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Nanobiotechnologies - Applications, Markets & Companies

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  • 852 Pages
  • November 2021
  • Region: Global
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
  • ID: 4748174

Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds the considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are constructions from the bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for the role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.

Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In-vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics that has been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.

The increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves, drug candidates, as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.

Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Applications of nanobiotechnology are described according to various therapeutic systems. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as well. Of the over 1,000 clinical trials of nanomedicines, approximately 100 are selected and tabulated in major therapeutic areas. Other applications such as for the management of biological warfare injuries and poisoning are included. The contribution of nanobiotechnology to nutrition and public health such as the supply of purified water is also included.

There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter the market, these are expected to be in place.

Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is a definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2020. The largest expansion is expected between the years 2025 and 2030.

Profiles of 253 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 185 collaborations. The report is supplemented with 51 Tables, 32 figures and 800 references to the literature.

The report contains information on the following:

  • Nanobiotechnologies
  • Applications for research in life sciences
  • Nanomolecular diagnostics
  • Nanodevices and techniques
  • Nanopharmaceuticals
  • Nanooncology
  • Nanoneurology
  • Nanocardiology
  • Nanopulmonology
  • Nanoorthopedics
  • Nanoophthalmology
  • Miscellaneous clinical applications of nanobiotechnology
  • Nanobiotechnology and personalized medicine
  • Nanotoxicology
  • Regulatory and ethical issues
  • Research and future prospects
  • Markets
  • Companies

Table of Contents


Part I: Applications & Markets 


1. Introduction 

  • Basics of nanobiotechnology
  • European Union definition of nanomaterials 
  • Nanoscale time and light
  • Nanotime
  • Nanolasers 
  • Nanomedicine  
  • Relation of nanobiotechnology to nanomedicine  
  • Landmarks in the evolution of nanomedicine 
  • Nanomedicine as a part of the evolution of medicine

2. Nanotechnologies 

  • Introduction
  • Classification of nanobiotechnologies  
  • Nanoparticles
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Cubosomes  
  • Fluorescent nanoparticles 
  • Fullerenes
  • Graphene
  • Magnetic nanoparticles  
  • Nanoparticles assembly into micelles 
  • Nanoshells 
  • Naturally occurring nanoparticles
  • Polymer nanoparticles 
  • Porous silicon nanoparticles
  • Quantum dots  
  • Synthetic high density lipoprotein nanoparticles
  • Hybrid nanoparticles 
  • Bacterial structures relevant to nanobiotechnology
  • Nanostructures based on bacterial cell surface layers
  • Bacterial magnetic particles
  • Carbon nanotubes  
  • Medical applications of nanotubes 
  • Dendrimers 
  • Properties
  • Applications 
  • DNA nanostructures 
  • DNA origami
  • Bacteriophages for mass production of DNA origami  
  • Fractal assembly 
  • Gigadalton-scale structures
  • Nanobricks 
  • Advantages of DNA nanostructure 
  • Potential applications of DNA nanostars 
  • Potential applications of DNA octahedron
  • Exosomes
  • Nanowires
  • Nanopores
  • Nanoporous silica aerogel 
  • Nanostructured silicon
  • Nanoparticle conjugates  
  • DNA-nanoparticle conjugates  
  • Networks of gold nanoparticles and bacteriophage
  • Protein-nanoparticle combination
  • Polymer nanofibers
  • Virus-like particles
  • Measurement of nanoparticle size and distribution
  • Nanomaterials for biolabeling  
  • DNA Nanotags 
  • Fluorescent lanthanide nanorods  
  • Magnetic nanotags
  • Molecular computational identification  
  • Nanophosphor labels  
  • Organic nanoparticles as biolabels
  • Quantum dots as labels  
  • SERS nanotags  
  • Silica nanoparticles for labeling antibodies
  • Silver nanoparticle labels
  • Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems 
  • BioMEMS
  • Microarrays and nanoarrays
  • Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays 
  • Applications of dip-pen nanolithography 
  • Protein nanoarrays
  • Single-molecule protein arrays 
  • Microfluidics and nanofluidics  
  • Nanotechnology on a chip 
  • Microfluidic chips for nanoliter volumes
  • Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics
  • 2D nanofluidics
  • Construction of nanofluidic channels
  • Nanoscale flow visualization 
  • Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces 
  • Electrochemical nanofluid injection  
  • Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces 
  • Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip
  • Nanofluidic channels for the study of DNA
  • Visualization and manipulation on nanoscale  
  • Nanophotonics 
  • 3D single-molecule microscopy with nanoscale accuracy
  • 4Pi microscope  
  • Atomic force microscopy
  • AFM basics 
  • Advantages of AFM
  • AFM as nanorobot
  • Force sensing Integrated Readout and Active Tip  
  • AFM infrared spectroscopy  
  • Cantilever technology
  • CytoViva® Microscope System
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer  
  • Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence
  • Magnetic resonance force microscopy and nanoscale MRI
  • Multiple single-molecule fluorescence microscopy  
  • Near-field scanning optical microscopy
  • Nano-sized light source for single cell endoscopy 
  • Nanoparticle characterization by Nanosight LM10 technology 
  • Nanoscale scanning electron microscopy 
  • Use of SEM to reconstruct 3D tissue nanostructure
  • Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens
  • Partial wave spectroscopy 
  • Photoactivated localization microscopy
  • Scanning probe microscopy
  • Single-molecule photon localization microscopy
  • STED microscopy 
  • Super-resolution microscopy for in vivo cell imaging  
  • 3D-SIM
  • Nanomicroscopy for live cell tomography
  • RESOLFT Nanoscopy 
  • Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond
  • Visualizing atoms with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy  
  • Surface plasmon resonance
  • Nanotechnology and phototherapy  

3. Nanotechnologies for Basic Research Relevant to Medicine

  • Introduction
  • Nanotechnology and biology
  • NanoSystems Biology
  • Nanobiology and the cell
  • Biosensing of cellular responses  
  • Control of T cell signaling activity
  • Measuring mass of single cells
  • Nanostructures involved in endocytosis
  • Nanoparticles for in vivo study of cells
  • Nanotechnology-based live-cell single molecule assays  
  • Quantum dots for stem cell labeling
  • Quantum dot/antibody conjugates for in vivo cytometric imaging
  • Quantum dots for study of apoptosis 
  • Ribosome as a Brownian nanomachine
  • Single cell injection by nanolasers 
  • Study of complex biological systems
  • Tissue-engineering for studying effects of nanoparticles on cells
  • Molecular motors 
  • Nanomotor made of nucleic acids
  • phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor
  • Light-activated ion channel molecular machines
  • Application of AFM for biomolecular imaging  
  • Future insights into biomolecular processes by AFM 
  • 4Pi microscopy to study DNA double-strand breaks
  • Nanoscale DNA imaging  
  • Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry
  • Applications of biomolecular computing in life sciences 
  • Bacteria for construction of nanomachines
  • Natural nanocomposites 
  • Nanotechnology in biological research  
  • QDs for biological research
  • Molecular biology and nanotechnology  
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology  
  • RNA nanotechnology
  • Genetically engineered proteins for nanobiotechnology  
  • Single molecule studies  
  • 3D single-molecular imaging by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging
  • Nanoscale NMR for imaging single molecules
  • Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence
  • Study of molecular assembly of single molecules in living cells 
  • Nanochemistry
  • Nanoscale pH Meter 
  • Nanolaser applications in life sciences
  • Nanoelectroporation
  • Nanomanipulation 
  • Atomic force microscopy
  • DNA nanomanipulation 
  • Fluorescence-force spectroscopy
  • Nanomanipulation by combination of AFM and other devices
  • Surgery on living cells using AFM with nanoneedles
  • Manipulation of DNA sequence by use of nanoparticles as laser light antennas
  • Nanomanipulation of single molecule  
  • Nanomanipulation for study of mechanism of anticancer drugs  
  • Optoelectronic tweezers
  • Optical manipulation of nanoparticles
  • Nanotechnology in genomic research
  • Nanotechnology for separation of DNA fragments
  • Nanotechnology-based DNA sequencing  
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms 
  • Nanobiotechnology for study of mitochondria 
  • Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria 
  • Study of mitochondria with nanolaser spectroscopy  
  • Nanoproteomics
  • Biochips for nanoscale proteomics  
  • Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology 
  • Nanofilter array chip
  • Dynamic reassembly of peptides
  • High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry 
  • Manipulation of redox systems by nanotechnology 
  • Multi Photon Detection  
  • Nanoflow liquid chromatography
  • Nanoparticle-protein interactions 
  • Nanopore-based protein sequencing 
  • Nanopores for phosphoprotein analysis 
  • Nanoproteomics for study of misfolded proteins 
  • Nanotube electronic biosensor for proteomics  
  • Protein nanocrystallography  
  • Protein engineering on nanoscale 
  • Nanowires for protein engineering
  • A nanoscale mechanism for protein engineering  
  • Role of nanoparticles in self-assembly of proteins 
  • Role of nanotechnology in peptide engineering 
  • QD-protein nanoassembly
  • Single cell nanoprobe for studying gene expression of individual cells
  • Single cell nanoproteomics 
  • Study of proteins by atomic force microscopy  
  • Study of proteomics at single molecule level 
  • Assays for protein expression at the single molecule level
  • Imaging proteins at the single-molecule level
  • Mass spectrometry of single-molecules using nanotechnology  
  • Study of protein synthesis and single-molecule processes
  • Role of nanotechnology in study of membrane proteins
  • Nanoparticles for study of membrane proteins
  • Study of single protein interaction with cell membrane
  • Quantum dots to label cell surface proteins
  • Study of single membrane proteins at subnanometer resolution
  • Self-assembling peptide scaffold technology for 3D cell culture  
  • Nanobiotechnology and ion channels
  • AFM for characterization of ion channels
  • Aquaporin water channels
  • Nanopatch™ for study of ion channels at single molecule level  
  • Remote control of ion channels through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles  
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in engineering ion channels
  • Nanobiotechnology for single cell analysis
  • Nanotechnology and bioinformatics 
  • 3D nano-map of synapse  

4. Nanomolecular Diagnostics

  • Introduction  
  • Nanodiagnostics
  • Rationale of nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics  
  • Nanoarrays for molecular diagnostics
  • Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip
  • Microfluidics and nanotech tools for single cell analysis
  • Nanofluidic/nanoarray devices to detect a single molecule of DNA  
  • Protein nanoarrays 
  • Protein nanobiochip  
  • Silver nanorod array for on-chip detection of microbes and chemicals
  • AFM for molecular diagnostics 
  • Nanofountain AFM probe 
  • AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density microarrays 
  • AFM for nanodissection of chromosomes
  • Nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics
  • 3DNA® Dendrimers for diagnostics
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Exosome-based molecular diagnostics
  • Gold nanoparticles 
  • Quantum dots for molecular diagnostics
  • QDs for detection of pathogenic microorganisms
  • Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers 
  • Imaging of living tissue with QDs  
  • Use of nanocrystals in immunohistochemistry  
  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for bioscreening
  • Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles
  • Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo
  • Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cell tracking 
  • SPIONS for real-time tracking of viral delivery
  • SPIONs for calcium sensing  
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for labeling molecules
  • Study of living cells by SPIONs
  • Imaging applications of nanoparticles
  • CT image enhancement by nanoparticles 
  • Dendritic nanoprobes for imaging of angiogenesis 
  • Functionalized MWCNTs as ultrasound contrast agents.
  • Nanoparticles as contrast-enhancing agents for MRI
  • Gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific MRI 
  • Gadonanotubes for MRI 
  • Gold nanorods and nanoparticles as imaging agents
  • In vivo imaging using nanoparticles. 
  • Manganese oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for brain MRI
  • Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI of pancreas
  • Nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI
  • Optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes
  • QDs for biological imaging
  • SPIONs combined with MRI  
  • Concluding remarks and prospects of nanoparticles for imaging
  • Applications of nanopore technology for molecular diagnostics.
  • Nanopore technology for detection of single DNA molecules  
  • Nanocytometry
  • DNA-protein and -nanoparticle conjugates
  • Resonance Light Scattering technology
  • Nanobarcodes technology  
  • Nanobarcode particle technology for SNP genotyping 
  • QD nanobarcode for multiplexed gene expression profiling
  • Biobarcode assay for proteins
  • Single-molecule barcoding system for DNA analysis
  • Nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method
  • Nanoparticle-based up-converting phosphor technology 
  • Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy
  • Near-infrared (NIR)-emissive polymersomes
  • Nanobiotechnology for detection of proteins
  • Captamers with proximity extension assay for proteins
  • Immunoliposome-PCR  
  • Nanobiosensors
  • Cantilevers as biosensors for molecular diagnostics  
  • Advantages of cantilever technology for molecular recognition  
  • Antibody-coated nanocantilevers for detection of microorganisms
  • Carbon nanotube biosensors
  • Carbon nanotube sensors coated with ssDNA and electronic readout
  • Carbon nanotubes sensors wrapped with DNA and optical detection  
  • FRET-based DNA nanosensor
  • Graphene biosensor based on Raman spectroscopy  
  • Ion channel switch biosensor technology
  • Electrochemical nanobiosensor  
  • Electronic nanobiosensors
  • Metallic nanobiosensors
  • Nanomaterial-based sensors for diagnosis from exhaled breath
  • Quartz nanobalance biosensor 
  • Viral nanosensor  
  • PEBBLE nanosensors
  • Detection of cocaine molecules by nanoparticle-labeled aptasensors. 
  • Nanosensors for glucose monitoring 
  • Nanobiosensors for protein detection  
  • Optical biosensors
  • Laser nanosensors  
  • Interferometric reflectance imaging sensors 
  • Nanoshell biosensors 
  • Plasmonics and SERS nanoprobes
  • Optical mRNA biosensors
  • Surface Enhanced Microoptical Fluidic Systems 
  • Nanoparticle-enhanced sensitivity of fluorescence-based biosensors  
  • Nanowire biosensors
  • Nanowire biosensors for detection of cancer biomarkers  
  • Nanowire biosensors for detection of single viruses
  • Nanowires for detection of genetic disorders. 
  • Nanowires biosensor for detecting biowarfare agents 
  • Concluding remarks and prospects of nanowire biosensors 
  • Future issues in the development of nanobiosensors
  • Applications of nanodiagnostics.
  • Nanotechnology for detection of biomarkers
  • Nanotechnology for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms 
  • Nanoparticles for detecting SNPs. 
  • Nanopores for detecting SNPs 
  • Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection 
  • Protease-activated QD probes 
  • Labeling of MSCs with QDs
  • Nanotechnology for point-of-care diagnostics  
  • Nanoswitch-linked immunosorbent assay 
  • Nanotechnology-based biochips for POC diagnosis  
  • Carbon nanotube transistors for genetic screening  
  • POC monitoring of vital signs with nanobiosensors  
  • Nanodiagnostics for the battle field and biodefense
  • NANOANTENNA project of European Commission
  • Nanodiagnostics for integrating diagnostics with therapeutics
  • Concluding remarks about nanodiagnostics 
  • Clinical trials of nanodiagnostics 
  • Future of nanodiagnostics

5. Nanopharmaceuticals 

  • Introduction  
  • Nanobiotechnology for drug discovery  
  • Nanofluidic devices for drug discovery
  • Gold nanoparticles for drug discovery
  • Tracking drug molecules in cells
  • SPR with colloidal gold particles
  • Use of QDs for drug discovery 
  • Advantages of the use of QDs for drug discovery
  • Drawbacks of the use of QDs for drug discovery
  • QDs for imaging drug receptors in the brain 
  • Lipoparticles for drug discovery
  • Biosensor for drug discovery with Lipoparticles 
  • Magnetic nanoparticles assays 
  • Analysis of small molecule-protein interactions by nanowire biosensors  
  • Cells targeting by nanoparticles with attached small molecules  
  • Role of AFM for the study of biomolecular interactions for drug discovery
  • Nanoscale devices for drug discovery
  • Laboratories-on-a-chip
  • Lab-on-Bead  
  • Nanotechnology for drug design at cellular level
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in the future of drug discovery
  • Nanobiotechnology-based drug development
  • Dendrimers as drugs
  • Fullerenes as drug candidates
  • Nanobodies
  • RANbodies
  • Companies involved in nanobodies
  • Exosome-based pharmaceuticals 
  • Preclinical studies of nanoparticles in animals and humans  
  • Manufacture of nanomedicines  
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in microbial biofabrication 
  • Nanobiotechnology in drug delivery  
  • Ideal properties of material for drug delivery 
  • Improved absorption of drugs in nanoparticulate form  
  • Interaction of nanoparticles with human blood
  • Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery  
  • Nanoscale devices delivery of therapeutics  
  • Nanobiotechnology solutions to the problems of drug delivery 
  • Nanocomposites for protein delivery 
  • Nanocomposite membranes for magnetically triggered drug delivery  
  • Nanosuspension formulations
  • Nanotechnology-based refilling of drug delivery depots through circulation
  • Self-assembled nanostructures with hydrogels for drug delivery
  • Ultrasound mediated release of drugs from supramolecular cages  
  • Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery
  • Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and drugs into cells  
  • Bacterial viral membranes
  • Cell-penetrating peptides  
  • Nanoparticle-based drug delivery  
  • Cationic nanoparticles. 
  • Ceramic nanoparticles  
  • Cyclodextrin nanoparticles for drug delivery
  • Dendrimers for drug delivery
  • DNA-assembled dendrimers for drug delivery
  • DNA tetrahedron-based drug delivery system  
  • Exosomes for drug delivery 
  • Fullerenes for drug delivery 
  • Amphiphilic fullerene derivatives 
  • Fullerene conjugates for intracellular delivery of peptides
  • Gold nanoparticles as drug carriers
  • Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles
  • Micelles for drug delivery  
  • Nanocrystals 
  • Nanocrystalline silver  
  • Elan's NanoCrystal technology  
  • Biorise system
  • Nanodiamonds
  • Polymer nanoparticles  
  • Biodegradable PEG nanoparticles for penetrating the mucus barrier  
  • PLGA-based nanodelivery technologies  
  • Polymeric micelles 
  • Chitosan nanoparticles
  • QDs for drug delivery 
  • Special procedures in nanoparticle-based drug delivery
  • Coated nanoparticles for penetrating cell membranes without damage  
  • Combinatorial synthesis of nanoparticles for intracellular delivery
  • Drug delivery using “Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates” 
  • Encapsulating water-insoluble drugs in nanoparticles 
  • Filomicelles vs spherical nanoparticles for drug delivery 
  • Flash NanoPrecipitation
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery
  • Nanoparticles bound together in spherical shapes 
  • Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for imaging and targeted drug-delivery 
  • Prolonging circulation of nanoparticles by attachment to RBCs  
  • Self-assembling nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery
  • Trojan nanoparticles
  • Therapeutic protein delivery from nanoparticle-protein complexes
  • Triggered release of drugs from nanoparticles
  • Liposomes  
  • Basics of liposomes  
  • Stabilization of phospholipid liposomes using nanoparticles 
  • Lipid nanoparticles 
  • Advantages of the lipid nanoparticle technology  
  • Applications of lipid nanoparticles  
  • Arsonoliposomes
  • Lipid nanocapsules  
  • Lipid emulsions with nanoparticles
  • Polymerized liposomal nanoparticle 
  • Solid lipid nanoparticles 
  • Nanostructured organogels 
  • Niosomes
  • Limitations of liposomes for drug delivery 
  • Liposomes incorporating fullerenes
  • Liposome-nanoparticle hybrids  
  • Nanogels
  • Nanogel-liposome combination  
  • Nanospheres  
  • Nanotubes
  • Carbon nanotubes for drug delivery 
  • CNT-liposome conjugates for drug delivery into cells
  • Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery
  • Halloysite nanotubes for drug delivery
  • Nanocochleates
  • Nanobiotechnology and drug delivery devices 
  • Nano-encapsulation  
  • Nanotechnology-based device for insulin delivery
  • Nanoporous materials for drug delivery devices 
  • Nanopore membrane in implantable titanium drug delivery device
  • Measuring the permeability of nanomembranes  
  • Nanovalves for drug delivery
  • Nanochips for drug delivery 
  • Nanobiotechnology-based transdermal drug delivery
  • Introduction
  • Delivery of nanostructured drugs from transdermal patches  
  • Effect of mechanical flexion on penetration of bucky balls through the skin
  • Ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery
  • NanoCyte transdermal drug delivery system 
  • Safety issues of applications of nanomaterial carriers on the skin 
  • Transdermal administration of lipid nanocapsules
  • Transdermal nanoparticle preparations for systemic effect
  • Nasal drug delivery using nanoparticles
  • Mucosal drug delivery with nanoparticles  
  • Future prospects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery 
  • DNA nanorobots for drug delivery  
  • Nanomolecular valves for controlled drug release
  • Nanosponge for drug delivery
  • Nanomotors for drug delivery

6. Role of Nanotechnology in Biological Therapies

  • Introduction  
  • Nanotechnology for delivery of proteins and peptides 
  • Nanobiotechnology for vaccine delivery
  • Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines  
  • Dendrimer-RNA nanoparticle vaccines
  • Lipid nanoparticles for immunostimulatory RNA delivery 
  • Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines  
  • Nanoparticle-based adjuvants for vaccines  
  • Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens
  • Nanotechnology-based mucosal vaccines
  • Nanotechnology for oral vaccines 
  • Proteosomes™ as vaccine delivery vehicles
  • Targeted Synthetic Vaccine Particle (tSVP™) technology 
  • Virus-mimetic nanovesicles as an antigen-delivery system
  • Nanobiotechnology for cell therapy 
  • Nano-biocomposites containing living cells  
  • Nanobiotechnology for gene therapy
  • Nanoparticle-mediated gene therapy  
  • Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as nonviral vectors 
  • Carbonate apatite nanoparticles for gene delivery 
  • Dendrimers for gene transfer
  • DNA nanoparticles 
  • Gelatin nanoparticles for gene delivery  
  • Gene delivery by magnetic field and superparamagnetic nanoparticles  
  • Immunoliposomes for delivery anticancer gene therapy 
  • Lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of nucleic acids  
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted gene delivery 
  • Nanoparticles for imaging and intracellular delivery of nucleic acids 
  • Nanoparticles linked to viral vectors for photothermal therapy  
  • Nanoparticles for p53 gene therapy of cancer
  • Nanoparticles with virus-like function as gene therapy vectors  
  • Nanobiolistics for nucleic acid delivery 
  • Nanorod gene therapy
  • Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy 
  • NanoNeedles for delivery of genetic material into cells
  • Photo-controlled in vivo activation of biomolecules by nanoparticles  
  • Silica nanoparticles for gene delivery
  • Nano-CRISPR  
  • Nanobiotechnology for antisense drug delivery
  • Antisense nanoparticles
  • Dendrimers for antisense drug delivery 
  • Polymer nanoparticles for antisense delivery system
  • Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery 
  • Chitosan-coated nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
  • Delivery of siRNA by nanosize liposomes
  • Delivery of gold nanorod-siRNA nanoplex to dopaminergic neurons
  • Polymer-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 
  • Polyethylenimine nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 
  • siRNA-PEG nanoparticle-based delivery  
  • Polycation-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 
  • Calando's technology for targeted delivery of anticancer siRNA
  • Self-assembling nanoplatform for delivery of siRNA
  • Topical delivery of siRNA-nanoparticle conjugates 
  • Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery  
  • RNAi-based nanomedicines for gene silencing in hematological malignancies 
  • Lipid nanoparticles for mRNA delivery 

7. Nanodevices & Techniques for Clinical Applications

  • Introduction  
  • Clinical nanodiagnostics
  • Nano-endoscopy  
  • Application of nanotechnology in radiology  
  • High-resolution ultrasound imaging using nanoparticles
  • Nanobiotechnology in tissue engineering  
  • 3D nanofilament-based scaffolds 
  • Electrospinning technology for nanobiofabrication
  • Nanomaterials for tissue engineering  
  • Carbon nanotubes for artificial muscles  
  • Nanofibers for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle
  • Nanobiotechnology for tissue regeneration  
  • Nanofibrous scaffolds for stem cell-based regenerative therapies  
  • Tissue nanotransfection for reprogramming tissue. 
  • Nanomaterials for combining tissue engineering and drug delivery
  • Nanoscale surfaces for stem cell culture 
  • Nanobiotechnology for organ replacement and assisted function  
  • Exosomes for drug-free organ transplants 
  • Nanobiotechnology and organ-assisting devices 
  • Nanosurgery  
  • Miniaturization in surgery  
  • Nanotechnology for hemostasis during surgery 
  • Minimally invasive surgery using catheters  
  • Nanorobotics
  • In vivo microbot propulsion 
  • Nanorobots
  • Nanobots for drug delivery to the eye
  • Nanoscale laser surgery

8. Nanooncology 

  • Introduction  
  • Nanobiotechnology for detection of cancer
  • Aptasensor for electrochemical detection of exosomes  
  • Aptamer-nanoparticle combinations for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics
  • Dendrimers for sensing cancer cell apoptosis 
  • Detection of circulating cancer cells
  • DNA nanospheres for isolation of CTCs  
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for capturing CTCs
  • Nano-Velcro technology for capturing CTCs
  • Gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis  
  • Gold nanorods for detection of metastatic tumor cells 
  • Magnetoacoustic detection of cancer using superparamagnetic nanoparticles  
  • Nanosensors for cancer diagnosis  
  • Differentiation between normal and cancer cells by nanosensors 
  • Implanted biosensor for cancer
  • Nanotubes for detection of cancer proteins  
  • Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers
  • Nanodots for tracking apoptosis in cancer  
  • Nanolaser spectroscopy for detection of cancer in single cells 
  • Nanoparticles designed for dual-mode imaging of cancer
  • Nanotechnology-based single molecule assays for cancer
  • QDs for detection of tumors
  • QD-based test for DNA methylation 
  • Spectral imaging and CNTs in malignant tumors
  • Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment 
  • Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery in cancer
  • Nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery in cancer 
  • Anticancer drug particles incorporated in liposomes
  • Cerasomes
  • Doxorubicin nanocarriers
  • Curcumin nanoformulation as cancer therapeutics 
  • Encapsulating drugs in hydrogel nanoparticles
  • Exosomes  
  • Folate-linked nanoparticles 
  • Ginger nanoparticles for delivery of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer  
  • Gold nanoparticles stabilized with resveratrol
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles  
  • Lipid based nanocarriers  
  • Micelles for drug delivery in cancer
  • Minicells for targeted delivery of nanoscale anticancer therapeutics 
  • Nanoconjugates for subcutaneous delivery of anticancer drugs
  • Nanomaterials for delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drugs 
  • Nanoparticle formulation for enhancing anticancer efficacy of cisplatin 
  • Nanoparticle formulations of paclitaxel. 
  • Nanoparticles containing albumin and antisense oligonucleotides  
  • Nanorobots for anticancer drug delivery
  • Nanovesicle-mediated drug delivery in cancer
  • Niosomes for anticancer drug delivery 
  • Pegylated nanoliposomal formulation
  • Peptide-linked nanoparticle delivery  
  • Poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate nanoparticles
  • Polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugated nanoparticles 
  • Porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery 
  • Protein nanocages for penetration of airway mucous and tumors  
  • Protosphere nanoparticle technology
  • siRNA delivery in combination with nanochemotherapy
  • Zinc oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer.
  • Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics 
  • Aptamer nanoformulations for targeted anticancer therapy  
  • Bacteriophage capsid-based nanoparticles for targeted cell-delivery  
  • Canine parvovirus as a nanocontainer for targeted drug delivery  
  • Carbon nanotubes for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells
  • Carbon magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer  
  • Chitosan nanoparticles for targeted anticancer drug delivery
  • CRLX101 for targeted anticancer drug delivery 
  • Cyclosert system for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics 
  • Fullerenes for enhancing tumor targeting by antibodies 
  • Gold nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
  • Hepatic artery infusion of LDL-DHA nanoparticles for liver cancer  
  • Hyaluronic acid nanocarriers for targeted anticancer therapeutics
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for remote-controlled drug delivery to tumors 
  • Mesoporous silica nanoparticles
  • Monitoring of targeted delivery by nanoparticle-peptide conjugates 
  • Nanobees for targeted delivery of cytolytic peptide melittin  
  • Nanobody-shell polymeric micelles for targeted drug delivery 
  • Nanocarrier-based targeted delivery od RNAi-based therapy
  • Nanoformulations of monoclonal antibodies for targeted drug delivery 
  • Nanogel-based stealth cancer vaccine targeting macrophages  
  • Nanovehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel. 
  • Nanocell for targeted drug delivery to tumor  
  • Nanodiamonds for local delivery of chemotherapy at site of cancer 
  • Nanoimmunoliposome-based system for targeted delivery of siRNA  
  • Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of MAPK signaling pathway
  • Nanoparticles for targeted antisense therapy of cancer
  • Nanoparticles for delivery of suicide DNA to prostate tumors
  • Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of concurrent chemoradiation  
  • Nanoparticle-based therapy targeted to cancer metastases  
  • Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of multiple anticancer agents 
  • Nanostructured hyaluronic acid for targeted drug delivery in cancer  
  • Perfluorocarbon emulsion for targeted chemotherapeutic delivery
  • Polymer nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer 
  • Polymersomes for targeted cancer drug delivery
  • Quantum dots and quantum rods for targeted drug delivery in cancer 
  • Quinic acid-nanoparticle conjugates  
  • Remote controlled drug delivery from magnetic nanocrystals
  • Targeted delivery of nanoparticulate drugs into lymphatic system
  • Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates  
  • Use of T cells for delivery of gold nanoparticles to tumors
  • Dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery
  • Application of dendrimers in boron neutron capture therapy
  • Application of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy
  • Dendrimer-based synthetic vector for targeted cancer gene therapy
  • Poly-L-lysine dendrimer as antiangiogenetic agent  
  • RNA nanotechnology for delivery of cancer therapeutics 
  • Delivery of siRNAs for cancer
  • Combination delivery systems for nanoparticle penetration into tumor tissue  
  • Nanotechnology-based cancer therapy  
  • Devices for nanotechnology-based cancer therapy 
  • Convection-enhanced delivery with nanoliposomal CPT-11 
  • Nanoengineered silicon for brachytherapy  
  • Anticancer effect of nanoparticles 
  • Antiangiogenic therapy using nanoparticles
  • Cytotoxic effects of cancer nanoparticles
  • Gold nanoparticles for inhibiting tumor growth
  • Nanoshell-based cancer therapy 
  • Nanobody-based cancer therapy 
  • Nanosecond pulsed electric fields for cancer therapy
  • Nanoparticles combined with physical agents for tumor ablation
  • Boron neutron capture therapy using nanoparticles
  • Gold nanoparticles combined with radiation therapy
  • Laser-induced cancer destruction using nanoparticles  
  • Nanoparticle-mediated thermal ablation of cancer 
  • Photothermal therapy of cancer using graphene 
  • Temperature-sensitive liposomes for cancer destruction  
  • Ultrasound radiation of tumors combined with nanoparticles
  • Nanomedicines combined with molecular targeted anticancer therapeutics  
  • Bispecific nanobioconjugate for targeted cancer immunotherapy 
  • PFTBA@Alb nanoparticles as enhancers of anti–PD-L1 immunotherapy  
  • Impact of nanotechnology-based imaging in management of cancer  
  • Cornell dots for cancer imaging
  • Nanoparticles and optoacoustic imaging in management of cancer
  • Nanoparticle-MRI for tracking dendritic cells in cancer therapy
  • Nanoparticle-CT scan 
  • Nanosensor device as an aid to cancer surgery 
  • Nanoparticle-based imaging in oncology clinical trials  
  • QDs aid lymph node mapping in cancer
  • Single wall carbon nanotubes for targeted imaging of tumors 
  • Nanoparticles for targeted therapy of tumors  
  • Nanocarriers with TGF-β inhibitors for targeting cancer
  • Nanobombs for cancer  
  • Nanoparticle-based anticancer drug delivery to overcome MDR  
  • Time-delayed, dual-drug nanoparticle delivery system
  • Combination of diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer
  • Aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles. 
  • Biomimetic nanoparticles targeted to tumors  
  • Dendrimer nanoparticles for targeting and imaging tumors  
  • Gold nanoparticle plus bombesin for imaging and therapy of cancer  
  • Gold nanorods for diagnosis plus photothermal therapy of cancer
  • Gold nanotubes for diagnosis plus photothermal therapy of cancer
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for imaging as well as therapy of cancer 
  • Micelles for targeted drug delivery and PET imaging in cancer  
  • Nanobialys for combining MRI with delivery of anticancer agents  
  • Nanoparticles, MRI and thermal ablation of tumors
  • pHLIP nanotechnology for detection and targeted therapy of cancer  
  • QD conjugates combine cancer imaging, therapy and sensing  
  • Silica nanoparticles for combining diagnosis with cancer therapy 
  • Squalene-based nanocomposites for tumor imaging and therapy  
  • Radiolabeled carbon nanotubes for tumor imaging and targeting  
  • Ultrasonic tumor imaging and targeted chemotherapy by nanobubbles  
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in cancer immunotherapy
  • Nanorobotics for management of cancer
  • Bacterial nanorobots for targeting cancer 
  • DNA robots for targeting cancer
  • Fullerenes for protection against chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity 
  • Concluding remarks and future of nanooncology  

9. Nanoneurology

  • Introduction  
  • Nanobiotechnology for neurophysiological studies
  • Nanoelectrodes in neurophysiology
  • Chronic EEG recording  
  • Nanoscale devices for network-level electrophysiology  
  • Chronic subcellular recording from implanted electrodes 
  • Nanowires for monitoring brain activity via blood vessels  
  • Gold nanoparticles for in vivo study of neural function  
  • Nanodiagnosis and nanoparticle-based brain imaging 
  • Applications of nanotechnology in molecular imaging of the brain  
  • Nanoparticles and MRI for macrophage tracking in the CNS 
  • Nanoparticles for tracking stem cells for therapy of CNS disorders
  • Multifunctional NPs for diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders
  • Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the CNS 
  • Nanotechnology-based drug delivery for neurodegenerative disorders
  • Nanoencapsulation for delivery of vitamin E for Alzheimer disease
  • Selegiline-PEG nanoparticles targeting Aβ fibrils in Alzheimer disease
  • Nanoparticles for drug delivery across BBB
  • Carbon nanotubes for drug delivery to the CNS  
  • Nanoagonists of adenosine receptor for delivery across BBB
  • Nanovesicles for transport across BBB 
  • V-SMART® drug delivery platform
  • Mechanism of the nanoparticle-mediated transport of the drugs across the BBB  
  • Transcytosis of transferrin-containing nanoparticles across the BBB  
  • Nanotechnology-based strategies for drug delivery across BBB  
  • G-Technology®  
  • LipoBridge technology 
  • Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to brain tumors 
  • Intravenous gene delivery with nanoparticles into brain tumors
  • Micelles for delivery of chemotherapy to brain tumors
  • Multifunctional nanoparticles for treating brain tumors
  • Nanoparticles for delivery of drugs to brain tumors across BBB
  • NP delivery across the BBB for imaging and therapy of brain tumors
  • NP-based targeted delivery of chemotherapy across the BBB
  • PLA nanoparticles for controlled delivery of BCNU to brain tumors
  • Nanoparticles as nonviral vectors for CNS gene therapy
  • Silica nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy  
  • Cationic lipids for CNS gene therapy  
  • Polyethylenimine-based nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy
  • Dendrimers for CNS gene therapy
  • Carbon nanotubes for CNS gene therapy
  • Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the inner ear
  • Nanotechnology-based devices and implants for CNS 
  • Nanobiotechnology and neuroprotection 
  • Neuroprotection due to antioxidant effect of nanoparticles
  • Neuroprotective nanoparticles that inhibit neuroinflammation
  • Neuroprotective nanoparticles that inhibit Aβ formation
  • Nanobiotechnology for regeneration and repair of the CNS 
  • Nanowire neuroprosthetics with functional membrane proteins  
  • Nanotube-neuron electronic interface
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in regeneration and repair following CNS trauma 
  • Nanofibers as an aid to CNS regeneration by neural progenitor cells  
  • Peptide nanostructures for repair of the CNS  
  • Nanobiotechnology for repair and regeneration following TBI
  • Nanoparticles for repair following SCI
  • Repair of SCI by nanoscale micelles  
  • Nanobiotechnology-based devices for restoration of neural function 
  • Nanobiotechnology-based artificial retina 
  • Role of nanomedicine in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders  
  • Nanopsychiatry  
  • Nanoneurosurgery
  • Bucky balls for brain cancer  
  • Electrospun nanofiber tubes for regeneration of peripheral nerves 
  • Femtolaser neurosurgery  
  • Graphene technology for neurosurgery 
  • Nanofiber brain implants 
  • Nanoparticles as an aid to neurosurgery
  • Nanoscaffold for CNS repair  
  • Application of nanobiotechnology to pain therapeutics 

10. Nanocardiology

  • Introduction  
  • Nanotechnology-based cardiovascular diagnosis 
  • Detection of biomarkers of myocardial infarction in saliva by a nanobiochip
  • Nanobiosensors for detection of cardiovascular disorders  
  • Use of magnetic NPs as MRI contrast agents for cardiac imaging 
  • Perfluorocarbon NPs for combining diagnosis with therapy in cardiology  
  • Cardiac monitoring in sleep apnea 
  • Detection and treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries
  • Monitoring for disorders of blood coagulation 
  • Nanotechnology-based therapeutic delivery in cardiology
  • Combination of diagnostics with therapeutics  
  • Controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature
  • Nanobiotechnology-based therapeutic delivery in myocardial ischemia 
  • IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers for cell therapy of myocardial infarction
  • Injectable peptide nanofibers for myocardial ischemia
  • Liposomal nanodevices for targeted cardiovascular drug delivery 
  • Low molecular weight heparin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles 
  • Magnetic antibody-linked nanoparticles to deliver cells to the heart
  • Nanoparticles for cardiovascular imaging and targeted drug delivery  
  • Nanofiber-based scaffolds with drug-release properties
  • NP-based systemic drug delivery to prevent cardiotoxicity
  • Targeted nanoparticle-DNA delivery to the cardiovascular system  
  • Nanotechnology-based therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases  
  • Nanolipoblockers for atherosclerotic arterial plaques.
  • Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery for atherosclerotic heart disease
  • Nanotechnology approach to the vulnerable plaque as cause of cardiac arrest
  • Nanotechnology for regeneration of the cardiovascular system
  • Nanotechnology for cardiac revascularization  
  • Nanocomposite hydrogels for myocardial tissue engineering  
  • Nanotechnology-based stents
  • Restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty
  • Drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles
  • Magnetic nanoparticle-coated DES
  • Magnetic nanoparticles encapsulating paclitaxel targeted to stents
  • Nanocoated DES
  • Nanopores to enhance compatibility of DES
  • Application of nanotechnology in cardiac catheterization  

11. Nanopulmonology

  • Introduction  
  • Nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery
  • Systemic drug delivery via pulmonary route
  • Nanoparticle drug delivery for effects on the respiratory system
  • Fate and toxicology of nanoparticles delivered to the lungs 
  • Nanoparticle drug formulations for spray inhalation  
  • Nanobiotechnology for improving insulin delivery in diabetes
  • Inhalation of glucose-sensitive NP for regulated release of insulin
  • Pulmonary delivery of insulin by surface acoustic wave technology
  • Nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals for pulmonary disorders 
  • Nanotechnology-based treatment of pulmonary disorders
  • Management of cystic fibrosis
  • Nanobiotechnology-based gene transfer in CF
  • Nonviral DNA nanoparticle-mediated CFTR gene transfer
  • Liposome-mediated CFTR gene transfer
  • Magnetofection for enhancing nonviral gene transfer to the airways  
  • NP-based delivery of antibiotics for treatment of pulmonary infections in CF
  • Nanotechnology-based treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Nanotechnology-based treatment of pulmonary inflammation

12. Nanoorthopedics 

  • Introduction  
  • Application of nanotechnology for bone research  
  • Reducing reaction to orthopedic implants
  • Enhancing the activity of bone cells on the surface of orthopedic implants  
  • Synthetic nanomaterials as bone implants. 
  • NanoBone implants
  • NanoBone versus BioOss  
  • Nanoparticles for repairing bone cracks  
  • Nanotechnology-based bone regeneration 
  • Delivery of growth factors for bone repair and regeneration
  • Role of nanoparticles in regenerative therapy for osteoporosis  
  • Aligning nanotubes to improve artificial joints  
  • Carbon nanotubes as scaffolds for bone growth 
  • Nanoparticle-based hydrogels for cartilage regeneration 
  • Nanotechnology for the engineering of cartilage replacement  
  • Cartilage disorders of knee joint
  • Nanotechnology as an aid to arthroscopy 
  • Nanotechnology-based therapy for osteoarthritis

13. Nanoophthalmology  

  • Introduction  
  • Nanocarriers for ocular drug delivery  
  • Dendrimers for drug delivery in ophthalmology 
  • DNA nanoparticles for nonviral gene transfer to the eye 
  • Nanoparticle-based topical drug application to the eye
  • Lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery
  • Nanoparticles for intraocular drug delivery
  • Nanoparticles impregnated ocular inserts for drug delivery to the eye
  • Ophthalmic drug delivery through nanoparticles in contact lenses  
  • Nanotechnology-based therapeutics for eye disorders 
  • Nanotechnology for prevention of neovascularization 
  • Nanoparticles as nonviral vectors for gene therapy of retinal disorders  
  • Nanobiotechnology for treatment of glaucoma
  • Nanotechnology for treatment for age-related macular degeneration

14. Nanomicrobiology

  • Introduction  
  • Nanodiagnosis of infections 
  • Detection of viruses
  • Cantilever beams for detection of single virus particles
  • Carbon nanotubes-based detection of viruses
  • Electric fields for accelerating detection of viruses 
  • QD fluorescent probes for detection of respiratory viral infections
  • Verigene Respiratory Virus Plus Assay 
  • Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of viruses
  • Detection of bacteria
  • Nanoparticle-based methods for bacterial detection
  • QDs for detection of bacterial infections
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in diagnosis of fungal infections 
  • Magnetic nanoparticle-based technique for detection of fungi 
  • Nano-amplification technique for the detection of fungal pathogens. 
  • Role of nanobacteria in human diseases
  • Nature of nanobacteria
  • Nanobacteria and kidney stone formation 
  • Nanobacteria in cardiovascular disease 
  • Nanotechnology-based microbicidal agents 
  • Carbon nanotubes as antimicrobial agents  
  • Gold and silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents
  • Gold nanoparticles for targeting drug-resistant bacteria
  • Nanocarriers for antibacterial peptides
  • Nanoemulsions as microbicidal agents
  • Nanoparticles for overcoming antibiotic resistance 
  • Nanoformulations of antifungal agents
  • Nanoscale bactericidal powders
  • Nanotubes for detection and destruction of bacteria
  • Nanoscale surface structure for antibacterial defense 
  • Silver nanoparticle coating as prophylaxis against infection  
  • Nanobiotechnology and virology
  • Study of interaction of nanoparticles with viruses
  • Study of pathomechanism of viral diseases
  • Transdermal nanoparticles for immune enhancement in HIV
  • Nanofiltration to remove viruses from plasma transfusion products
  • Nanotechnology-based antiviral agents
  • Dendrimer-based intracellular delivery of antibodies
  • Dendrimers as nonviral vectors in dendritic cell-based immunotherapies
  • Fullerenes as antiviral agents
  • Gold nanorod-based delivery of RNA antiviral therapeutics
  • Nanocoating for antiviral effect  
  • Nanoviricides 
  • Nanocarrier-mediated siRNA delivery for treatment of HIV/AIDS
  • Silver nanoparticles as antiviral agents 
  • siRNA lipid nanoparticle for the treatment of Ebola virus infection.
  • Nanobiotechnology approaches to treatment of infectious diseases  
  • Nanobiotechnology-based treatment of leishmaniasis 

15. Miscellaneous Healthcare Applications of Nanobiotechnology  

  • Introduction  
  • Nanoimmunology 
  • Fullerenes for interruption of allergic/immune response
  • Carbon nanoparticle-based immunomodulation
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus  
  • Inflammatory diseases  
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Nanohematology
  • Artificial red cells
  • Feraheme 
  • Nanoparticle-based drug delivery for gastrointestinal disorders 
  • Ginger nanoparticles for IBS  
  • Nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic delivery to the liver  
  • Nanonephrology
  • Nanobiotechnology-based renal dialysis  
  • Nanotechnology-based human nephron filter for renal failure 
  • Blood-compatible membranes for renal dialysis  
  • Ceramic filter for renal dialysis
  • Nanotechnology for wound healing 
  • Nanocrystalline silver delivery to wound dressings 
  • Nanoengineered bandage for wound care
  • Nanodots for infected wound repair
  • Nanotechnology-based products for skin disorders 
  • Cubosomes for treating skin disorders of premature infants.
  • Nanoparticles for improving targeted topical therapy of skin  
  • Nanoparticle-based sun screens
  • Nanoengineered bionic skin 
  • Topical nanocreams for inflammatory disorders of the skin
  • Nanobiotechnology for disorders of aging
  • Personal care products based on nanotechnology
  • Nanocosmeceuticals
  • Nanotechnology for hair care
  • Nanodentistry
  • Bonding materials
  • Dental caries 
  • Nanospheres for dental hypersensitivity  
  • Nanomaterials for dental filling  
  • Nanomaterials for dental implants  
  • Nanodiamonds for root canal repair
  • Nanomedical aspects of oxidative stress 
  • Nanoparticle antioxidants  
  • Fullerene-based antioxidants
  • Ceria nanoparticles as neuroprotective antioxidants
  • Antioxidant nanoparticles for treating diseases due to oxidative stress 
  • Nanotechnology and homeopathic medicines
  • Nanoparticles as antidotes for poisons  
  • Nanoparticles for chemo-radioprotection  
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in biodefense 
  • Nanoparticles to combat microbial warfare agents
  • Removal of toxins from blood
  • Nanobiotechnology for public health
  • Nanotechnology for water purification
  • Nanofiltration to remove viruses from water 
  • Nanostructured membranes for water purification 
  • Nanotechnologies for water remediation
  • Nanotechnology-based photochemical water purification  
  • Magnetic nanoscavengers for water purification  
  • Nanobiotechnology and nutrition 
  • Nanobiotechnology and food industry
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized nutrition

16. Nanobiotechnology and Personalized Medicine

  • Introduction  
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer 
  • Nanotechnology-based personalized medicine for cardiology
  • Nanobiotechnology for therapeutics design and monitoring  
  • Smart nanosystems for personalized medicine
  • Nanosystems that respond to disease environments

17. Nanotoxicology

  • Introduction  
  • Fate of nanoparticles in the human body 
  • Nanoparticle-protein interactions 
  • Protein corona and nanoparticle toxicity  
  • Systemic toxicity of protein corona
  • Protein corona and cytotoxicity
  • Computational prediction of toxicity of nanosubstances
  • In vitro vs in vivo testing for toxicity of nanoparticles 
  • Stem cellines for testing toxicity of nanoparticles
  • Safety studies of graphene quantum dots 
  • Variations in safety issues of different nanoparticles
  • Carbon nanotube safety
  • Fullerene toxicity
  • Gold nanoparticle toxicity  
  • Graphene toxicity
  • Quantum dot safety issues
  • Toxicity of gold nanoparticle as synergistic interaction with surfactants 
  • Effects of nanoparticles on various body systems  
  • Pulmonary effects of nanoparticles
  • Neuronanotoxicology
  • Nanoparticle deposits in the brain
  • Nanoparticles and neurodegeneration
  • Effect of nanoparticles on the heart
  • Blood compatibility of nanoparticles 
  • Carbon nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation 
  • Compatibility of lipid-based nanoparticles with blood and blood cells
  • Transfer of nanoparticles from mother to fetus
  • Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles
  • Indirect DNA damage caused by nanoparticles across cellular barriers
  • Measures to reduce toxicity of nanoparticles
  • Reducing toxicity of carbon nanotubes
  • A screening strategy for the hazard identification of nanomaterials
  • Concluding remarks on safety issues of nanoparticles 
  • Research into effects of nanoparticles in the environment
  • Effect of magnetite pollution nanoparticles on the human brain
  • Environmental safety of aerosols released from nanoparticle manufacture  
  • Role of US government agencies in research on safety of nanoparticles  
  • Work at NanoSafety Laboratories Inc UCLA
  • Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology  
  • European NEST project for risk assessment of exposure to nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles and food safety 
  • Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food
  • Regulatory viewpoint on nanoparticles in food
  • Use of water nanostructures for inactivation of foodborne microorganisms  
  • Public perceptions of the safety of nanotechnology 
  • Evaluation of consumer exposure to nanoscale materials  
  • Safety of nanoparticle-based cosmetics
  • Regulations in the European Union
  • Nanotechnology-based sunscreens
  • Cosmetic industry’s white paper on nanoparticles in personal care
  • Skin penetration of nanoparticles used in sunscreens 
  • Titanium dioxide in cosmetics

18. Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Nanomedicine  

  • Introduction  
  • Ethical and social implications of nanobiotechnology
  • Nanoethics  
  • Nanotechnology patents
  • Quantum dot patents relevant to healthcare applications  
  • Challenges and future of nanobiotechnology patents
  • Legal aspects of nanobiotechnology  
  • Nanotechnology standards
  • Preclinical testing of nanometerials for biological applications 
  • FDA regulation of nanobiotechnology products
  • FDA and nanotechnology-based medical devices  
  • FDA’s Nanotechnology Task Force  
  • FDA collaboration with agencies/organizations relevant to nanotechnology  
  • Regulation of nanotechnology in the European Union
  • Safety recommendations of the Royal Society of UK
  • European Commission and safety of nanocosmetics

19. Research and Future of Nanomedicine  

  • Introduction  
  • Nanobiotechnology research in the academic centers 
  • Clinical trials of nanomedicines
  • Future of nanomedicine
  • Support for nanobiotechnology by US Government agencies
  • Nanomedicine initiative of NIH 
  • US Federal funding for nanobiotechnology. 
  • NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer  
  • Centers of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence
  • Innovative Research in Cancer Nanotechnology 
  • Manufacture of nanomedicines. 
  • Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory 
  • Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines
  • Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine
  • Nanomedicine in Europe
  • European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine  
  • European Union’s “Horizon 2020” 
  • European Nanomedicine Characterisation Laboratory

20. Nanobiotechnology Markets  

  • Introduction  
  • Markets according to areas of applications
  • Markets for nanomedicine
  • Markets for nanodiagnostics  
  • Markets for biochips/microarrays 
  • Imaging agents 
  • Pharmaceuticals. 
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in drug delivery market  
  • Nanobiotechnology in life sciences research market 
  • Markets according to technologies
  • Markets for nanomaterials
  • Markets for biomedical nanodevices 
  • Markets for nanosensors  
  • Markets for nanotools 
  • Geographical distribution of markets
  • Nanobiotechnology in the US
  • Nanobiotechnology in the European Union
  • Nano2Life 
  • European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine  
  • Nanobiotechnology in Australia
  • Nanobiotechnology in Asia
  • Japan
  • South Korea
  • China
  • Taiwan 
  • India  
  • Nanobiotechnology in Russia
  • Nanobiotechnology in the developing world  
  • Venture capital investment in nanotechnology  
  • Big pharma and nanotechnology
  • Impact of nanobiotechnology on markets for current pharmaceuticals
  • Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology
  • Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets  
  • Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
  • Collaborations of the industry with academic research centers
  • Collaborations of pharmaceutical and nanotechnology companies  
  • Collaboration of chemical industry and the government
  • Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
  • Education of healthcare professionals
  • Education of the public

21. References

Table 1-1: Dimensions of various objects in nanoscale
Table 1-2: Historical landmarks in the evolution of nanomedicine  
Table 1-3: Nanomedicine in the 21st century  
Table 2-1: Classification of basic nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies 
Table 2-2: Applications of S-layers in nanobiotechnology  
Table 2-3: Potential applications of dendrimers in nanomedicine
Table 2-4: Nanomaterials for biolabeling
Table 2-5: Applications of cantilever technology  
Table 2-6: Applications of optical nanoscopy 
Table 3-1: Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria  
Table 4-1: Classification of applications of nanotechnologies in molecular diagnostics
Table 4-2: Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection 
Table 4-3: Clinical trials of nanodiagnostics 
Table 5-1: Basic nanobiotechnologies relevant to drug discovery
Table 5-2: Companies involved in nanobodies 
Table 5-3: Nanomaterials used for drug delivery
Table 5-4: Liposome-nanoparticle hybrid systems  
Table 6-1: Examples of application of nanoparticles for gene therapy 
Table 8-1: Classification of nanobiotechnology approaches to drug delivery in cancer
Table 8-2: Approved anticancer drugs using nanocarriers 
Table 8-3: Bioavailability and anticancer effect of curcumin nanoformulations 
Table 8-4: Aptamer-based nanoformulations for targeted anticancer therapy
Table 9-1: Neuroprotective nanoparticles  
Table 9-2: Role of nanobiotechnology in regeneration and repair following CNS trauma  
Table 9-3: Nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in neurodegenerative disorders 
Table 10-1: Nanobiotechnology-based therapeutic delivery in myocardial ischemia
Table 11-1: Pharmaceuticals incorporated into nanoparticle systems for pulmonary application
Table 13-1: Nanoparticles used for drug delivery in ophthalmology  
Table 13-2: Nanobiotechnology-based therapy of eye disorders 
Table 15-1: Preclinical studies of nanomedicines for rheumatoid arthritis  
Table 15-2: Applications of nanotechnologies in food and nutrition sciences  
Table 16-1: Examples of nanosystems that respond to disease environments
Table 18-1: FDA-approved nanotechnology based drugs
Table 19-1: Academic institutes/laboratories involved in nanobiotechnology
Table 19-2: Clinical trials of nanotechnology-based therapies  
Table 20-1: Nanobiotechnology markets according to areas of application 2020-2030
Table 20-2: Markets for nanobiotechnology according to technologies 2020-2030  
Table 20-3: Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2020-2030 
Table 20-4: Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets 
Table 20-5: Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology  
Table 20-6: Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery

Figure 1-1: Sizes of biologically entities relevant to the brain
Figure 1-2: Relationship of various biotechnologies to nanomedicine  
Figure 2-1: The core, branching and surface molecules of dendrimers
Figure 2-2: Imaging and size distribution of nanoparticles with TEM 
Figure 2-3: Schematic representation of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)
Figure 2-4: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology
Figure 3-1: Concept of nanopore-based sequencing 
Figure 3-2: Nanopore-based sequence-specific detection of DNA
Figure 4-1: Microfluidics and nanotech tools for single cell analysis  
Figure 4-2: Scheme of bio-barcode assay
Figure 4-3: Scheme of an optical mRNA biosensor
Figure 4-4: Nanowire biosensor for cancer diagnosis  
Figure 4-5: DNA nanoswitch detection technique 
Figure 5-1: Application of nanobiotechnology at various stages of drug discovery  
Figure 5-2: Bacteria plus nanoparticles for drug delivery into cells 
Figure 5-3: Schematic image of a lipid nanoparticle 
Figure 6-1: Nucleic acid delivery with lipid nanoparticle (LPN) technology
Figure 7-1: Nanobots for drug delivery to the eye  
Figure 8-1: Use of micelles for drug delivery
Figure 8-2: Nanopore-based sequence-specific detection of DNA
Figure 9-1: Nanodiagnostics for neurological disorders 
Figure 9-2: A concept of targeted drug delivery to glioblastoma across the BBB
Figure 10-1: Magnetic nanoparticle-coated stent 
Figure 14-1: CNTs for improvement of detection and isolation of viruses  
Figure 14-2: Schematic representation of NanoViricide attacking a virus particle 
Figure 14-3: Nanocarrier-mediated siRNA delivery for treatment of HIV/AIDS 
Figure 16-1: Relationship of nanobiotechnology to personalized medicine
Figure 16-2: Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
Figure 20-1: Components of the $1 trillion market for nanotechnologies in 2015 
Figure 20-2: Nanobiotechnology markets according to applications 2020-2030  
Figure 20-3: Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2020-2030  
Figure 20-4: Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology applications  

Part II

22. Nanobiotech Companies

  • Introduction  
  • Classification of companies  
  • Profiles of companies
  • Collaborations 

Table 22-1: Companies with nanoarray and nanofluidic technologies  
Table 22-2: Companies that provide microscopes for nanobiotechnology  
Table 22-3: Companies providing services and products for the nanobiotechnology industry 
Table 22-4: Companies that provide nanotechnologies for life sciences research  
Table 22-5: Companies developing nanomolecular diagnostics  
Table 22-6: Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug discovery and development
Table 22-7: Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery 
Table 22-8: Companies using nanotechnology-based antiinfective agents 
Table 22-9: Companies using nanotechnology for healthcare and therapeutics 
Table 22-10: Collaborations of companies in nanobiotechnology