-3: Genome editing in pigs
Figure 2-4: Production of therapeutic proteins in the milk of transgenic animals
Figure 7-1: Unmet needs in animal biotechnology