High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Fundamentals, Technologies, Challenges and Applications is an in-depth introduction to HiPIMS that emphasizes how this novel sputtering technique differs from conventional magnetron processes in terms of both discharge physics and the resulting thin film characteristics. Ionization of sputtered atoms is discussed in detail for various target materials. In addition, the role of self-sputtering, secondary electron emission and the importance of controlling the process gas dynamics, both inert and reactive gases, are examined in detail with an aim to generate stable HiPIMS processes.
Lastly, the book also looks at how to characterize the HiPIMS discharge, including essential diagnostic equipment. Experimental results and simulations based on industrially relevant material systems are used to illustrate mechanisms controlling nucleation kinetics, column formation and microstructure evolution.
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction (particle surface interaction) 2. Power coupling 3. HiPIMS process characteristics 4. Reactive HiPIMS 5. HiPIMS modeling 6. Physics of HiPIMS 7. HiPIMS thin films 8. Industrialization of HiPIMS