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Drug Delivery in Cancer - Technologies, Markets & Companies

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  • 747 Pages
  • November 2021
  • Region: Global
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
  • ID: 4748166

Drug delivery remains a challenge in the management of cancer. Approximately 12.5 million new cases of cancer are being diagnosed worldwide each year and considerable research is in progress for drug discovery for cancer. Cancer drug delivery is no longer simply wrapping up cancer drugs in a new formulations for different routes of delivery. The focus is on targeted cancer therapy. The newer approaches to cancer treatment not only supplement the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy but also prevent damage to normal tissues and prevent drug resistance.

Innovative cancer therapies are based on current concepts of the molecular biology of cancer. These include antiangiogenic agents, immunotherapy, bacterial agents, viral oncolysis, targeting of cyclic-dependent kinases and tyrosine kinase receptors, antisense approaches, gene therapy and combination of various methods. Important methods of immunotherapy in cancer involve the use of cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines and immunogene therapy.

Several innovative methods of drug delivery are used in cancer. These include the use of microparticles as carriers of anticancer agents. These may be injected into the arterial circulation and guided to the tumor by a magnetic field for targeted drug delivery. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) technology has been used to overcome some of the barriers to anticancer drug delivery. Encapsulating anticancer drugs in liposomes enables targeted drug delivery to tumor tissues and prevents damage to the normal surrounding tissues. Monoclonal antibodies can be used for the delivery of anticancer payloads such as radionucleotides, toxins and chemotherapeutic agents to the tumors.

Antisense oligonucleotides have been in clinical trials for cancer for some time now. RNAi has also been applied in oncology. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can be targeted to tumors and one example is the suppression of H-ras gene expression indicating the potential for application in therapy of ovarian cancer. Cancer gene therapy is a sophisticated form of drug delivery for cancer. Various technologies and companies developing them are described. Nucleic acid-based cancer vaccines are also described.

Drug delivery strategies vary according to the type and location of cancer. Role of drug delivery in the management of cancers of the brain, the bladder, the breast, the ovaries and the prostate are used as examples to illustrate different approaches both experimental and clinical. Biodegradable implants of carmustine are already used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

The market value of drug delivery technologies and the anticancer drugs are difficult to separate. Cancer market estimates from 2020-2030 are given according to organs involved and the types of cancer as well as according to technologies. Distribution of the into major regions is also described.

Profiles of 238 companies involved in developing innovative cancer therapies and methods of delivery are presented along with their 291 collaborations. The bibliography contains over 650 publications that are cited in the report. The report is supplemented with 67 tables and 20 figures.

The report contains information on the following:

  • Innovative treatments for cancer
  • Drug delivery systems for cancer
  • Antisense, RNAi and gene therapy for cancer
  • Delivery strategies according to cancer type and location
  • Cancer drug delivery markets
  • Companies

Table of Contents

Part I: Technologies and Markets

0. Executive Summary

1. Introduction to cancer therapy

  • Molecular biology of cancer
  • Cell cycle and cancer
  • Apoptosis in cancer
  • Autophagy
  • Cell division and mitotic spindles
  • PD-1 Pathway
  • DNA damage, repair and cancer
  • Mechanism of DNA damage in Fanconi anemia leading to leukemia
  • Cancer metabolism and energy status in relation to growth
  • Amino acids and cancer
  • AMP-activated protein kinase
  • Cancer therapeutics that target metabolism.
  • Cancer cell dormancy
  • Dormancy and relapse in cancer
  • Activating dormant cancer cells for enhancing chemotherapy
  • Chromosomes and cancer
  • Aneuploidy
  • Chromosomal instability
  • Chromothripsis
  • Extrachromosomal DNA and cancer
  • Telomeres and cancer
  • Genes and cancer
  • Accumulation of random mutations
  • Oncogenes
  • Role of Bub 1 gene in cell division
  • Tumor Suppressor Genes
  • Hallmarks of cancer
  • Hypoxia of cancer cells
  • Invasion and metastases
  • Tumor suppressor genes and metastases
  • Methylation and cancer
  • Nitric oxide and cancer
  • Inflammation, NO and colon cancer
  • NO and tumor hypoxia
  • NO and p53 mutations
  • NO and matrix metalloproteinase
  • Role of NO in angiogenesis in cancer
  • Oxidative stress and cancer
  • Role of platelet-derived growth factor in proliferation of cancer
  • RNA and cancer
  • Anticancer treatments based on RNA regulation of genes
  • Role of microRNAs in cancer
  • Stem cells and cancer
  • Self-sufficiency of tumor proliferation
  • Therapeutic implications of apoptosis in cancer
  • Tumor angiogenesis
  • Pathomechanism of angiogenesis
  • Role of VEGF in angiogenesis
  • Matrix stiffness-mediated angiogenesis in tumors
  • Tumor-associated macrophages in cancer
  • Cancer biomarkers
  • Molecular imaging of cancer
  • Cancer genomics
  • Gene expression profiling in cancer
  • Cancer proteomics
  • Limitations of genomics and proteomics for understanding cancer
  • Cancer microenvironment
  • Epidemiology of cancer
  • Current management of cancer
  • Anticancer drugs
  • Limitations of cancer chemotherapy
  • Biological therapies for cancer
  • Radiotherapy
  • Brachytherapy
  • Ideal anticancer agent
  • Surgery
  • Basics of drug delivery in cancer
  • Role of mechanical forces in tumor growth and delivery of therapy
  • Methods of assessing drug delivery in cancer
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Historical landmarks in cancer drug delivery

2. Innovative treatments for cancer

  • Introduction
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators
  • Antiangiogenic strategies for cancer
  • Development of antiangiogenic therapies
  • Classification of antiangiogenic agents
  • Examples of antiangiogenic agents
  • ACE-041
  • Angiopoietin-2 as a target
  • Chemotherapy at lower than maximum tolerated dose
  • Galectin-3 as a target for inhibiting angiogenesis
  • Inhibitors of endothelial proliferation
  • Inducers of apoptosis of endothelial cells of tumor vessels
  • Lodamin
  • Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors
  • Monoclonal antibodies with vasculostatic properties
  • PPAR agonists
  • Rapalogues as antiangiogenic agents
  • VEGF Trap
  • Agents that decrease the permeability of tumor blood vessels
  • Antiangiogenic agents in clinical trials
  • Antiangiogenic therapy resistance
  • Combination of antiangiogenic with cytotoxic therapy
  • Antiangiogenic therapy for hematological malignancies
  • Bacterial anticancer agents
  • Tumor-targeted bacteria
  • Bacterial protein for targeted delivery of liposomal cancer drugs
  • Bacterial carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain tumors
  • Genetically modified bacteria as anticancer agents
  • Live bacteria for delivering radioactive anticancer agents
  • Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis with delivery of chemotherapy
  • Genetically altered strains of Salmonella as anticancer drug vectors
  • Inactivated but metabolically active bacteria
  • Bacterial toxins targeted to tumors
  • Immunotoxins
  • Escherichia Coli toxins
  • Engineered anthrax toxin
  • Recombinant fusion toxins
  • Type III secretion systems
  • Induction of apoptosis in cancer by bacterial proteins
  • Induction of immune response by bacteriolytic therapy
  • Epigenetic targets for anticancer therapy
  • Innovations in cell therapy for cancer
  • Stem cell transplantation for cancer
  • Cancer drug/gene delivery by mesenchymal stem cells
  • Personalized drug development in oncology
  • Role of molecular imaging
  • Role of molecular imaging in targeted cancer therapy
  • Screening for personalized anticancer drugs
  • Targeting pathways for personalized cancer therapy
  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • Role of biomarkers in personalized immuno-oncology
  • Role of organoids in predicting response to immuno-therapeutic drugs
  • Role of tumor-on-chips in immuno-oncology
  • Role of molecular diagnostics and sequencing in immuno-oncology
  • Genomic testing
  • Gene expression signatures
  • Personalizing immuno-oncology
  • Factors that drive the development of personalized immunotherapy for cancer
  • Computational methods for personalized immuno-oncology
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer
  • Checkpoint inhibitors blocking PD-1 or PD-L1
  • Antibody blocking the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4
  • Prediction of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in cancer
  • Checkpoint inhibitors other than anti-PD-L1
  • Personalizing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy
  • Cell-based immune therapies
  • Treatments for cancer by ex vivo mobilization of immune cells
  • Granulocytes as anticancer agents
  • Neutrophil granulocytes in MAb-based immunotherapy of cancer
  • Adoptive cell transfer
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells
  • Cytokines
  • Cancer vaccines
  • Adoptive cell therapy
  • Antigen-specific cancer vaccines
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen-based vaccines
  • Carbohydrate-based cancer vaccines
  • Dendritic cells for cancer vaccination
  • Hybrid cell vaccination
  • SMART vaccines
  • Salmonella-based oral vaccine delivery
  • Tumor cell vaccines
  • Vaccines that simultaneously target different cancer antigens
  • Vaccines based on multiple tumor-associated peptides
  • Vaccine for cancer based on antimalaria protein
  • Cancer Vaccine Consortium
  • Personalized cancer vaccines
  • Autologous tumor cell vaccines
  • DC-based cancer vaccines
  • Cytokines as vaccine adjuvants
  • Limitations of cancer vaccination
  • Role of neoantigens in personalizing cancer vaccines
  • Delivery of cancer immunotherapy
  • Nanoparticles for delivery of immunotherapy combined with photodynamic therapy
  • Synthetic bacteria for local tumor delivery of checkpoint blockade nanobodies
  • Transdermal cold atmospheric plasma mediated ICI therapy
  • Combination of immunotherapies for cancer
  • Epigenetic modulators and cancer immunotherapies
  • STING activation and antitumor immunity
  • Chemoimmunotherapy
  • Concluding remarks about cancer vaccines
  • Targeted delivery of peptides to tumor-associated macrophages
  • Targeting cancer stem cells
  • Concluding remarks and future of personalized immuno-oncology
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Murine MAbs
  • Humanized MAbs
  • Actions and uses of MAbs in cancer
  • Targeted antibody-based cancer therapy
  • Antibody–cytokine fusion proteins
  • Antibody ARGX-115 for targeting immunosuppressive effect of Tregs
  • Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen MAb
  • Combining MAbs with anti-CD55 antibody
  • MAbs targeted to alpha fetaprotein receptor
  • MAbs that target angiogenesis
  • MAbs as phagocyte checkpoint inhibitors
  • MAbs for immune activation
  • Delivery of cancer therapy with MAbs
  • Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy
  • Chemically programmed antibodies
  • Combining diagnostics with therapeutics based on MAbs
  • Radiolabeled antibodies for detection and targeted therapy of cancer
  • Other innovations for administration of antibodies
  • Bispecific antibodies
  • Trifunctional antibodies
  • Tetravalent bispecific antibodies
  • Immunotoxins
  • Immunoliposomes
  • Combined use of MAbs and cytokines
  • huHMFG1-huDNase I
  • MAbs that selectively target cancer
  • G-MAB technology
  • NanoMAbs for targeted anticancer drug delivery
  • Advantages and limitations of MAbs for cancer therapy
  • Monoclonal antibodies for personalized management of cancer
  • Antibody-drug conjugates
  • Kadcyla
  • Adcetris
  • Antibody-drug conjugates for personalized therapy of cancer
  • Antibody-enzyme conjugates
  • Current and future trends in antibody-based cancer drugs
  • Innovative methods of radiation delivery
  • Image-guided ultrasound technology for delivery of radiation
  • Respiratory gating technology for radiation therapy
  • Positron therapy
  • Boron neutron capture therapy
  • Application of drug delivery systems to BNCP
  • Use of nanotechnology to enhance BNCT
  • Ion channels and transporters in cancer
  • Irreversible electroporation
  • Methods to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR)
  • Mechanism of MDR
  • MDR-associated protein gene
  • P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR
  • Strategies for overcoming MDR
  • Blocking the action of P-glycoprotein
  • Combination of targeted drugs with different specificities
  • Enzyme Catalyzed Therapeutic Activation
  • Inhibition of DNA repair
  • Iron chelators that overcomes resistance to chemotherapeutics
  • Liposome formulation of anticancer drugs
  • Modification of the chemical structure of the anticancer drug
  • Managing resistance to antiapoptotic action of anticancer agents
  • Modulation of SPARC expression
  • Nanoparticles for producing reactive oxygen species in mitochondria
  • Nitric oxide inducers
  • Proton pump inhibitors
  • Repression of Prohibitin1 in drug-resistant cancer cells
  • Targeting proteins associated with cancer stem cells
  • Targeted cancer therapies
  • Targeting cellular pathways
  • Targeting antigens in virus-associated cancer
  • Targeting the IGF-I receptor
  • Targeting Mcl-1 protein
  • Targeting mitochondrial membranes
  • Targeting tumor lymphatics
  • LyP-1 for targeting tumor lymphatics
  • Targeting tyrosine kinase receptors
  • Inhibitors of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase
  • Inhibition of multiple tyrosine kinases
  • Inhibitors of ErbB tyrosine kinase
  • Targeting the Hedgehog signaling pathway
  • Targeting caspase-8
  • Targeting metallodrugs to tumor cells
  • Targeting oncogenes
  • Targeting miRNA for cancer therapeutics
  • Targeting the transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway
  • Targeted anticancer therapies based on the Rad51 promoter
  • Targeting cancer stem cells
  • Targeting glycolytic pathway in cancer
  • Targeting glycoproteins
  • Tagging cancer with modified sugars
  • Anticancer agents based on glycobiology
  • Targeting cell surface glycoproteins
  • Biofusion for targeted cancer therapy
  • Targeting knottin peptides
  • Tarveda’s Pentarin platform for targeted drug conjugates
  • Enhancing the effects of radiation and chemotherapy
  • Sensitizing and enhancing agents for chemotherapy
  • CoFactor to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy
  • Enzyme-enhanced chemotherapy
  • Resveratrol and quercetin for cardioprotection against chemotherapy
  • Tesmilifene for chemosensitization
  • Sensitizing agents for radiotherapy
  • IPdR
  • Ultrasound for enhancing response to radiation
  • Manipulation of tumor oxygenation
  • Hypoxia-based methods to enhance chemotherapy and radiotherapy
  • Hyperbaric oxygen and radiation
  • HIF-1 antagonists to enhance radiotherapy
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs enhance tumor radiosensitivity
  • ONCONASE as radiosensitivity enhancer
  • Hyperthermia and chemotherapy/radiation therapy
  • Techniques for hyperthermia
  • Trimodality therapy: radiation, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Photochemical internalization
  • Thermal combination with focused ultrasound for drug delivery to tumors
  • Novel anticancer agents
  • Anti-EphA2 antibodies
  • Antioxidants
  • Brostallicin
  • Agents disrupting folate metabolism
  • Pemetrexed
  • Cell cycle inhibitors
  • Cytotoxic ribonucleases
  • DNA hypomethylating agents
  • Histone-based cancer therapy
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors
  • Modulation of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity
  • Simulation of endogenous histone for anticancer therapy
  • HSP90 inhibitors
  • Ion channel blockers
  • IOT-101
  • Endovion
  • LPAAT-β inhibitors
  • Modulation of pyruvate kinase M2
  • Modulators of protein ubiquitination
  • P13-kinase inhibitors
  • PARP inhibitors
  • Targeted destruction of BRCA2 deficient tumors by PARP inhibitors
  • Companies developing and commercializing PARP inhibitors
  • Prodrugs
  • Enzyme-activated prodrugs
  • Ascorbic acid as a prodrug for cancer
  • Prolarix
  • Procaspase-3 activation
  • Protein kinase G activation
  • Proteasome inhibitors
  • Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3
  • Second generation nucleosides
  • Targeting cancer metabolism
  • Targeting topoisomerase IB
  • Telomerase inhibitors
  • Therapeutic strategies based on the P53 pathway
  • Therapeutic strategies based on molecular mechanisms
  • Checkpoint activation as a strategy against cancer
  • Deletion-specific targeting for cancer therapy
  • In vivo models for molecularly anticancer drugs
  • Repair-blocking drugs for enhancing effect of chemotherapy
  • Tumor targeting fields
  • Targeting mTOR signaling defects
  • Combining novel anticancer approaches
  • Personalized therapy of cancer
  • Promise of personalized therapy in cancer
  • Challenges of cancer classification
  • Design of future cancer therapies

3. Drug delivery systems for cancer

  • Introduction
  • Routes of drug delivery in cancer
  • Intravenous delivery systems for cancer therapy
  • Intravenous versus oral ascorbate for treatment of cancer
  • Subcutaneous injection of anticancer agents
  • Oral delivery of anticancer agents
  • 5-FU combined with eniluracil
  • Cyclin D-dependent CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors
  • High dose administration of calcitriol
  • Oral fluoropyrimidines
  • Oral gefitinib vs intravenous docetaxel
  • Oral paclitaxel
  • Oral satraplatin
  • Oral UFT
  • Oral PXD101
  • Transdermal drug delivery
  • Delivery of the photosensitizer drug δ-amino levulinic acid
  • Nanoemulsion-based delivery of caffeine for skin cancer
  • Transdermal delivery of methotrexate
  • Transdermal nitroglycerine for prostate cancer
  • Transdermal delivery of peptide cancer vaccines
  • Intradermal delivery of cancer vaccines by adenoviral vectors
  • Pulmonary delivery of anticancer agents
  • Regional intra-arterial delivery of chemotherapy
  • Gas embolotherapy of tumors
  • Drug delivery to lymph nodes
  • Intraperitoneal macrophages as drug delivery vehicle
  • Challenges of cancer drug delivery
  • Tumor blood vessel pore barrier to drug delivery
  • Improvement of drug transport in tumors
  • Delivery of anticancer drugs to nuclear targets
  • Innovative formulations for drug delivery in cancer
  • Cancer targeting with polymeric drugs
  • Linking anticancer drugs to polyglutamate
  • Improving delivery of protein-polymer anticancer drugs
  • Aldoxorubicin
  • Linker activated anticancer drug delivery
  • Macromolecules as delivery systems for taxanes
  • Polyamine conjugates as anticancer agents
  • Bacterial vectors as drug delivery systems for anticancer drugs
  • Microparticles as therapeutic delivery systems in cancer
  • Subcutaneous injection of microspheres carrying anticancer drugs
  • Intravascular delivery systems using microparticles
  • Tumor embolization with drug-eluting beads
  • Tumor embolization with radioactive microparticles
  • Microparticles heated by magnetic field
  • Magnetic targeted microparticle technology
  • Release of drugs from biSphere by ultrasound
  • Release of drugs from micelles by ultrasound
  • Release of drugs from microcapsules by laser
  • Chemoembolization
  • Anticancer drugs bound to carbon particles
  • Anticancer drugs bound to protein microspheres
  • Nanoerythrosomes
  • Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery for cancer
  • Nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery in cancer
  • Anticancer drug particles incorporated in liposomes
  • Doxorubicin nanocarriers
  • Encapsulating drugs in hydrogel nanoparticles
  • Exosomes
  • Folate-linked nanoparticles
  • Lipid based nanocarriers
  • Micelles for drug delivery in cancer
  • Minicells for targeted delivery of nanoscale anticancer therapeutics
  • Nanobombs for cancer
  • Nanodiamonds for local delivery of chemotherapy at site of cancer
  • Nanoparticle formulation for enhancing anticancer efficacy of cisplatin
  • Nanoparticle formulations of paclitaxel
  • Nanoparticles containing albumin and antisense oligonucleotides
  • Nanotechnology-based non-invasive refilling of drug delivery depots
  • Non-aggregating nanoparticles
  • Pegylated nanoliposomal formulation
  • Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles
  • PFTBA@Alb nanoparticles as enhancers of anti–PD-L1 immunotherapy
  • Polymer nanoparticles for drug delivery
  • Protein nanocages for penetration of airway mucous and tumors
  • Protosphere nanoparticle technology
  • Nanoparticles-based targeted delivery of therapeutics for cancer
  • Antiangiogenic therapy using nanoparticles
  • Carbon magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Carbon nanotubes for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells
  • CRLX101 for targeted anticancer drug delivery
  • DNA aptamer-micelle for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Fullerenes for enhancing tumor targeting by antibodies
  • Gold nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Hepatic artery infusion of LDL-DHA nanoparticles for liver cancer
  • Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle formulation for drug delivery
  • Laser irradiation for targeted release of drugs from nanocontainers
  • Lipoprotein nanoparticles targeted to cancer-associated receptors
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for remote-controlled drug delivery to tumors
  • Monitoring of targeted delivery by nanoparticle-peptide conjugates
  • Nanobees for targeted delivery of cytolytic peptide melittin
  • Nanocell for targeted drug delivery to tumor
  • Nanodroplets for site-specific cancer treatment
  • Nanogel-based stealth cancer vaccine targeting macrophages
  • Nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of peptides into tumors
  • Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of MAPK signaling pathway
  • Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of concurrent chemoradiation
  • Nanostructured hyaluronic acid for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Nanoparticles as antibody-drug conjugates
  • Nanoparticle-coated peptides for tumor targeting
  • Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of multiple anticancer agents
  • Nanovesicle-mediated drug delivery in cancer
  • Polymer nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Polymersomes for targeted anticancer drug delivery
  • Quinic acid-nanoparticle conjugates
  • Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates
  • Targeted nanoparticles delivery of cisplatin to mitochondrial genome
  • Time-delayed, dual-drug nanoparticle delivery system for cancer
  • Dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery
  • Application of dendrimers in boron neutron capture therapy
  • Application of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy
  • Dendrimer-based synthetic vector for targeted cancer gene therapy
  • Devices for nanotechnology-based cancer therapy
  • Convection-enhanced delivery with nanoliposomal CPT-11
  • Nanocomposite devices
  • Nanoengineered silicon for brachytherapy
  • Nanosensors for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Nanoparticles combined with physical agents for tumor ablation
  • Carbon nanotubes for laser-induced cancer destruction
  • Nanoparticles and thermal ablation
  • Nanoparticles combined with ultrasound radiation of tumors
  • Nanoparticles as adjuncts to photodynamic therapy of cancer
  • Nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy
  • RNA nanotechnology for delivery of cancer therapeutics
  • Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of multiple anticancer agents
  • Combination delivery systems for nanoparticle penetration into tumor tissue
  • Combination of diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer
  • Biomimetic nanoparticles targeted to tumors
  • Dendrimer nanoparticles for targeting and imaging tumors
  • Gold nanoparticle plus bombesin for imaging and therapy of cancer
  • Gold nanorods for diagnosis plus photothermal therapy of cancer
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for imaging as well as therapy of cancer
  • Nanobialys for combining MRI with delivery of anticancer agents
  • Nanorobotics for detection and targeted therapy of cancer
  • pHLIP nanotechnology for detection and targeted therapy of cancer
  • Polymer nanobubbles for targeted and controlled drug delivery
  • Radiolabeled carbon nanotubes for tumor imaging and targeting
  • Targeted therapy with magnetic nanomaterials guided by antibodies
  • Ultrasonic tumor imaging and targeted chemotherapy by nanobubbles
  • Future of nanobiotechnology and targeted cancer therapy
  • Polyethylene glycol technology
  • Enzon's PEG technology
  • Debiopharm's PEG biconjugate drug delivery platform
  • Nektar PEGylation
  • PEG Intron
  • Single-chain antibody-binding protein technology
  • Vesicular systems for drug delivery in cancer
  • Liposomes for anticancer drug delivery
  • Antibody-targeted liposomes for cancer therapy
  • ALZA’s Stealth liposomes
  • Boron-containing liposomes
  • DepoFoam technology
  • Hyperthermia and liposomal drug delivery
  • Liposomal doxorubicin formulation with N-octanoyl-glucosylceramide
  • Liposome-nucleic acid complexes for anticancer drug delivery
  • Non-pegilated liposomal doxorubicin
  • Tumor-selective targeted drug delivery via folate-PEG liposomes
  • Ultrasound-mediated anticancer drug release from liposomes
  • Companies developing liposome-based anticancer drugs
  • Pharmacosomes for controlled anticancer drug delivery
  • Emulsion formulations of anticancer drugs
  • Albumin-based drug carriers
  • Anticancer drugs that bind to tumors
  • Monoclonal T cell receptor technology
  • Radioactive materials for diagnosis and targeted radiotherapy
  • Intraperitoneal vs intravenous radioimmunotherapy
  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
  • Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of cancer
  • Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists
  • Theophylline enhances radioiodide uptake by cancer
  • Strategies for drug delivery in cancer
  • Direct introduction of anticancer drugs into the tumor
  • Injection into the tumor
  • Antineoplastic drug implants into tumors
  • Tumor necrosis therapy
  • Injection into the arterial blood supply of cancer
  • Electrochemotherapy
  • Pressure-induced filtration of drugs across vessels to the tumor
  • Improving drug transport to tumors
  • Carbohydrate-enhanced chemotherapy
  • Dextrans as macromolecular anticancer drug carriers
  • In situ production of anticancer agents in tumors
  • Iotophoresis for localized delivery of cancer chemotherapy
  • Strategies for increasing drug penetration into solid cancers
  • Selective destruction of cancer cells
  • Hyperbaric oxygen
  • Sphingolipids
  • Targeting response to transformation-induced oxidative stress
  • Targeting enzymes to prevent proliferation of cancer cells
  • Targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Affibody molecules for targeted anticancer therapy
  • Fatty acids as targeting vectors
  • Genetic targeting of the kinase activity in cancer cells
  • Heat-activated targeted drug delivery
  • Novel transporters to target photosensitizers to cancer cell nuclei
  • Photodynamic therapy of cancer
  • Radionuclides delivered with receptor targeting technology
  • Targeting ligands specific for cancer cells
  • Targeting abnormal DNA in cancer cells
  • Targeted delivery by tumor-activated prodrug therapy
  • Targeting glutathione S-transferase
  • Targeting tumors by exploiting leaky blood vessels
  • Targeted drug delivery of anticancer agents with controlled activation
  • Targeted delivery of anticancer agents with ReCODE™ technology
  • Transmembrane Carrier Systems
  • Transferrin-oligomers as targeting carriers in anticancer drug delivery
  • Tumor targeting with peptides
  • Tumor-targeted delivery of immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Ultrasound and microbubbles for targeted anticancer drug delivery
  • Ultrasound for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics
  • Vitamin B12 and folate for targeting cancer chemotherapy
  • Cell-based drug delivery in cancer
  • Red blood cells as vehicles for drug delivery
  • Cells as vehicles for gene delivery
  • Drug delivery in relation to circadian rhythms
  • Implants for systemic delivery of anticancer drugs
  • Drug-eluting polymer implants
  • Angiogenesis and drug delivery to tumors
  • Antiangiogenesis strategies
  • Targeting tumor endothelial cells
  • Methods for overcoming limitations of antiangiogenesis approaches
  • Vascular targeting agents
  • Alpha-emitting antibodies for vascular targeting
  • Angiolytic therapy
  • Anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies as VTA
  • Vadimezan
  • Cadherin inhibitors
  • Fosbretabulin tromethamine
  • Drugs to induce clotting in tumor vessels
  • Selective permeation of the anticancer agent into the tumor
  • Targeted delivery of tissue factor
  • Vascular targeting agents versus antiangiogenesis agents
  • ZD6126
  • Delivery of proteins and peptides for cancer therapy
  • CELLECTRA™ electroporation device
  • Emisphere's Eligen™ system
  • Diatos Peptide Vector intra-cellular/intra-nuclear delivery technology
  • Lytic peptides and cancer
  • Modification of proteins and peptides with polymers
  • Peptide-based targeting of cancer biomarkers for drug delivery
  • Peptide-cytokine complexes as vascular targeting agents
  • Peptide-polymer conjugates with radionuclides
  • Transduction of proteins in vivo
  • Tumor targeting by stable toxin (ST) peptides
  • Image-guided personalized drug delivery in cancer
  • A computational approach to integration of drug delivery methods for cancer

4. Delivery of Biological Therapies for Cancer

  • Introduction
  • Antisense therapy
  • Basics of antisense approaches
  • Antisense cancer therapy
  • Mechanisms of anticancer effect of antisense oligonucleotides
  • Selected antisense drugs in development for cancer
  • Antisense targeted to ribonucleotide reductase
  • Immune modulatory oligonucleotide
  • Ribozyme therapy
  • Spiegelmers
  • Antisense drug delivery issues
  • Strategies to overcome delivery problems of antisense oligonucleotides
  • Antisense delivery in microspheres
  • Delivery of antisense using nanoparticles
  • Delivery across the blood-brain barrier
  • Delivery of ribozymes
  • Iontophoretic delivery of oligonucleotides
  • Liposomes-mediated oligonucleotide delivery
  • Neugene antisense drugs
  • Oral delivery of oligonucleotides
  • Peptide nucleic acid delivery
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  • Delivery of ribozymes
  • Combination of antisense and electrochemotherapy
  • Aptamers for combined diagnosis and therapeutics of cancer
  • Antisense compounds in clinical trials
  • RNA interference
  • Basics of RNAi
  • Comparison of antisense and RNAi
  • RNAi applications in oncology
  • siRNA-based cancer immunotherapy
  • Delivery of siRNA in cancer
  • Delivery of siRNA by nanoparticles
  • Delivery of siRNA by nanosize liposomes
  • Lipid nanoparticles for delivery of anticancer siRNAs
  • Polymer nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer siRNA
  • Lipophilic siRNA for targeted delivery to solid tumors
  • Companies developing cancer therapies based on antisense and RNAi
  • DNA interference
  • Cancer gene therapy
  • Basics of gene therapy
  • Strategies for cancer gene therapy
  • Gene transfer techniques as applied to cancer gene therapy
  • Viral vectors
  • Nonviral vectors
  • A polymer approach to gene therapy for cancer
  • Direct gene delivery to the tumor
  • Injection into tumor
  • Reversible electroporation
  • Hematopoietic gene transfer
  • Genetic modification of human hematopoietic stem cells
  • Gene-based strategies for immunotherapy of cancer (immunogene therapy)
  • Cytokine gene therapy
  • Monoclonal antibody gene transfer
  • Transfer and expression of intracellular adhesion-1 molecules
  • Other gene therapy techniques for immunotherapy of cancer
  • Chemokines
  • Engineered viruses as anticancer immunotherapy vectors
  • Fas (Apo-1)
  • IGF (Insulin-Like Growth Factor)
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I
  • Inhibition of immunosuppressive function
  • microRNA gene therapy
  • Delivery of toxic genes to tumor cells for eradication (molecular chemotherapy)
  • Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy
  • Combination of gene therapy with radiotherapy
  • Multipronged therapy of cancer with microencapsulated cells
  • Correction of genetic defects in cancer cells (mutation compensation)
  • Targeted gene therapy for cancer
  • Transcriptional targeting for cancer gene therapy
  • Targeted epidermal growth factor-mediated DNA delivery
  • Gene-based targeted drug delivery to tumors
  • Targeting gene expression to hypoxic tumor cells
  • Targeting gene expression by progression-elevated gene-3 promoter
  • Targeted delivery of retroviral particles hitchhiking on T cells
  • Targeting tumors with genetically modified T cells
  • Targeting tumors by genetically engineered stem cells
  • Tumor-targeted gene therapy by receptor-mediated endocytosis
  • Targeted site-specific delivery of anticancer genes by nanoparticles
  • Immunolipoplex for delivery of p53 gene
  • Combination of electrogene and electrochemotherapy
  • Virus-mediated oncolysis
  • Targeted cancer treatments based on oncolytic viruses
  • Oncolytic gene therapy
  • Cancer terminator virus
  • Cytokine-induced killer cells for delivery of an oncolytic virus
  • Facilitating oncolysis by targeting innate antiviral response by HDIs
  • Oncolytic HSV
  • Oncolytic adenoviruses
  • Oncolytic Coxsackie virus A21
  • Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus
  • Oncolytic measles virus
  • Oncolytic paramyxovirus
  • Oncolytic reovirus
  • Oncolytic vaccinia virus
  • Synthetic oncolytic virus
  • Monitoring of viral-mediated oncolysis by PET
  • Companies developing oncolytic viruses
  • Antiangiogenic therapy for cancer
  • Apoptotic approach to improve cancer gene therapy
  • Bacteria as novel anticancer gene vectors
  • Concluding remarks on cancer gene therapy
  • Cancer gene therapy companies
  • Cell therapy for cancer
  • Cellular immunotherapy for cancer
  • Treatments for cancer by ex vivo mobilization of immune cells
  • Granulocytes as anticancer agents
  • Neutrophil granulocytes in antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer
  • Use of hematopoietic stem cells for targeted cancer therapy
  • Cancer vaccines
  • Cell-based cancer vaccines
  • Autologous tumor cell vaccines
  • Vaccines that simultaneously target different cancer antigens
  • Delivery systems for cell-based cancer vaccines
  • Intra-lymph node injections of cancer vaccine antigens
  • Nucleic acid-based cancer vaccines
  • Antiangiogenic DNA cancer vaccine
  • DNA cancer vaccines
  • Methods of delivery of DNA vaccines
  • RNA vaccines
  • Viral vector-based cancer vaccines
  • Companies involved in nucleic acid-based vaccines
  • Genetically modified cancer cells vaccines
  • GVAX cancer vaccines
  • Genetically modified dendritic cells
  • Multipeptide-based cancer vaccines

5. Delivery strategies according to cancer type and location

  • Introduction
  • Bladder cancer
  • Intravesical drug delivery
  • Intravesical agents combined with systemic chemotherapy
  • Targeted anticancer therapy for bladder cancer
  • Prodrug EOquin for bladder cancer
  • Antisense treatment of bladder cancer
  • Gene therapy for bladder cancer
  • Brain tumors
  • Methods for evaluation of anticancer drug penetration into brain tumor
  • Innovative methods of drug delivery for glioblastoma
  • Delivery of anticancer drugs across the blood-brain barrier
  • Anticancer agents with increased penetration of BBB
  • BBB disruption
  • Nanoparticle-based targeted delivery of chemotherapy across the BBB
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitor increases topotecan penetration into CNS
  • Bypassing the BBB by alternative methods of drug delivery
  • Intranasal perillyl alcohol
  • Intraarterial chemotherapy
  • Enhancing tumor permeability to chemotherapy
  • Local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor
  • Carmustine biodegradable polymer implants
  • Fibrin glue implants containing anticancer drugs.
  • Biodegradable microspheres containing 5-FU
  • Magnetically controlled microspheres
  • Convection-enhanced delivery
  • CED for receptor-directed cytotoxin therapy
  • CED of topotecan
  • CED of a modified diphtheria toxin conjugated to transferrin
  • CED of nanoliposomal CPT-11
  • CED for delivery 131I-chTNT-1/B MAb
  • Anticancer drug formulations for targeted delivery to brain tumors
  • Intravenous delivery of anticancer agents bearing transferrin
  • Liposomes for drug delivery to brain tumors
  • MAbs targeted to brain tumors
  • Multiple targeted drugs for brain tumors
  • Nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in glioblastoma
  • Aurora kinase B siRNA & lactoferrin nanoparticles with temozolomide
  • Targeted antiangiogenic/apoptotic/cytotoxic therapies
  • Targeted drug delivery to gliomas using cholera toxin subunit B
  • Introduction of the chemotherapeutic agent into the CSF pathways
  • Intraventricular chemotherapy for meningeal cancer
  • Intrathecal chemotherapy
  • Interstitial delivery of dexamethasone for reduction of peritumor edema
  • Combination of chemotherapy with radiotherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy for chemosensitization of brain tumors
  • Nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy of brain tumors
  • Innovative delivery of radiotherapy to brain tumors
  • GliaSite Radiation Therapy System
  • Boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumors
  • Cell therapy for glioblastoma
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cells to deliver treatment for gliomas
  • Stem cell-based therapy targeting EGFR in glioblastoma
  • Gene therapy for glioblastoma
  • Antiangiogenic gene therapy
  • Anticancer drug delivery by genetically engineered MSCs
  • Gene transfer to brain tumor across the BBB by nanobiotechnology
  • Intracerebroventricular delivery of gene therapy for gliomas by NSCs
  • Intravenous gene delivery with nanoparticles into brain tumors
  • Ligand-directed delivery of dsRNA molecules targeted to EGFR
  • MSC-based gene delivery to glioblastoma
  • Neural stem cells for drug/gene delivery to brain tumors
  • Peptides targeted to glial tumor cells
  • RNAi gene therapy of brain cancer
  • Single-chain antibody-targeted adenoviral vectors
  • Targeting normal brain cells with an AAV vector encoding interferon-
  • Treatment of medulloblastoma by suppressing genes in Shh pathway
  • Virus-mediated oncolytic therapy of glioblastoma
  • Clinical trials of viral oncolysis of glioblastoma
  • Oncolytic viral delivery by stem cells for brain metastases
  • Future of viral-mediated oncolysis
  • Vaccination for glioblastoma
  • Cell-based vaccines for glioblastoma
  • Peptide vaccines for glioblastoma
  • Poliovirus-based vaccine for glioblastoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Therapies for breast cancer involving innovative methods of drug delivery
  • Injectable biodegradable polymer delivery system for local chemotherapy
  • MammoSite brachytherapy
  • Monoclonal antibodies targeted to HER2 receptor
  • Breast cancer vaccines
  • HER-2 DNA AutoVac vaccine
  • Recombinant adenoviral ErbB-2/neu vaccine
  • Gene vaccine for breast cancer
  • NeuVax
  • Gene therapy for breast cancer
  • Antisense therapy for breast cancer
  • Inhibitors of growth factors FGF2 and VEGF for breast cancer
  • Targeted multi-drug delivery approach to breast cancer
  • Cancer of the cervix and the uterus
  • Gene therapy for cervical cancer
  • Delivery of chemoradiation therapy
  • Cervical cancer vaccines
  • Cancer of the liver
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Treatment of liver metastases
  • Gastrointestinal cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Oxaliplatin long-circuting liposomes
  • Perifosine
  • Targeted delivery of triple anticancer therapy by local patch
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
  • Vaccines for gastrointestinal cancer
  • Hematological malignancies
  • Leukemia
  • Clofarabine
  • Ibrutinib
  • Idelalisib for CLL
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy in multiple myeloma
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Idelalisib for NHL
  • Pixantrone
  • Rituximab after autologous stem-cell transplantation
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Targeted therapies for melanoma
  • Immunotherapy for malignant melanoma
  • Gene therapy for malignant melanoma
  • Nasopharangeal carcinoma
  • Synergistic effect of gene therapy with 5-FU
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Genetically modified NSCs for treatment of neuroblastoma
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Aerosol delivery of anticancer agents for lung cancer
  • Aerosol gene delivery for lung cancer
  • Complex nanoscale pulmonary delivery of drugs for resistant lung cancer
  • Intratumoral administration of anticancer drugs through a bronchoscope
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Dendritic cell vaccination for ovarian cancer
  • Gene Therapy for ovarian cancer
  • Innovative drug delivery for ovarian cancer
  • Intravenous ascorbate for ovarian cancer
  • Intraperitoneal delivery
  • Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy in ovarian cancer
  • Modulation of protein ubiquitination
  • Targeting Notch pathway to overcome resistance to chemotherapy
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Delivery of chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer
  • Local drug delivery
  • Localized drug delivery by iontophoresis
  • Nanoparticle-based delivery of tumor-penetrating peptides
  • Targeted chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer
  • Transport properties of pancreatic cancer and gemcitabine delivery
  • Vaccine for pancreatic cancer
  • Gene therapy for pancreatic cancer
  • Correction of altered genes
  • Targeted gene therapy
  • Targeting in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with cell surface antigens
  • Targeted Expression of BikDD gene
  • Viral oncolysis in pancreatic cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Alpha emitter radium-223 for targeting bone metastases in cancer
  • Brachytherapy for cancer of prostate
  • Brachytherapy via paravertebral approach lymph node metastases
  • Capridine-beta
  • LHRH for prostate cancer
  • LHRH analogs
  • Histrelin implant
  • Immunomodulatory drugs
  • MAbs for prostate cancer
  • PACLIMER Microspheres
  • PRX302
  • Targeted therapies for prostate cancer
  • Delivery of cisplatin to prostate cancer by nanoparticles
  • Delivery of siRNAs to prostate cancer with aptamer-siRNA chimeras
  • Delivery of siRNA for prostate cancer with metastases
  • Gold nanoparticles targeted to laminin receptor in prostate cancer
  • PSA-activated protoxin that kills prostate cancer
  • Targeted delivery of a nanoparticulate platinum prodrug
  • Targeting oncogene MDM2 in prostate cancer
  • Vascular targeting of prostate cancer
  • Gene therapy for cancer of prostate
  • Experimental studies
  • Nanoparticule-based gene therapy for prostate cancer
  • Tumor suppressor gene therapy in prostate cancer
  • Vaccines for prostate cancer
  • Clinical trials of gene therapy for prostate cancer
  • Viral oncolysis for prostate cancer
  • Combined approaches
  • Combined autovaccination and hyperthermia
  • Thyroid cancer

6. Cancer drug delivery markets

  • Introduction
  • Global markets for drug delivery
  • Estimation of cancer drug delivery markets
  • Methods used for market estimation
  • Cancer epidemiology
  • Cost of patient care in cancer
  • Market forecasts 2019-2029
  • Cancer drug market
  • Market for leukemia
  • Market for lymphoma
  • Markets for brain tumors
  • Market for breast cancer
  • Market for ovarian cancer
  • Geographical distribution of cancer markets
  • Factors affecting future cancer markets
  • Market share according to cancer drug delivery technologies
  • Antiangiogenesis therapies
  • Antibody drug conjugates
  • Antineoplastic drug implants for systemic administration
  • Antisense therapy and RNAi
  • Cancer vaccines
  • Cell/gene therapy
  • Liposomes for anticancer drugs
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Modulators of protein ubiquitination
  • Strategic aspects of cancer drug delivery
  • Unmet needs in cancer drug delivery
  • Future of cancer drug delivery
  • Cancer drug delivery and pharmacogenomics
  • Cancer immunotherapy markets
  • Drug delivery for cancer in the postgenomic era
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in development of cancer drug delivery markets
  • Expansion of cancer drug delivery markets in developing countries
  • Drivers for the development of drug delivery technologies in cancer

7. References


Table 1-1: Estimated new cases of cancer in the US at most involved organs 2017
Table 1-2: Historical landmarks in drug delivery for cancer
Table 2-1: Innovative strategies against cancer
Table 2-2: A classification of antiangiogenic therapies
Table 2-3: Selected antiangiogenic agents in development for cancer
Table 2-4: Approaches to cancer therapy based on bacteria
Table 2-5: Cell therapy technologies used for cancer
Table 2-6: Classification of various therapeutic approaches to cancer immunotherapy
Table 2-7: Non-nucleic acid cancer vaccines without genetic modification
Table 2-8: Monoclonal antibodies for cancer approved by the FDA
Table 2-9: Anticancer agents linked to monoclonal antibodies
Table 2-10: Monoclonal antibodies in clinical trials for cancer
Table 2-11: Antibody drug conjugates in clinical trials for cancer
Table 2-12: Third generation boron delivery agents currently under investigation
Table 2-13: Cellular pathways as targets for anticancer therapies
Table 2-14: Examples of anticancer agents that target mitochondrial membranes
Table 2-15: Drugs targeting oncogenes
Table 2-16: PARP inhibitors for cancer therapy
Table 2-17: Cancer therapies based on the P53
Table 2-18: Promise of personalized therapy in cancer
Table 2-19: Companies developing personalized therapy for cancer
Table 3-1: Routes of drug delivery in cancer
Table 3-2: Systemic intravenous drug delivery systems for chemotherapy of cancer
Table 3-3: Approved oral chemotherapy drugs
Table 3-4: Microparticles as therapeutic delivery systems in cancer
Table 3-5: Classification of nanobiotechnology approaches to drug delivery in cancer
Table 3-6: Approved anticancer drugs using nanocarriers
Table 3-7: Clinical trials of anticancer drugs using nanocarriers
Table 3-8: Marketed preparations for liposome-based anticancer drugs
Table 3-9: Clinical trials of liposome-based anticancer drugs
Table 3-10: Strategies for drug delivery in cancer
Table 3-11: Implant systems for delivery of anticancer drugs into tumors
Table 3-12: Targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics
Table 3-13: Methods of delivery of antiangiogenesis therapies
Table 3-14: Companies developing vascular targeting agents
Table 4-1: Mechanisms of anticancer effect of antisense oligonucleotides
Table 4-2: Methods of delivery of oligonucleotides for cancer therapy
Table 4-3: Antisense oligonucleotides in clinical trials for cancer
Table 4-4: Companies developing antisense and RNAi therapies for cancer
Table 4-5: Strategies for cancer gene therapy
Table 4-6: Enzyme/prodrug combinations employed in suicide gene therapy
Table 4-7: Mutation compensation strategies used clinically
Table 4-8: Companies developing oncolytic viruses
Table 4-9: Companies involved in cancer gene therapy
Table 4-10: Cell therapy technologies used for cancer
Table 4-11: Companies developing nucleic acids/genetically modified cells-based cancer vaccines
Table 5-1: Innovative methods of drug delivery for glioblastoma
Table 5-2: Strategies for gene therapy of malignant brain tumors
Table 5-3: Clinical trials of virotherapies for glioblastoma
Table 5-4: Therapies for breast cancer involving innovative methods of drug delivery
Table 5-5: Drug delivery for hepatocellular carcinoma
Table 5-6: Gene therapy for malignant melanoma
Table 5-7: Targeted treatment of non-small cell lung cancer
Table 5-8: Clinical trials of gene therapy in ovarian cancer
Table 5-9: Methods of drug delivery in pancreatic cancer
Table 5-10: Pharmacological strategies under investigation for cancer of the prostate
Table 5-11: Clinical trials of gene therapy for prostate cancer
Table 6-1: Worldwide drug delivery market growth 2020 to 2030
Table 6-2: Worldwide prevalence of cancer according to type of cancer 2020-2030
Table 6-3: Estimated number of cancer patients in major markets 2020-2030
Table 6-4: Worldwide anticancer drug sales for from 2020 to 2030
Table 6-5: Geographical distribution of cancer markets 2020-2030
Table 6-6: Market values of cancer drug delivery technologies from 2020-2030


Figure 1-1: Structure of PD-1 pathway
Figure 1-2: Signaling pathway changes during adaptation of cancer cell to hypoxia
Figure 1-3: Nitric oxide: tumor enhancement or inhibition
Figure 1-4: Role of nitric oxide in angiogenesis
Figure 1-5: An overview of some key steps in tumor angiogenesis.
Figure 2-1: Targeting tumors with light-emitting engineered bacteria
Figure 2-2: Enhancing tumor-cell visibility to the immune system by viral mimicry
Figure 2-3: Schematic role of T helper cells in immune response to cancer
Figure 2-4: G-MAB™ technology
Figure 2-5: Antimetabolic anticancer effect of SR9243 by inhibiting Warburg effect
Figure 3-1: Cyclacel's Penetratin Transport System for delivery of drugs to targets
Figure 3-2: Linker Activated Drug Release
Figure 3-3: Micelle for drug delivery in cancer
Figure 3-4: Targeted drug delivery with QA-NPs via peritumoral blood vessels
Figure 3-5: Mechanism of action of Targaceutical drugs
Figure 3-6: VIADUR leuprolide acetate using DUROS implant technology
Figure 4-1: Mechanism of action of oncolytic viruses
Figure 5-1: A concept of targeted drug delivery to GBM across the BBB
Figure 5-2:Mechanism of antitumor effects of poliovirus-based vaccine for glioblastoma
Figure 6-1: Unmet needs in cancer drug delivery

Part II: Companies

8. Companies involved in cancer drug delivery

  • Introduction
  • Profiles of companies
  • Collaborations


Table 8-1: Oncology pipeline of GlaxoSmithKline
Table 8-2: Roche pipeline of oncology products
Table 8-3: Collaborations of companies in cancer drug delivery