Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque: From Model to Patient, First Edition, is the first comprehensive text to focus on important biomechanical studies conducted in the last decade that have increased our understanding of coronary atherosclerotic plaque initiation, growth, and rupture, as well as improving the design of medical devices and clinical interventions, including surgical procedures. The book provides students, researchers, engineers, clinicians, and interventional cardiologists with an overview of the main topics related to the biomechanics of atherosclerosis, in a single volume written by several experts in the field.
This volume is part of the Biomechanics of Living Organs book series. The biomechanics of human soft tissues and organs has been an emerging research field since the publication of Y.C. Fung's original book series in the 1990s. The publication of such books entirely dedicated to a specific biomechanical subject is necessary to advance scientific research in the field of biomechanics and to transfer important knowledge to future generations. Therefore, this series of volumes on the biomechanics of living organs has been created. This series began in July 2017 with the publication of a first volume on the fundamentals of Hyperelastic Constitutive Laws for Finite Element Modeling of Living Organs. The current volume on the Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque, is the latest in this new series.
- Presents the main computational fluid dynamic studies performed, describing blood flow in healthy and pathological artery branches, including in coronary bifurcations
- Highlights the correlation between plaque initiation regions and blood shear stress amplitude
- Discusses the main biomechanical and mechanobiological models to highlight the importance of quantifying the residual and peak cap stresses and the presence of ?-calcifications to evaluate the risk of plaque rupture
- Introduces the most recent intravascular imaging biomarker techniques (elastography, palpography and modulography)
Part 1: Biology, Physiopathology, Hemodynamics, Myogenic Responses and Clinical Intravascular Imaging of the Coronary Vascular Wall 1. Biomechanical Regulation of Endothelial Function in Atherosclerosis 2. Molecular mechanisms of the vascular responses to hemodynamic forces 3. Advanced atherosclerotic plaques in animal models versus human lesions: key elements to translation 4. Modeling the Glagov's compensatory enlargement of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque 5. Measuring coronary arterial compliance and vasomotor response in clinical and research settings 6. Coronary intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography imaging and clinical contexts in coronary hemodynamics 7. The interaction of biochemical, biomechanical and clinical factors of coronary disease: review and outlook
Part 2: Modeling Blood Flow in Arterial Branches and Bifurcations 8. Local blood flow parameters and atherosclerosis in coronary artery bifurcations 9. Effect of regional analysis methods on assessing the association between wall shear stress and coronary artery disease progression in the clinical setting 10. Hemodynamic disturbance due to serial stenosis in human coronary bifurcations: A computational fluid dynamics study 11. Hemodynamic perturbations due to the presence of stents 12. A new reduced-order model to assess the true fractional flow reserve of a left main coronary artery stenosis with downstream lesions and collateral circulations: an in vitro study
Part 3: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Stress Distribution and Plaque Rupture in Arterial Wall 13. In vitro, primarily microfluidic models for atherosclerosis 14. Prediction of the coronary plaque growth and vulnerability change by using patient-specific 3D FSI models based on intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography follow-up data 15. Atheromatous plaque initiation and growth: a multiphysical process explored by an in-silico mass transport model 16. Emergent biomechanical factors predicting vulnerable coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture 17. Microcalcifications and plaque rupture 18. Identification of coronary plaque mechanical properties from ex-vivo testing 19. Importance of residual stress and basal tone in healthy and pathological human coronary arteries
Part 4: Imaging Inflammatory Biomarkers for in vivo Intravascular Plaque Characterization 20. Intravascular ultrasound imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque: novel morpho-elastic biomarkers of instability 21. Magnetic resonance elastography for arterial wall characterization 22. Noninvasive ultrafast ultrasound for imaging the coronary vasculature and assessing the arterial wall's biomechanics 23. Pulse wave imaging for the mechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaques
Part 5: Stenting, Coated Balloon, Drug Elution Systems and Modelling 24. Structure-function relation in the coronary artery tree: theory and applications in interventional cardiology 25. Sequential technique for the stenting of a coronary bifurcation: the re-proximal optimizing technique strategy 26. Modeling the stent deployment in coronary arteries and coronary bifurcations 27. The coated balloon protocol: An emergent clinical technique 28. Endovascular drug delivery and drug-elution systems