100 years of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Reviews and New Perspectives is a collection of articles written by some of the world's leading experts on the pregnancy hormone and cancer marker hCG. In 2019 it is difficult to ignore the effect that our understanding of hCG has had on the lives of millions of people worldwide. The hCG immunoassay, in one form or another, is now one of the most common medical tests conducted and is often the first indication that a mother-to-be is pregnant. Not only a marker of pregnancy, hCG is utilized in the diagnosis and monitoring in oncology and presents a potential target for novel cancer therapeutics.
100 years ago, in 1919, Hirose was demonstrating gonadotropic functions which resulted from a chorionic factor. Over the last century this factor has become defined as hCG and more recently explored as not one molecule but a group of molecules with variable structure and variable functions in both pregnancy and cancer. hCG is a multi-faceted molecule that has clinical and therapeutic implications but can be a challenging topic for researchers and physicians alike. This text covers the different structures and functions of hCG exploring the genes and evolution of the molecule, the different protein and glycosylation structures which can exist and their effect on structure, detection and quantification.
100 Years of hCG is not an attempt to recount the history of every publication on hCG, but rather a collection of reviews and new perspectives by "hCG-ologists", the term used by Hussa to describe biochemists working on HCG in the first book written on the topic over 30 years ago. Some of the authors have been around a while, some not so long, but others are just beginning their journey with a most beguiling molecule.
- Provides updated information on a complex and changing subject in five sections
- Reviews historical perspectives and developments over the last 100 years
- Includes novel insights into the structure, function and detection of hCG in pregnancy and cancer
- Includes chapters on the use of mass spectrometry to detect and quantify hCG as well as traditional immunoassays and over the counter pregnancy tests
- Describes the role of hCG in pregnancy, endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation and the use in fertility treatment
- Addresses the specific hyperglycosylated hCG test that can distinguish a normal term from a failing pregnancy and also screen for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in pregnancy as well as its use as a marker and treatment target in cancer.
- Includes chapters on the development and use of hCG vaccines
- Includes a section on hCG and in subunits in cancer
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Forward- 100 Years of hCG Introduction
100 Years of hCG
Meet the Editors and the Authors Section 1
Genes and Structure Chapter 1.1
Isolating C5 and B152
Anecdote Chapter 1.2
Evolutionary, structural and physiological differences between hCG and LH Chapter 1.3
hCG and Human Evolution
The Master Molecule Chapter 1.4
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Different Origins, Glycoforms and Functions during Pregnancy Chapter 1.5
Molecular Modelling of hCG: influence of glycosylation and nicking on molecular folding and epitope recognition Chapter 1.6
Why is hCG Glycosylated Section 2
Detection and Quantitation Chapter 2.1
Detecting hCG that's not there
Annecdote Chapter 2.2
Quantification of hCG by MALDI ToF Mass Spectrometry Chapter 2.3
Pregnancy failures and false positive hCG tests Chapter 2.4
Home Pregnancy Tests Chapter 2.5
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin determination using mass spectrometry Chapter 2.6
Beta core fragment as a standard quality control in MALDI Section 3
Pregnancy and Fertility Chapter 3.1
hCG as an LH analogue
Anecdote Chapter 3.2
The role of hCG in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation Chapter 3.3
Qualitative Analysis of hCG Variants and Glycoforms in Urine Chapter 3.4
Phenotypic characterization of a transgenic mouse model overproducing hCG Chapter 3.5
The Role of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Reproductive Medicine Chapter 3.6
Pregnancy and hCG Chapter 3.7
My Journey with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: development of a Unique Vaccine for control of fertility Chapter 3.8
Evaluation of Delivery Vectors for Active Immunisation with Synthetic Peptides of hCG as a Fertility Control Method Section 4
Cancer and Therapy Chapter 4.1
How hCG and a failed experiment changed my life
Anecdote Chapter 4.2
Human chorionic gonadotropin in cancer
where are we? Chapter 4.3
LH/hCG-receptor independent activities of hCG and hCGß Chapter 4.4
The Role of the Free Beta Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Human Malignancy Chapter 4.5
hCG and Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases
Hydatidiform Mole and Choriocarcinoma Chapter 4.6
Immunotherapy of Advanced Stage, Invariably Drug Resistant Cancer Expressing ectopically hCG Chapter 4.7
A Potential Cure for Cancer Section 5
Conclusion Chapter 5.1
Where has hCG research been? What is hCG research doing? Which direction will it go in the future?
Dr. Cole has served on the journal editorial board from 1994-2001 as the Editor of "Trophoblast Disease Update". He has written more than 100 articles on hCG structure, physiology and immunoassay and on clinical applications of hCG or hCG-related molecules. He has a 1.17 FWCI in the Medicine category of SciVal where he has published throughout the various disciplines and maintains an average of 12.6 citations per article from 2009-2014. He has experience with international, single, and institutional collaboration. Awards and recognition for Dr. Cole include the Institute for Anticancer Research, Biannual Prize for best research; American Association for Clinical Chemistry, Most Outstanding Research Contributor to Clinical Chemistry Prize; Gynecology Oncology, Outstanding Speaker Award; and International Society for Study of Trophoblastic Disease, Gold Medal for most outstanding research.
Butler, Stephen A.
Dr. Butler attained his PhD from the University of London and after a Post-Doctoral Fellowship at Yale University School of Medicine he became an Assistant Professor at the University of New Mexico with the USA hCG Reference Service. Steve returned to the UK and, following positions at Queen Mary University of London and London Metropolitan University he spent seven years at Middlesex University as Reader (Associate Professor) in Biomedical Diagnostics. Dr Butler has been a Director for medical diagnostics companies and and is now a consultant biomedical diagnostics expert with a particular interest in diagnostics and therapeutics relating to hCG in pregnancy and cancer. He has published over 80 peer reviewed scientific articles, reviews, letters, patents, abstracts and book chapters in the field of molecular diagnostics. He is a global opinion leader on the structure and function of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its role as a diagnostic marker in fertility, pregnancy and cancer.