The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed.
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I. PREGNANCY AND FETAL LIFE 1. The microbiome in a healthy pregnancy 2. The microbiome and pregnancy complications 3. Microbial signatures of preterm birth 4. Prenatal origins of the infant gut microbiome
ENTERING THE WORLD DOMINATED BY MICROBES 5. Mode of delivery, the infant microbiome, and the risk of disease 6. Early-life antibiotic exposure, the gut microbiome, and disease in later life 7. The intestinal microbiome of preterm infants
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MICROBIOME AND HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT 8. The compositional development of the microbiome in early life 9. Microbes, human milk, and prebiotics 10. The early gut microbiome and the risk of chronic disease
IV. MODIFYING EARLY MICROBIAL CONTACT 11. Postbiotics: defining the impact of inactivated microbes and their metabolites on promotion of health 12. Modification of the gut microbiome in an attempt to reduce the risk of child disease: clinical data from prenatal interventions 13. Clinical data from postnatal interventions
Professor Koren received his PhD from Tel Aviv University and moved on to a postdoc at Cornell University where he was part of the NIH Human Microbiome Project. The Koren lab's research focuses on the microbiome, studying the roles of the trillions of bacteria that reside within each individual. They have a wide variety of research interests including interactions between microbiota and the host in health and in disease states in general and specific interest in the microbiome of pregnancy and infancy.
Samuli Rautava Department of Pediatrics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Dr. Samuli Rautava received his MD and PhD in pediatrics from the University of Turku, Finland. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship at the Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center at Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Dr. Rautava continued his clinical training at the University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, earning specialist degrees in pediatrics and neonatology. He then completed a fellowship at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, where he was presented with the Sick Kids Fellow of the Year Award. Currently, Dr. Rautava works as the Head of Neonatology at Helsinki University Hospital and Assistant Professor of Neonatology at the University of Helsinki in Finlandas well as Adjunct Professor of Experimental Pediatrics at the University of Turku.
Dr. Rautava's research efforts focus on the short- and long-term health effects of early microbial contact and the transfer of bacteria from the mother to the infant during fetal life, delivery, and early infancy. Specific areas of interest include the causes of spontaneous preterm birth and the impact of early antibiotic use on infant gut microbiota development and later health. Dr. Rautava conducts clinical trials using probiotics in pregnant and breastfeeding women and preterm infants, complemented with experimental studies in close collaboration with experts in microbiology, immunology, and epigenetics.