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DNA Sequencing - Technologies, Markets & Companies

  • ID: 4748186
  • Report
  • May 2020
  • Region: Global
  • 540 Pages
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
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This report briefly reviews basics of human genome variations, development of sequencing technologies, and their applications. Current large and small sequencers are described as well as companies developing them. Various applications of sequencing are described including those for genetics, medical diagnostics, drug discovery, and cancer. Next-generation sequencing technologies, both second and third generations, are reviewed. Companies developing software for analysis of sequencing data are also included. Selected academic institutes conducting research in sequencing are also listed.

The current market is mostly for research applications and future markets will be other applications related to healthcare. The value of DNA sequencer market in 2019 is described with estimates for 2024 and 2029. Various methods and factors on which market estimates depend are described briefly. Markets are tabulated according to geographical areas as well as applications. Small sequencers form the basis of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis. Several marketing strategies have been outlined.

The report includes profiles of 148 companies involved in sequencing and their 173 collaborations. The report text is supplemented by 42 tables, 25 figures, and 500 selected references to the literature.

The report includes information on the following:

  • DNA Sequencing Technologies
  • Role of Bioinformatics in Sequencing
  • Comparative Analysis of Sequencing Technologies
  • Research Applications of Sequencing
  • Applications of Sequencing in Healthcare
  • Applications of Sequencing in Oncology
  • Sequencing in Genetic Disorders
  • Sequencing in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
  • Applications of sequencings in infections
  • Role of Sequencing in Personalized Medicine
  • Current Status & Future Prospects
  • Markets for Sequencers
  • Companies Involved in Sequencers
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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0. Executive Summary

1. Introduction
Definition and scope of sequencing
Historical aspects of sequencing
Basics of molecular biology
DNA polymerases
DNA helicases
Restriction endonucleases
RNA polymerases
Non-coding RNAs
DNA transcription
Chromosome sequences
Mitochondrial DNA
The genetic code
Gene expression
Genes and human diseases
The human genome
The epigenome
Epigenetics and epigenomics
DNA methylation
Human Epigenome Atlas
Variations in the human genome
Variations in DNA sequences
Single nucleotide polymorphisms
Complex chromosomal rearrangements
Insertions and deletions in the human genome
Large scale variation in human genome
Variation in copy number in the human genome
Structural variations in the human genome
Retrotransposon capture sequencing
Mapping and sequencing of structural variation from human genomes
Impact of sequencing on healthcare

2. DNA Sequencing Technologies
DNA extraction and sample preparation
Apollo 300 System for next generation sequencing
Electrophoresis-based method
Ion OneTouch System
Microfluidics-based extraction and sample preparation
Pressure Cycling Technology
Selective immobilization of nucleic acids onto magnetic microparticles
Targeted and hybridization-based DNA capture
Sanger-sequencing technology
Dye-terminator sequencing
Large-scale sequencing
Automated DNA-sequencing
Enhancements of Sanger-sequencing
ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer
Life Technologies’ 3500 Dx genetic analyzer
Limitations of sequencing methods and measures to remedy them
Paired end transcriptome sequencing to overcome short read lengths
Long vs short read lengths
Validation of NGS data
Emerging sequencing technologies
Chemical DNA sequencing
Chemical affinity capture and massively parallel DNA sequencing
Next generation sequencers
4300 DNA analyzer
Apollo 100
Life Technologies 3500 series Genetic Analyzer
Cyclic array sequencing
CEQ™ 8000
DeepCAGE sequencing
Electron microscope-based DNA sequencing
GS-FLEX system (Roche)
Background of sequencing technology
IBS sequencing technology
Illumina Genome Analyzer System
NextSeq 500 desktop sequencer
Next generation sequencing based on Lightning Terminators
MiSeq FGx
NovaSeq 6000 system
Ion Torrent's sequencing technology
Ion S5 system
MegaBACE 500
Microdroplet-based PCR for large-scale targeted sequencing.
Millikan sequencing
Multiplex amplification of human DNA sequences
Nanoscale sequencing
Polonator sequencer
RainStorm™ microdroplet technology
Sequential DEXAS
SOLiD system: sequencing by ligation
PCR-based DNA sequencing technologies
Bridge amplification PCR system
COLD-PCR and sequencing
Digital PCR
Dual primer emulsion PCR
Emulsion PCR
Multiplex PCR
SiMSen-seq for ultrasensitive detection of mutations
Non-PCR based sequencing
Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification
Microarray-based DNA sequencing technologies
Arrayit's® H25K
High-throughput array-based resequencing
Sequencing by hybridization
SOLiD-System based ChIP-Sequencing
Companies developing whole genome chips/microarrays
Next generation sequencing vs microarrays for gene expression profiling
RNA sequencing
RNA-seq vs microarrays
Capture sequencing
In situ sequencing
Strand specific RNA sequencing
Applications of RNA-seq
Challenges for future development of RNA-seq
Exome sequencing
Limitations of exome sequencing
Human exome microarrays
Third generation sequencing
SOLiD4 System
SOLiD PI System
Helicos™ Genetic Analysis System
Molecular Combing
Nanotechnology-based sequencing
DNA sequence by use of nanoparticles
Denaturation mapping of DNA in nanofluidic channels
Nanopore sequencing
Sequencing through graphene nanopores
Convex lens-induced nanoscale templating
Detection of single molecules for sequencing
Helicos™ Genetic Analysis System
Molecular Combing
Optical Mapping
Nanopore-based single-molecule detection of specific DNA sequences
Phasing through the sequencing of single molecules
Sequencing-by-synthesis for single-molecule sequencing
Single molecule DNA sequencing by use of carbon nanotubes
Single molecule sequencing using Qdot nanocrystals
Single-molecule DNA sequencing in a sTOP chip nanowell
Single-molecule real-time sequencing
Single molecule targeted sequencing using GenoCare™ Analyzer
Single cell sequencing
Drop-seq for single cell sequencing
MALBAC for single cell DNA sequencing
Microfluidic single-cell whole-transcriptome sequencing
Optical-mapping and whole-genome sequencing of cells
Single cell sequencing of uncultured microbes
Single sperm sequencing
Single cell RNA sequencing
Single-cell combinatorial indexed sequencing
Single-stranded sequencing using microfluidic reactors
Future of single cell sequencing
Whole genome sequencing for haplotyping
Mitochondrial exome sequencing
ImmunoSEQ technology
Future prospects of next generation sequencing
Devices for NGS
Reduction of errors in NGS
Artifactual mutations during the sample preparation process
Contamination in high throughput sequencing
Duplex sequencing

3. Role of Bioinformatics in Sequencing
Growth of the sequencing database
Sequencing data storage
Cloud computing for sequencing data
Cloud computing facilities
Bioinformatics challenges of new sequencing technology
Construction of libraries for NGS
Bioinformatic tools for analysis of genomic sequencing data
Software for DNA sequencing
Software from academic and open sources
Commercial software for sequencing
ChIA-PET tool for analysis with paired-end tag sequencing
CLC Cancer Research Workbench
Compressive genomics
Detection of CNVs and gene duplications
Detection of SVs in massively parallel sequencing data
Differential expression analysis for sequence count data
DRAGEN™ Bio-IT Processor
Expression profiling without genome sequence information
Flye long-read assembly algorithm
Ingenuity® Variant Analysis™
Ion Reporter Software
Opal platform
Accessing DNA sequence information
Clinical Genomicist Workspace for managing NGS-based clinical tests
Analysis of genomic variation by sequencing of large populations
Analysis of rare variants in NGS studies
Human gene connectome
Funding of research for interpretation of sequencing data
Future challenges for managing sequencing data

4. Comparative Analysis of Sequencing Technologies
General findings of the study
Sanger versus second generation marketed sequencers
Common features and differences among second generation sequencers
Third generation large sequencers
SOLiD4 versus competing large sequencers
Illumina's HiSeq sequencer
Third generation desktop sequencers
BGI’s BGISEQ-500 desk top sequencer
Illumina's MiSeq sequencer
Roche GS Junior System
Life Technologies’ Benchtop Ion Proton™ Sequencer
Oxford Nanopore’s MinION™ system
The ideal desk-top sequencer
SWOT analysis of small sequencers
Concluding remarks on SWOT analysis of desktop sequencers

5. Sequencing for Research
Applications in basic research
Barcoding of synapses in the brain
ChIA-PET technology for 3D study of the genome
ChIP-Seq for study of gene expression
Chromatin profiling by direct DNA sequencing
Discovery of immunoglobulin gene by pyrosequencing
Epigenetic modifications analyzed by next generation sequencing
Exome sequencing for study of human variation
Genome sequencing with combinatorial probe anchor ligation
Identifying protein-coding genes in genomic sequences
Mutation rate measured by direct sequencing
Protein-protein interactome network mapping
RNA sequencing
Applications of RNA sequencing
Contribution of RNA structure to gene regulation revealed by RNA-Seq
Molecular indexing for quantitative targeted RNA sequencing
Sequencing for the study of microchimerism
Sequencing for the study of CNVs
GS-FLX sequencing for simultaneous detection of mutations and CNVs
Sequencing the transcriptomes of stem cells
Sequencing, stem cells and neurodegeneration
Sequencing, stem cells and regeneration
Sequencing and synthetic biology
Synthetic sequence in a bacterial cell
Synthesizing long DNA molecules
Functional synthetic proteins
Single-cell sequencing for study of cell lineage
Sequencing of human genomes
100,000 Genomes Project
Genome of the Netherlands
Missing human genome sequences
Personal genome sequencing
Role of sequencing in identification of human remains
Saudi Arabian human genome program
Sequence map of the human pan-genome
Sequencing of African genomes
Sequencing of Korean genomes
Sequencing mitochondrial genome
Sequencing of ancient genomes
Ancient DNA evidence for genomic variations in South East Asia
Anzick-1 genome
Genome of the Kennewick Man
Hominin genome
Indus valley civilization and DNA sequencing
Neandertal genome
Saqqaq genome
Sequencing and controversies about origin of Native Americans
Whole genome sequencing
Whole-genome sequencing of methylome
Whole genome resequencing
Prospects of genome sequencing for human ancestry
Sequencing genomes of non-human primates
Sequencing of chimpanzee genome
Sequencing of macaque genome
Sequencing of gorilla genome
Sequence the genomes of vertebrate species
Sequencing genomes of other organisms
Species biodiversity study by the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding
Ant genome
Avian genomes
Bat genome
Body louse genome
Camel genome
Cat genome
Dog genome
Frog genome
Goat genome
Horse genome
Ancient horse genome
House fly
Mosquito genome
Mouse genome
Tibetan antelope genome
Turkey genome
Water flea genome
Whale genome
Woolly mammoth genome
Sequencing studies of the human microbiome
Human Microbiome Project
Human virome
Microbial codes to distinguish individuals
Single cell sequencing of the brain
Population targeted sequencing studies
Transcriptome sequencing for mRNA expression
RNA splice variants
Sequencing projects supported by US Government
NHGRI’s sequencing initiatives
JGI’s Community Sequencing Program
NIH funding for interpreting sequence variants in the human genome
NIH to fund studies of gene-environmental interactions in human diseases
Approved medical sequencing projects
1000 Genomes Project
Findings of some studies of the 1000 genomes project
HapMap catalog as a foundation
Role of SOLiD™ System in 1000 Genomes Project
Protection of privacy of participants in 100 Genomes project
Concluding remarks
Human Variome Project
Sequencing in space
Academic centers conducting research on sequencing
Important academic collaborations
Manpower for sequencing
New York Genome Center
USTAR Center for Genetic Discovery
US Government funding for research
Joint Genome Institute
NHGRI’s Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research grants

6. Applications of Sequencing in Healthcare
Applications of sequencing in molecular diagnostics
Clinical exome sequencing
ACE Clinical Exome test
Diagnosis and screening of genetic disorders
Cystic fibrosis screening using high-throughput NGS
CNV sequencing for diagnosis of chromosomal disorders
Genetic misdiagnosis due to limited population sequencing data
Karyotyping based on NGS
NGS for diagnosis of rare genetic disorders
Role of WGS in screening of newborns
Role of WGS in chromothripsis
Single cell sequencing for PGD
WGS for identification of genetic disorders in critically ill infants
WGS for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in IVF
Guidelines for use of sequencing for diagnosis
Incidental findings on clinical sequencing
NGS for diagnosis of CNS infections
NGS for detection of solid organ transplant rejection
NGS for forensic diagnosis
NGS-based molecular diagnosis at POC using mobile phone microscopy
Companies developing sequence-based molecular diagnostics
Sequencing in cardiovascular disorders
Inherited cardiomyopathies
Exome sequencing and mutations associated with risk of coronary heart disease
Sequencing for study of the human immune system
Sequencing for investigating drug-virome interactions in organ transplants
Immune profiling using a synthetic human virome
NGS-based HLA typing
High-throughput HLA genotyping with deep sequencing
Approaches to NGS-based HLA typing
Applications of NGS-based HLA typing
Applications of sequencing relevant to the human microbiome
Sequencing the gut microbiome for discovery of immunomodulators
Sequencing of gut microbes in obesity
Companies developing microbiome-based products
Pharmaceutical applications of sequencing
Drug discovery and development
RNA profiling
Quantitative selection of aptamers through sequencing
Next generation sequencing and drug safety
Sequencing in aging research
WGS for the study of supercentenarians
Sequencing of APOE gene in centenarians

7. Applications of Sequencing in Oncology
Sequencing technologies for cancer
A project to assess sequencing technologies for tumor DNA
A universal NGS-based oncology test system
Amplicon sequencing in cancer
ASCO guidelines for use of NGS to test cancer susceptibility
Cancer Genome Atlas
Catalog of cancer genes
Detection of cancer biomarkers
Sequencing mitochondrial DNA to identify cancer biomarkers
Biomarkers for personalizing cancer treatment
Digital proteomics for cancer profiling
Discrepancies in cancer genome sequencing
Epigenome profiling
Exosome sequencing
Gaining insights into mutational processes
Multiple-gene sequencing panel to assess risk of hereditary cancer
Multiplexed cancer gene mutation analysis
NGS for enhancing verification rate of chromosomal structural rearrangements
NGS-based molecular profiling of cancer in FFPE specimens
Paired-end sequencing
Pathology tissue-ChIP
Quality control of NGS in oncology
RNA-Seq to study cancer transcriptome
Sequencing cancer cell lines
Sequencing for studying somatic mutations in cancer
Chromothripsis in cancer
Microsatellite instability in cancer genome
Somatically acquired genomic rearrangements in cancer
Sequencing for identification of FGFR gene fusions in cancer
Sequencing single cells to study evolution of cancer
Sequencing circulating tumor cell genomes
Sequencing for detection of germline cancer risk variants
High throughput sequencing for anticancer drug discovery
NGS for developing targeted cancer therapies
Sequencing for assessing resistance to anticancer therapy
Sequencing of tumors of various organs
Brain tumors
Sequencing for genetic alterations in gliomas
Sequencing for genetic alterations in medulloblastoma
Breast cancer
BRCA mutations
Circulating nucleic acids as biomarkers of cancer
Deep sequencing of miRNA for signatures of invasiveness
NGS reveals heterogeneity of breast cancer
Sequencing of breast cancer metastases
Triple negative breast cancer
Whole genome sequencing in breast cancer
Colorectal cancer
Gastric cancer
Head and neck cancer
NGS for detection of HPV sequences in carcinoma of oropharynx
Hematological malignancies
Acute myeloid leukemia
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
Hairy-cell leukemia
Hematological cancer risk inferred from blood DNA sequence
Myelodysplastic syndromes
Sequencing in chronic neutrophilic leukemia and atypical CML
Sequencing in hepatocellular carcinoma
Lung cancer
NGS to distinguish primary lung cancer from pulmonary metastases
Sequencing of small cell lung cancer
Ovarian cancer
Prostate cancer
Identification of mutations in prostate cancer by exome sequencing
Role of sequencing in liquid biopsy for prostate cancer patients
Current status and future of NGS applications in oncology
Actionable Genome Consortium to guide NGS in clinical oncology
Guidelines for interpretation/reporting of sequence variants in cancer
Points to consider for germline findings in tumor-only sequencing
Translation of gene panel sequencing into routine cancer diagnosis

8. Sequencing in Genetic Disorders
Approaches to sequencing in genetic disorders
DNA sequencing for prenatal disorders
High-throughput sequencing in Undiagnosed Disease Program at NIH
Sequencing of maternal plasma for detection of fetal aneuploidy
Sequencing for study of transposons
Sequencing genomes of the newborn to screen for genetic disorders
Study of rare variants in pinpointing disease-causing genes
Tandem repeat variability for detection of genetic factors in diseases
Whole genome sequencing for diagnosis of genetic disorders
Whole exome sequencing for diagnosis of genetic disorders
WES and WGS in monogenic disorders
Whole genome sequencing of a human fetus from maternal plasma
Genetic disorders investigated by sequencing
Bartter syndrome
CHARGE syndrome
DiGeorge syndrome
Discovery of the gene for Miller syndrome
Discovery of the gene for Kabuki syndrome
Familial combined hypolipidemia
Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm
Hereditary ataxia
Hereditary blindness
Neurofibromatosis type 1
Noonan syndrome
Proteus syndrome
Syndrome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, ataxia, and dementia
Syndrome of polyarthritis nodosa vasculopathy
X-linked disorder due to N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency
Sequencing in mitochondrial disorders
Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia
Role of NGS in prevention of chromosome abnormalities & monogenic disorders

9. Sequencing in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
Sequencing in Alzheimer disease
Sequencing in Parkinson disease
Sequencing in Huntington’s disease
Sequencing in Wilson’s disease
Sequencing in ataxias
Sequencing in epilepsy
Epileptic encephalopathy
Sequencing for mutations in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Sequencing of whole genome in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Sequence-based detection of a variant of Lambert-Eaton syndrome
Sequencing in muscular dystrophy
Sequencing in acute brain injury due to hemorrhage
Sequencing for mutations in autism spectrum disorders
Sequencing for diagnosis of intellectual disability
Sequencing in neurodevelopmental disorders
NGS for identifying mutations in RNA gene
WES in neurodevelopmental disorders
Sequencing in Möbius syndrome
Sequencing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Sequencing in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Sequencing in drug addiction

10. Applications of sequencings in infections
DNA sequencing for study of bacterial epidemics
Sequencing of GAS genotype emm89
Genome sequencing of H. influenzae to identify population structure
Role of sequencing in cholera epidemics
Role of sequencing in epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli
Sequencing study of emergence of M. tuberculosis in East Africa
Sequencing study of Salmonella emergence in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sequencing of ancient specimes from past epidemics
Sequencing for tracking hospital acquired infections
Sequencing for investigation of MRSA outbreaks
Role of sequencing in tracking a hospital infection of K. pneumoniae
Role of whole genome sequencing in identification of C. difficile
Role of NGS in diagnosis of infectious agents causing meningitis & encephalitis
Role of sequencing in the management of bacterial infections
Pyrosequencing of microbial flora in leg ulcers
Sequencing for mapping genomic variation in Mycobacterium ulcerans
Sequencing in the management of antimicrobial drug resistance
Maximum-depth sequencing
Sequencing for study of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
Sequencing for predicting the virulence of MRSA
Sequencing for detection of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum
WGS for diagnosis of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis
Sequencing for investigation of food-borne infections
Sequencing for mapping genetic interactions in bacteria
Metagenomic sequencing of bacteria
Sequencing of DNA from single cells of bacteria
Sequencing of the fungal genomes
Sequencing of human salivary microbiome
Next generation sequencing for antibacterial therapeutic discovery
Sequencing for diagnosis of viral diseases
High throughput sequencing for diagnosis of viral diseases
Sensitive metagenomic sequencing for detection of pathogenic human viruses
Sequencing in the management of HIV/AIDS
Long read sequencing for personalizing HIV therapy
NGS for studying neuroAIDS
Sequencing plus immunological analyses to study HIV evolution
Surveillance of drug resistance in HIV-infected individuals
Sequencing in the management of Ebola virus infection
Sequencing in the management of HCV
Sequencing for detection of a novel pegivirus associated with HCV
Sequencing genomes of hemorrhagic fever viruses
Sequencing genome of Lassa fever virus
Sequencing genome of a rhabdovirus associated with acute hemorrhagic fever
Surveillance of H1N1 influenza A virus using resequencing arrays
Sequencing genomes of coronaviruses
Regulatory aspects of sequencing for diagnosis of infections
Future of pathogen sequencing

11. Role of Sequencing in Personalized Medicine
Technologies relevant to sequencing and personalized medicine
Whole genome sequencing and personalized medicine
Whole exome sequencing and personalized disease risk
Large-scale deep sequencing of human genomes
Personal Genome Project
Role of sequencing in personalized cancer management
Circulating cell-free DNA sequencing for personalized cancer therapy
Companies and cancer centers using sequening for personalized oncology
Standardization of sequencing for personalized medicine
Regulating genomic testing in the era of personalized medicine
Future of sequencing and personalized medicine

12. Current Status and Future Prospects
ACMG clinical laboratory standards for NGS
Regulatory and quality control issues of sequencers in the USA
International NGS standardization
Applications of NGS in clinical trials
Human transcriptome array in clinical trials
Challenges for clinical applications of NGS
Direct-to-consumer WGS services
Ethical aspects of sequencing
Future trends in clinical sequencing
Rare Diseases Genomes Project

13. Markets for Sequencing
Methods used for estimation of sequencer markets
Currently marketed sequencers
Academic and research markets for sequencing
Factors affecting future development of sequencing markets
Future needs and support of research
Bioinformatics in relation to sequencing
Cost of integrating WGS into clinical care
Reducing the cost of human genome sequencing
US Government-supported research on sequencing
Contribution of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Cost of NGS
Genome X Prize Foundation
Innovations to reduce cost of whole genome sequencing
Commercial aspects of low-cost genome sequencing
NGS for personalized medicine
Global sequencing markets
Global markets for sequencers
Markets for sequencing services according to geographical regions
Global sequencing markets according to applications
Global sequencing markets according to therapeutic areas
NGS markets for cancer
NGS markets for genetic disorders
NGS markets for microbiome
Market trends for NGS
Needs of the clinical market for NGS
Sequencers for the clinical market
Challenges to developing market for sequencers

14. Companies Involved in Sequencing
Top ten players in sequencing
Profiles of companies involved in sequencing

15. References

Table 1-1: Historical landmarks in DNA sequencing
Table 1-2: Genetic variations in the human genome
Table 2-1: ChIP detection platforms for sequencing
Table 2-2: Companies developing whole genome chips/microarrays
Table 2-3: Systems for single molecule sequencing
Table 3-1: Software programs for sequencing from open sources
Table 3-2: Companies providing DNA sequencing software
Table 4-1: Comparison of a generation I and generation II sequencers
Table 4-2: Similarities and differences between second generation sequencers
Table 4-3: SWOT of ABI 310
Table 4-4: SWOT of IBS sequencing
Table 4-5: SWOT of NABsys' Hybridization-Assisted Nanopore Sequencing
Table 4-6: SWOT of 4300 DNA Analysis System Li-Cor
Table 4-7: SWOT of BGI’s BGISEQ-500 desktop sequencer
Table 4-8: SWOT of Polonator
Table 4-9: SWOT of Roche GS FLEX Junior
Table 4-10: SWOT of Oxford Nanopore’s MinION™ system
Table 4-11: SWOT of Ion Torrent™ Personal Genome Machine
Table 4-12: SWOT of Pacific BioSciences' single-molecule real-time sequencing
Table 4-13: SWOT of Illumina’s MiSeqDx
Table 4-14: SWOT of Illumina’s NextSeq 500
Table 4-15: SWOT of QIAGEN’s GeneReader™ sequencer
Table 4-16: SWOT of Bio-Rad (formerly GnuBio’s) droplet-based sequencing system
Table 4-17: SWOT of 10X Genomics’ GemCode
Table 5-1: Number of genes in organisms with fully sequenced genomes
Table 5-2: Approved medical sequencing projects
Table 5-3: Academic centers conducting research on DNA sequencing
Table 5-4: Distribution of scientific manpower for sequencing
Table 6-1: Companies involved in application of sequencing in molecular diagnostics
Table 6-2: Companies developing microbiome-based products
Table 12-1: Companies offering direct-to-consumer genome testing services
Table 13-1: Marketed next generation sequencers
Table 13-2: De novo sequencing vs resequencing markets
Table 13-3: Global markets for sequencers from 2019 to 2029
Table 13-4: Global markets for sequencing services according to geographical regions
Table 13-5: Global markets for sequencing services according to applications
Table 13-6: Sequencing markets according to therapeutic areas from 2019 to 2029
Table 14-1: Companies developing sequencing technologies and instruments
Table 14-2: Companies that provide sequencing services
Table 14-3: Companies that provide bioinformatics support for sequencing
Table 14-4: Top ten companies in sequencing
Table 14-5: Selected collaborations for DNA sequencing

Figure 2-1: DNA sequencing process
Figure 2-2: Components of next generation sequencing
Figure 2-3: Comparison of traditional sequencing and next generation sequencing
Figure 2-4: Watson-Crick base pairing
Figure 2-5: Genome Sequencer FLX system (Roche)
Figure 2-6: Workflow of Genome Sequenser FLX system
Figure 2-7: Sequencing by ligation
Figure 2-8: Construction of SOLiD fragment library using DNA enrichment by ChIP
Figure 2-9: RNA sequencing
Figure 2-10: In situ sequencing
Figure 2-11: Nanopore-based sequence-specific detection of DNA
Figure 2-12: DNA sequencing through a graphene nanopore
Figure 2-13: Nanopore-based, single molecule, realtime DNA sequencing
Figure 2-14: Drop-seq single cell analysis
Figure 2-15: A scheme of thermosequencing platform
Figure 2-16: Duplex sequencing
Figure 3-1: Basic workflow of NGS libraries
Figure 7-1: Comparison of conventional and high-throughput NGS workflows
Figure 7-2: Procedure for sequencing of CTC exome
Figure 7-3: Outline of a study to show current genetic testing and NGS cancer panel
Figure 8-1: Schematic view of role of WES ND WGS in diagnosis of monogenic disorders
Figure 10-1: Workflow for pathogen sequencing
Figure 11-1: Role of sequencing in the development of personalized medicine
Figure 13-1: Cost of sequencing per genome from 2001 to 2019
Figure 13-2: Global markets for sequencing services according to applications

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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