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Emerging Memories: Poised to Explode

  • ID: 4807851
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • Coughlin Associates
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Current memory technologies including flash memory (NAND and NOR), DRAM and SRAM are facing potential technology limits to their continued improvement. As a result, there are intense efforts to develop new memory technologies. Most of these new technologies utilize nonvolatile memory technologies and can be used for long-term storage or to provide a memory that does not lose information when power is not applied. This offers advantages for battery and ambient powered devices and also for energy savings in data centers.

The memories addressed in this report include PCM, ReRAM, FRAM, MRAM, STT MRAM and a variety of less mainstream technologies such as carbon nanotubes. Based upon the level of current development and the characteristics of these technologies, resistive RAM (ReRAM) appears to be a potential replacement for flash memory. However, flash memory has several generations of technologies that will be implemented before a replacement is required. Thus, this transition will not fully occur until the next decade at the earliest.

Micron and Intel's introduction of 3D XPoint Memory, a technology that has high endurance, performance much better than NAND, although somewhat slower than DRAM, and higher density than DRAM; could impact the need for DRAM. Intel introduced NVMe SSDs with its Optane technology (using 3D XPoint) in 2017 and plans to ship NVDIMM Optane products in volume by 2019. 3D XPoint uses a type of phase change technology.

Magnetic RAM (MRAM) and spin tunnel torque RAM (STT MRAM) will start to replace some NOR, SRAM and possibly DRAM within the next few years and probably before ReRAM replaces flash memory. The rate of development in STT MRAM and MRAM capabilities will result in gradually lower prices, and the attractiveness of replacing volatile memory with high speed and high endurance , when compared with SRAM, memory make these technologies very competitive, assuming that their volume increases to reduce production costs (and thus purchase prices).

Ferroelectric RAM (FRAM) and some ReRAM technologies have some niche applications and with the use of HfO FRAM, the number of niche markets available for FRAM could increase in number.

Moving to a nonvolatile solid-state main memory and cache memory will reduce power usage directly as well as enable new power-saving modes, provide faster recovery from power off and enable more stable computer architectures that retain their state even when power is off. Eventually, spintronic technology, that uses spin rather than current for logic processes, could be used to make future microprocessors. Spin-based logic could enable very efficient in-memory processing.

The use of a nonvolatile technology as an embedded memory combined with CMOS logic has great importance in the electronics industry. As a replacement for a multi-transistor SRAM, STT MRAM could reduce the number of transistors and thus provide a low cost, higher-density solution. A number of enterprise and consumer devices use MRAM, based on field switching, to act as an embedded cache memory, and this trend will continue.

The availability of STT MRAM has accelerated this trend and allows higher capacities. Because of the compatibility of MRAM and STT-RAM processes with conventional CMOS processes, these memories can be built directly on top of CMOS logic wafers. Flash memory doesn't have the same compatibility with conventional CMOS. The power savings of nonvolatile and simpler MRAM and STT MRAM when compared with SRAM is significant. As MRAM $/GB costs approach those of SRAM, this replacement could cause significant market expansion.

The publisher projects that 3D XPoint Memory, with significant gigabyte shipments in 2020- 2021, and with an assumed significant price advantage versus DRAM will grow to a baseline level of 30PB (petabytes) of shipping capacity by 2028. 3D XPoint revenues are projected to reach $3.0 B by 2028.

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Executive Summary

Introduction

Why Emerging Memories Are Popular

  • Scaling Limits For Entrenched Technologies
  • 3D Nand Flash Technologies
  • Future Flash Memories
  • Embedded Nor And SRAM Scaling Challenges
  • Stand-Alone Nand & DRAM Scaling Concerns
  • Technical Advantages
  • Potential Cost/GB Advantages

How A New Memory Layer Improves Computer Performance

  • How Persistence Changes The Memory/Storage Hierarchy (Storage Class Memories)
  • Standardizing The Persistent Memory Software Interface
  • In-Memory Computing Possibilities

Understanding Bit Selectors

Resistive RAM, ReRAM, RRAM, Memristor:

  • ReRAM Device Function
  • 3D Resistive RAM Technology
  • ReRAM Cmos Integration
  • 3D Nand Approach To ReRAM
  • Current ReRAM Status

Ferroelectric RAM, FeRAM, FRAM:

  • Operation Of FeRAM
  • FeRAM Device Characteristics
  • The Future Of FeRAM

Phase Change Memory (PCM):

  • Operation Of Pcm
  • Advantages And Disadvantages
  • Pcm Applications

Intel/Micron 3D Crosspoint Memory

  • Applications

MRAM (Magnetic RAM), STT MRAM (Spin Torque Tunnel MRAM)

  • MRAM
  • STT MRAM
  • MRAM, An Alternative Spin Memory Device

Other Emerging Memory Types

  • Carbon Nanotubes (Cnts):
  • Polymeric Ferroelectric RAM (PfRAM)
  • Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor RAM (Fefet)

Lithography:

  • Multi-Patterning:
  • Future Lithography
  • Nano-Imprinting Lithography
  • Extreme UV (EUV) Technology

3D Memory Circuit Design:

  • 3D Memory Circuit Approaches

Summary Of Solid-State Memory & Storage Technologies

MRAM And STT MRAM Process Equipment

  • Physical Vapor Deposition
  • Photolithography (Patterning)
  • Ion Beam And Plasma Etching
  • Other Process Equipment
  • Magnetic Annealing
  • Device Testing
  • MRAM And STT MRAM Consortia

Phase Change Manufacturing Equipment

Memory Is Driving Semiconductor Capital Spending

Market Projections For MRAM, And 3D Xpoint Memory

  • MRAM Scenario Estimates
  • 3D Xpoint Banded Estimates

Estimates Of MRAM Capital Equipment Demand

  • Ion Beam Etching Equipment
  • Patterning Equipment
  • Physical Vapor Deposition Equipment
  • Test And Other Equipment
  • Summary Of MRAM Equipment

Company Information:

  • Memory Companies
  • Semiconductor Fab Companies
  • Capital Equipment Companies
  • Figure Sources

List Of Tables
Table 1. Comparison Of Various Solid State Memory Technologies
Table 2. Summary Of Emerging Memory Technologies
Table 3. Some MRAM Process Equipment Vendors
Table 4. $/GB Estimates For DRAM, Nand, Nor, SRAM, MRAM And 3D Xpoint From 2016 Through 2028
Table 5. Annual Baseline Petabyte Shipments For Various Memory Technologies From 2016 Through 2028
Table 6. Assumptions For Baseline Stand-Alone MRAM Model
Table 7. Annual Baseline Revenue Estimates For Various Memory Technologies From 2016 Through 2028 ($M)
Table 8. Comparison Of Standalone MRAM Memory Wafer Estimates For Three Scenarios Compared To Baseline Case (Kunits)
Table 9. Comparison Of Embedded MRAM Memory Wafer Estimates For High And Low Scenarios Compared To Baseline Case 129     Table 10. Comparison Of Combined MRAM Memory Wafer Estimates For High And Low Scenarios Compared To Baseline Case 130     Table 11. Annual High, Baseline And Low Petabyte Shipment Estimates For MRAM
Table 12. Annual High, Baseline And Low MRAM Revenue Estimates ($M)
Table 13. Annual High, Baseline And Low Petabyte Shipment Estimates For 3D Xpoint
Table 14. Annual High, Baseline And Low Revenue Estimates For 3D Xpoint ($M)
Table 15. High Petabyte Shipment Estimates For MRAM And 3D Xpoint
Table 16. Baseline Petabyte Shipment Estimates For MRAM And 3D Xpoint
Table 17. Low Petabyte Shipment Estimates For MRAM And 3D Xpoint
Table 18. High Revenue Estimates For MRAM And 3D Xpoint ($M)
Table 19. Baseline Revenue Estimates For MRAM And 3D Xpoint ($M)    
Table 20. Low Revenue Estimates For MRAM And 3D Xpoint ($M)
Table 21. Baseline Equipment Shipment Estimates For MRAM Ion Beam Etching Equipment From 2017 Through 2028
Table 22. Annual Baseline Spending Estimates For MRAM Ion Beam Etching Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Table 23. Baseline Equipment Estimates For MRAM Patterning Equipment From 2017 Through 2028
Table 24. Baseline Annual Revenue Estimates For MRAM Patterning Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Table 25. Baseline Equipment Estimates For MRAM Physical Vapor Deposition Equipment From 2017 Through 2028
Table 26. Baseline Annual Spending Estimates For MRAM Physical Deposition Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Table 27. Baseline Equipment Unit Estimates For MRAM Test And Other Equipment From 2017 Through 2028
Table 28. Price Estimates For MRAM Test And Other Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Table 29. Baseline Annual Spending Estimates For MRAM Test And Other Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Table 30. Baseline Equipment Estimates For MRAM Equipment From 2017 Through 2028
Table 31. Annual Baseline Spending Estimates For MRAM Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)

List Of Figures
Figure 1. Memory Density And Power Requirements By Application Category
Figure 2. Solid-State Memory/Storage Technologies
Figure 3. 3D Nand Flash Memory Topology
Figure 4. Toshiba's Bics And Samsung's Tcat 3D Nand Structures
Figure 5. Cost Of Transition From One Nand Manufacturing Process To The Next
Figure 6. Projected Nand Flash Chip Technology Roadmap
Figure 7. Flash Scaling And Endurance
Figure 8. Comparison Of Memory And Storage Technologies By Price Per Gigabyte And Performance
Figure 9. Everspin 1 GB STT MRAM Chip
Figure 10. Progression Of Storage Technologies With Nonvolatile Solid State Storage
Figure 11. Contributors To Nonvolatile Solid-State Storage Latency With Legacy And Current Solid State Nonvolatile Technologies
Figure 12. ReRAM System On Chip
Figure 13. ReRAM Memory Bank
Figure 14. Nonvolatile Memory Equivalent Circuit
Figure 15. Crosspoint Memory Architectures
Figure 16. Bidirectional Diode Selector
Figure 17. Self-Isolating ReRAM Device
Figure 18. A 1Tnr Selector Configuration
Figure 19. 3D Crosspoint Array Stacking
Figure 20. Stacked Crosspoint Memory Array
Figure 21. ReRAM Filament Cell Conduction And Switching
Figure 22. ReRAM Scaling
Figure 23. ReRAM Resistance Scaling
Figure 24. Taox ReRAM Device
Figure 25. Current Levels And Voltages For ReRAM Switching
Figure 26. ReRAM Stacked Crosspoint Array
Figure 27. ReRAM Cmos Integration
Figure 28. 3D ReRAM Structure/Process
Figure 29. FeRAM Perovskite Displacement
Figure 30. Memory Properties Of Ferroelectric Hafnium Oxide As Derived From Experiments And Expected Material Limits
Figure 31. FeRAM Cell Circuit And Planar Structure
Figure 32. 3D Hafnium Oxide FRAM Built Using 3D Nand Techniques
Figure 33. Crosspoint Memory Using Pcm Cells
Figure 34. Characteristics Of The Read, Write And Erase Cycle For Pcm Materials
Figure 35. Pcm Memory Cell
Figure 36. Cross Section Of PcRAM Cell
Figure 37. Intel's View Of The Memory-Storage Hierarchy
Figure 38. Basic Cell DiagRAM For Field Switched MRAM
Figure 39. Cross Bar Field Switched Array MRAM Architecture
Figure 40. Spin Torque Transfer Operation
Figure 41. STT MRAM Cell Structure
Figure 42. Everspin STT MRAM Device
Figure 43. Parallel To Antiparallel Switching
Figure 44. STT MRAM Current Operation
Figure 45. Multi-Bit MRAM Cell Read Out
Figure 46. A Comparison Of DRAM And STT MRAM
Figure 47. STT MRAM Cross Section
Figure 48. In Plane (A) And Perpendicular (B) Magnetic Tunnel Cells
Figure 49. Comparison Of MRAM, DRAM, Flash And Hdd Memory Dimensions
Figure 50. STT MRAM Embedded Memory
Figure 51. Example MeRAM Device Structure
Figure 52. Cnt Fabric
Figure 53. Cnt Between Source And Drain
Figure 54. PfRAM 3-Layer Polymeric Memory
Figure 55. Fefet Transistor
Figure 56. Original Single-Patterned Features
Figure 57. Clad The Sides Of The Original Pattern
Figure 58. Remove The Original Pattern. The Remaining Cladding Is A Doubled Pattern
Figure 59. Clad The Sides Of The Doubled Pattern
Figure 60. Remove The Doubled Pattern. The Remaining Cladding Is The Quadrupled Pattern
Figure 61. Nanoimprint Process
Figure 62. Nanoimprint Depressions
Figure 63. Fluid Dispense Process
Figure 64. Light Spectrum
Figure 65. EUV Scanning Lithographic Exposure System
Figure 66. Bit Density Of Largest Memories Presented At Ieee Research Conferences, 2000-2018
Figure 67. Future Memory/Storage Hierarchy
Figure 68. MRAM Memory Cell
Figure 69. MRAM Manufacturing Process Flow
Figure 70. Canon Anelva Ec7800 Pvd Equipment
Figure 71. Canon Anelva Nc7900 Pvd Equipment
Figure 72. Lam Research Cluster Tools
Figure 73. Singulus Timaris Ii Pvd Cluster Tool Platform
Figure 74. Singulus Pvd Cluster Tool Platforms
Figure 75. Tokyo Electron Exim Pvd Cluster Tool Platform
Figure 76. Ulvac Magest S200 Multilayer Thin Film Deposition System
Figure 77. Veeco Nexus Ibd Ion Beam Deposition System
Figure 78. Canon Lithographic I-Line Stepper Product Line
Figure 79. Asml Deep UV Photolithography Tool
Figure 80. A Three Grid Ion Beam Extraction System
Figure 81. Schematic Of Mtj Etching Process
Figure 82. Canon Anelva Nc8000 Ion Beam Etch Machine
Figure 83. Lam Research Kiyo Ion Beam Etching Chamber
Figure 84. Hitachi High Technology E-600/800 Nonvolatile Etch System
Figure 85. Veeco Nexus Ibe-420I Ion Beam Etching System
Figure 86. Tokyo Electron Mrt300 Magnetic Annealing Tool
Figure 87. Isi Wla 3000 Wafer Level Quasi-Static Tester
Figure 88. Hprobe 3D High Magnetic Field Wafer Probe
Figure 89. Microsense Polar Kerr System For Perpendicular STT MRAM
Figure 90. Keysight Technology Nx5730A MRAM Test Platform
Figure 91. Afm Equipment
Figure 92. Equipment Spending By Region
Figure 93. Number Of Volume Fabs Starting By Region (All Probabilities, Including Discretes)
Figure 94. Profitability Of Nand Flash Manufacturers
Figure 95. Chart Of Baseline $/GB For Memory Technologies From 2016 Through 2028
Figure 96. Chart Of Annual Baseline Petabyte Shipments For Memory Technologies From 2016 Through 2028
Figure 97. Chart Of Baseline Revenue Estimates For Memory Technologies From 2016 Through 2028 ($M)
Figure 98. Chart Of Standalone MRAM Memory Wafer Estimates For Three Scenarios Compared To Baseline Case
Figure 99. Chart Of Embedded MRAM Memory Wafer Estimates For High And Low Scenarios Compared To Baseline Case
Figure 100. Chart Of MRAM Memory Wafer Estimates For High And Low Scenarios Compared To Baseline Case
Figure 101. Chart Of High, Baseline And Low Petabyte Shipping Estimates For 3D Xpoint
Figure 102. Chart Of High, Baseline And Low Revenue Estimates For 3D Xpoint
Figure 103. Chart Of High, Baseline And Low Petabyte Shipping Estimates For Emerging Memories
Figure 104. Chart Of High, Baseline And Low Revenue Estimatesfor Emerging Memories ($M)
Figure 105. Chart Of Low, Baseline And High Spending Estimates For MRAM Ion Beam Etch Equipment From 2017 Through 2028
Figure 106. Chart Of Low, Baseline And High Spending Estimates For MRAM Patterning Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Figure 107. Chart Of Low, Baseline And High Spending Estimates For MRAM Physical Vapor Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Figure 108. Chart Of Baseline Spending Estimates For MRAM Test And Other Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Figure 109. Chart Of Low, Baseline And High Spending Estimates For MRAM Test And Other Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Figure 110. Chart Of Baseline Spending Estimates For MRAM Equipment From 2017 Through 2028 ($M)
Figure 111. Chart Of Low, Baseline And High Total Spending Estimates For MRAM Equipment From 2017 To 2028 ($M)

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