Cancers in the Urban Environment: How Malignant Diseases Are Caused and Distributed among the Diverse People and Neighborhoods of a Major Global Metropolis, Second Edition, provides a detailed description of the occurrence of common forms of cancer in the ethnically, socially and environmentally complex milieu of a modern urban complex. The location is Los Angeles County, and the patterns of 72 different malignancies are described according to race, age, sex, social class calendar time (since 1972) and most notably, individual neighborhood, using detailed maps of high risk. This second edition uses twice as many cases and more demographic diversity.
Physicians and scientific investigators in California and elsewhere can use the material provided to counsel patients and evaluate the consistency of any specific pattern of occurrence with each specific causal hypothesis. A detailed appendix describes the source of data, provides the basis for the choices made in the production of the volume, and gives a perspective on the search for "clusters" of malignancy.
- Compares different types of cancers with respect to the degree of non-random occurrence
- Contains numerous maps detailing the demographic and geographic pattern of cancer occurrence in Los Angeles County
- Provides an empirical perspective on the search for disease "clusters"
1. What Cancers Are 2. Environmental and Other Causes of Cancer 3. Resources Used to Detect Local Increases in Risk 4. Methods Used to Detect Local Increases in Risk 5. Errors Due to Chance 6. Comparison Between "Apples" and "Oranges" 7. Failure to Detect Local Increases in Risk 8. Investigating a Lead 9. Guide to the Figures 10. Interpretation 11. Scientific and Technical Notes 12. Oropharyngeal Carcinoma 13. Salivary Gland Malignancies 14. Squamous Carcinoma of the Esophagus/Gastric Cardia 15. Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus/Gastric Cardia 16. Adenocarcinoma of the (Lower) Stomach 17. Carcinoma of the Small Intestine 18. Colon Carcinoma, Total (Both Upper and Sigmoid) 19. Carcinoma of the Upper Colon 20. Carcinoma of the Sigmoid Colon 21. Carcinoma of the Rectum 22. Hepatocellular Carcinoma 23. Cholangiocarcinoma 24. Gallbladder Carcinoma 25. Biliary Tract Carcinoma 26. Pancreas Carcinoma 27. Carcinoma of the Nose/Sinuses 28. Carcinoma of the Larynx 29. Lung and Bronchus Carcinoma, Total (All Types) 30. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus 31. Large Cell carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus 32. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus 33. Adenocarcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus 34. Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus 35. Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus 36. Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus, Not Otherwise Classified 37. Mesothelioma 38. Soft Tissue Sarcoma 39. Angiosarcoma 40. Kaposi Sarcoma 41. Osteosarcoma 42. Ewing's Sarcoma 43. Malignant Chordoma 44. Malignant Melanoma 45. Breast Carcinoma 46. Squamous Cervix Carcinoma (Invasive) 47. Endometrial (Uterine Corpus) Carcinoma 48. Epithelial Carcinoma of the Ovary 49. Germ Cell Malignancies 50. Prostate Carcinoma 51. Anogenital Adenocarcinoma 52. Anogenital Squamous Carcinoma 53. Mixed Cell Genital Tumors 54. Transitional Cell (Non-Squamous) Bladder Carcinoma 55. Squamous Bladder Carcinoma 56. Renal Cell Carcinoma 57. Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma) 58. Retinoblastoma 59. Brain Malignancies (Gliomas) 60. Spinal Cord Malignancies 61. Neurolemoma (Nerve Sheath Malignancy) 62. Neuroblastoma 63. Malignant Meningioma 64. Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid 65. Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid 66. Other Carcinoma of the Thyroid 67. Pituitary Carcinoma 68. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 69. Carcinoma of the Thymus 70. Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma 71. Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma 72. Other Hodgkin Lymphoma 73. All Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (All Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Types) 74. Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 75. Diffuse Large B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 76. Diffuse Small Lymphocytic or Plasmacytic B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 77. Diffuse Mixed B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 78. High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 79. T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 80. Maltoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 81. Other Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 82. Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (All Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Types) 83. Stomach Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (All Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Types) 84. Other Gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (All Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Types) 85. Lymph Node/Other Organ Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (All Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Types) 86. Multiple Myeloma 87. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 88. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 89. Hairy Cell Leukemia 90. Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia 91. Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia 92. Other Leukemias 93. All Malignancies of Infants/Toddlers 94. All Malignancies of Older Children 95. All Malignancies of Young Adults 96. All Malignancies of Older Adults 97. All Malignancies 98. Overall Summary
Thomas M. Mack is an internationally renowned researcher specialized in the life style factors related to the development of cancer. He is founder of International Twin Registry, a continent-wide series of comparisons between patients with chronic diseases and their unaffected twins; and California Twin Program, an analogous program of studies among twins who differ in lifestyle or personal exposures and experiences.